When he gave to the sea his decree, that the waters should not pass his commandment: when he appointed the foundations of the earth:
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)When he gave to the sea his decree . . .—Compare the same thoughts in Job 38:4; Job 38:10-11.Job 22:14 (see the note), i. e., the great vault of heaven stretched over the deep seas.
foundations—figuratively denotes the solid structure (Job 38:4; Ps 24:2).His decree; or, his bound or limits, to wit, those parts of the earth which border upon it.
Not pass his commandment, i.e. not overflow the earth.
Appointed, or laid, the foundations o the earth; either,
1. The centre of the earth; or,
2. The earth itself, which is the foundation of the world; or rather,
3. The firm standing of the earth upon its foundations, notwithstanding all the assaults which the waters of the sea or within the earth make against it; which is a singular work of God’s providence. Jeremiah 5:22;
when he appointed the foundations of the earth; which are laid on the seas and floods; nay, the earth is hung like a ball in the air upon nothing; and yet its foundations are such as that it shall not be removed; being the purpose and decree, the power and might, of the Lord himself, Job 26:7. Now Christ was present when those were laid, for he was concerned in the laying of them himself, Hebrews 1:10. The Lord asks Job where he was then, Job 38:4; he was not theft in being, but Christ was.When he gave to the sea his decree, that the waters should not pass his commandment: when he appointed the foundations of the earth:
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)29. his decree] So R.V. marg.; its bound, R.V. text. It may be doubted, however, whether the translators of A.V. did not mean, its (for which they often use his) decree, i.e. the law laid upon it by God for its observance. Terminum suum, Vulg. Comp. Job 38:8-11; Psalm 104:9.
appointed] or, marked out, R.V.Verse 29. - When he gave to the sea his decree (chok, as Job 28:26; Jeremiah 5:22); or, its bounds. The meaning is much the same in either case, being what is expressed in Job 38:8, etc,, "Who shut up the sea with doors...and prescribed for it my decree, and set bars and doors, and said, Hitherto shall thou come, and no further, and here shall thy proud waves be stayed?" The LXX. omits this hemistich. When he appointed the foundations of the earth. Job 38:4, "Where wast thou when I laid the foundations of the earth?... Who determined the measures thereof? or who stretched the line upon it? Wherein were the foundations thereof fastened? or who laid the cornerstone thereof?" Isaiah 48:8, cf. Isaiah 40:21), is further unfolded:
"From everlasting was I set up,
From the beginning, from the foundations of the earth."
That נסּכתּי cannot be translated: I was anointed equals consecrated, vid., at Psalm 2:6. But the translation also: I was woven equals wrought (Hitzig, Ewald, and previously one of the Greeks, ἐδιάσθην), does not commend itself, for רקּם (Psalm 139:15), used of the embryo, lies far from the metaphorical sense in which נסך equals Arab. nasaj, texere, would here be translated of the origin of a person, and even of such a spiritual being as Wisdom; נסדתּי, as the lxx reads (ἐθεμελιωσέ με), is not once used of such. Rightly Aquila, κατεστάθην; Symmachus, προκεχείρισμαι; Jerome, ordinata sum. Literally, but unintelligibly, the Gr. Venet. κέχυμαι, according to which (cf. Sir. 1:10) Bttcher: I was poured forth equals formed, but himself acknowledging that this figure is not suitable to personification; nor is it at all likely that the author applied the word, used in this sense of idols, to the origin of Wisdom. The fact is, that נסך, used as seldom of the anointing or consecration of kings, as סוּך, passes over, like יצק (הצּיק), צוּק (מצוּק, a pillar), and יצג (הצּיג), from the meaning of pouring out to that of placing and appointing; the mediating idea appears to be that of the pouring forth of the metal, since נסיך, Daniel 11:8, like נסך, signifies a molten image. The Jewish interpreters quite correctly remark, in comparing it with the princely name נסיך [cf. Psalm 83:12] (although without etymological insight), that a placing in princely dignity is meant. Of the three synonyms of aeternitas a parte ante, מעולם points backwards into the infinite distance, מראשׁ into the beginning of the world, מקּדמי־ארץ not into the times which precede the origin of the earth, but into the oldest times of its gradual arising; this קדמי it is impossible to render, in conformity with the Hebr. use of language: it is an extensive plur. of time, Bttcher, 697. The מן repeated does not mean that the origin and greatness of Wisdom are contemporaneous with the foundation of the world; but that when the world was founded, she was already an actual existence.
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