Mark 1:22
And they were astonished at his doctrine: for he taught them as one that had authority, and not as the scribes.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(22) And they were astonished.—The verbal agreement with Matthew 7:28 (where see Note) suggests the thought that St. Mark had heard or read that passage. For “doctrine” read teaching. Stress is laid, as in Matthew 7:28, on the manner rather than the thing taught.

1:14-22 Jesus began to preach in Galilee, after that John was put in prison. If some be laid aside, others shall be raised up, to carry on the same work. Observe the great truths Christ preached. By repentance we give glory to our Creator whom we have offended; by faith we give glory to our Redeemer who came to save us from our sins. Christ has joined these two together, and let no man think to put them asunder. Christ puts honour upon those who, though mean in this world, are diligent in their business and kind to one another. Industry and unity are good and pleasant, and the Lord Jesus commands a blessing on them. Those whom Christ calls, must leave all to follow him; and by his grace he makes them willing to do so. Not that we must needs go out of the world, but we must sit loose to the world; forsake every thing that is against our duty to Christ, and that cannot be kept without hurt to our souls. Jesus strictly kept the sabbath day, by applying himself unto, and abounding in the sabbath work, in order to which the sabbath rest was appointed. There is much in the doctrine of Christ that is astonishing; and the more we hear it, the more cause we see to admire it.He taught them as one that had authority ... - See the notes at Matthew 7:29.22. And they were astonished at his doctrine—or "teaching"—referring quite as much to the manner as the matter of it.

for he taught them as one that had authority, and not as the scribes—See on [1401]Mt 7:28, 29.

See Poole on "Mark 1:22" And they were astonished at his doctrine,.... The nature and importance of it, it being what they had not been used to hear; only at best the doctrine of the law, and sometimes only the traditions of the elders, or an allegorical and traditional sense of the Scriptures, and things very trifling and unedifying: and also they were amazed at the manner of his preaching, which was with so much gracefulness, gravity, and majesty, and was attended with so much evidence and power:

for he taught them as one having authority, and not as the Scribes; or "their Scribes", as the Syriac, Persic, and Ethiopic versions read. He did not go about to establish what he said by the authority of the Rabbins, as the Scribes did; saying, Hillell says so, or Shammai says thus, or such a doctor says thus and thus; but he spoke as from himself, as one sent of God, that had an authority from him, and was independent of man; and this was what they had not observed in others, and wonder at it; See Gill on Matthew 7:28. See Gill on Matthew 7:29.

And they were astonished at his doctrine: for he taught them as one that had authority, and not as the scribes.
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
Mark 1:22. Comp. Matthew 7:28 f., where the notice of Mark is reproduced unaltered, but placed after the sermon on the Mount; and Luke 4:32, where the second part of the observation is generalized and divested of the contrast. It is very far-fetched, however, in Hilgenfeld, who in Mark 1:22 sees a sure indication of dependence on Matthew, to find in the fact, that Mark already here makes Capernaum appear as the scene of the ministry of Jesus just as in Mark 1:29, the Petrine character of the Gospel. See, on the other hand, Baur in the theol. Jahrb. 1853, p. 56 ff.

As to ἦν διδάσκ. and ὡς ἐξουσ. ἔχων, see on Matthew 7:28 f.Mark 1:22. ἐξεπλήσσοντο: they were amazed; a strong word, several times in Mk. (Matthew 7:28).—ὡς ἐξουσίαν ἔχων, etc.: a similar remark in Matthew 7:29 (see notes there) appended to Sermon on Mount. Mk. gives no discourse, but only notes the impression made. “A poor substitute for the beautiful Sermon on the Mount” (Schanz). Doubtless, but let us be thankful for what we do get: a record of the impression made by Christ’s very first appearance in the synagogue, witnessing to a striking individuality. Mk. omits much, and is in many ways a meagre Gospel, but it makes a distinctive contribution to the evangelic history in showing by a few realistic touches (this one of them) the remarkable personality of Jesus.22. not as the scribes] The Scribes, Sopherîm, first came into prominence in the time of Ezra. Their duty was to copy, read, study, explain, and “fence round” the Law with “the tradition of the Elders” (Matthew 15:2). The Scribes proper only lasted till the death of Simon “the Just,” b. c. 300. In the New Testament they are sometimes called “lawyers” (Matthew 22:35), or “Doctors of the Law” (Luke 5:17). Their teaching was preeminently second-hand. They simply repeated the decisions of previous Rabbis. But our Lord’s teaching was absolute and independent. His formula was not “It hath been said,” but “I say unto you.”Mark 1:22. Ἐξουσίαν, authority) comp. Mark 1:27. [Matthew observes the same fact in his ch. Mark 7:28. General truths of this kind are related by one Evangelist in one place and connection, and by another in another and different connection. So the people are compared to “sheep left without a shepherd,” in Matthew 9:36, but at a subsequent time in Mark 6:34. Mark, however, in this passage, refers to the sermon on the mount; whence it is evident that the healing of the mother-in-law of Peter, which Mark transposes, followed the sermon on the mount, as we find the order of events in Matthew.—Harm., p. 235.]Verse 22. - They were astonished at his teaching (ἐξεπλήσσοντο ἐπὶ τῇ διδαχῇ). The verb in the Greek is a very strong and expressive one; it is a very suitable word to express the first impressions of utter amaze-sent produced by our Lord's "teaching." There were several things which caused his teaching (δίδαχη) to differ from that of the scribes. There was no lack of self-assertion in their teaching; but their words did not carry weight. Their teaching was based chiefly on tradition; it dwelt much on the "mint and anise and cummin" of religion, but neglected "judgment and mercy and faith." Christ's teaching, on the contrary, was eminently spiritual. And then he practiced what he taught. Not so the scribes. Thus far St. Mark's narrative bears the character of brevity and conciseness, suitable to an introduction. From this point his record is rich in detail and in graphic description. He taught (ἦν διδάσκων)

The finite verb with the participle denoting something continuous: was teaching.

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