Ephesians 4:2
With all lowliness and meekness, with long-suffering, forbearing one another in love;
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(2) With all lowliness and meekness, with longsuffering.—See Colossians 3:12, where the same three qualities are dwelt upon, but there introduced by “compassion and kindness.” They seem to correspond almost exactly to the first, third, and fifth beatitudes of the Sermon on the Mount, in which the principle of love is wrought out in various forms (as in the other beatitudes the principle of righteousness): “Blessed are the poor in spirit;” “Blessed are the meek;” “Blessed are the merciful.” The word “lowliness of mind” is used by St. Paul only in the Epistles of the Captivity (Philippians 2:3; Colossians 2:18; Colossians 2:23; Colossians 3:12) and in the address to the Ephesian presbyters (Acts 20:19). It is, indeed, a word new coined in Christian terminology, and even the root from which it comes is mostly used by the heathen moralists in a bad sense (of meanness and slavishness), of which there is still a trace in Colossians 2:18. “Meekness” is mostly “gentleness”—“the meek and quiet spirit” (1Peter 3:4)—the natural, though not the invariable, fruit of humility, winning souls by its very absence of bitter self-assertion, and so “inheriting the earth.” “Longsuffering” is the manifestation of such meekness, with something of especial effort and struggle, in the bearing of injury.

(2, 3) Forbearing one another in love . . .—The word rendered “endeavouring” is, in the original, a word expressing “earnestness” of thought and exertion to secure a thing not lightly obtained. (See 2Timothy 4:9-21; Hebrews 4:11; 2Peter 1:10.) It shows that St. Paul here passes from the negative aspects of love, summed up in forbearance, to the more positive and energetic enthusiasm for unity and peace. Love is in both aspects, the “uniting bond” of peace. In the parallel passage of Colossians 3:14, it is “put on over” all else, and is the uniting “bond of perfectness.” In the celebrated thirteenth chapter of the First Epistle to Corinthians (Ephesians 4:4-7) it is made to include “long-suffering” and “kindness,” and all forms of humility and gentleness. But, if it be real, it must necessarily pass into active energy; if it is to win the final beatitude of “blessing to the peacemakers,” it must “labour for peace,” and “follow after the things which make for peace” (Psalm 120:7; Romans 14:19).

The unity of the Spirit is certainly the unity given by the indwelling of the Holy Ghost. This we cannot create, for it is the gift of God; but we can “keep” it: that is, cherish it, guard it, and make it effectual by love; and all experience proves that, if we would so keep it, we need the positive earnestness of exertion against evils without and within.

-2Ephesians 4:7-11 pass from the unity of the Church to the diversity of graces and offices in its members, all being gifts of the ascended Lord, and results of that universal mediation which fills all things.

(2) From this general description of the regeneration of the soul out of the death of sin, in the Lord Jesus Christ, St. Paul now passes on to deal with special moral duties (Ephesians 4:25-30)—the casting out of falsehood, wrath, dishonesty, and impurity, which are the four typical sins forbidden in the four general Commandments of the Second Table—the Ninth, the Sixth, the Eighth, and the Seventh. But he treats all with a marked and striking peculiarity of treatment—in relation to the great principle of unity in Christ, rather than in relation to a man’s own nature or his individual responsibility to God. In this treatment he shows the vivid practical application of the characteristic doctrine of this Epistle.

Ephesians 4:2-3. With all lowliness — Or humility of mind, having mean thoughts of yourselves because of your former sinfulness and guilt, depravity, weakness, and misery, and your unworthiness of that mercy which God hath exercised toward you; and meekness — Maintaining calmness, serenity, and peace of mind, amid the infirmities and indiscretions of your Christian friends, and even amid the affronts and injuries of your enemies; with long-suffering — Toward all men, whether saints or sinners, always possessing your souls in patience, and whatever provocations you receive, never seeking revenge, or yielding to resentment or ill-will toward any. Forbearing — Greek, ανεχομενοι, bearing with; one another in love — That is, out of a principle of love to God, your fellow-Christians, and all men; endeavouring, so far as in you lies, to keep the unity of the Spirit — That mutual union, concord, and harmony, which is the fruit of the Spirit; in the bond of peace — In a peaceable, kind, and affectionate disposition toward one another.4:1-6 Nothing is pressed more earnestly in the Scriptures, than to walk as becomes those called to Christ's kingdom and glory. By lowliness, understand humility, which is opposed to pride. By meekness, that excellent disposition of soul, which makes men unwilling to provoke, and not easily to be provoked or offended. We find much in ourselves for which we can hardly forgive ourselves; therefore we must not be surprised if we find in others that which we think it hard to forgive. There is one Christ in whom all believers hope, and one heaven they are all hoping for; therefore they should be of one heart. They had all one faith, as to its object, Author, nature, and power. They all believed the same as to the great truths of religion; they had all been admitted into the church by one baptism, with water, in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, as the sign of regeneration. In all believers God the Father dwells, as in his holy temple, by his Spirit and special grace.With all lowliness - Humility; see the notes on Acts 20:19, where the same Greek word is used; compare also the following places, where the same Greek word occurs: Philippians 2:3, "in lowliness of mind, let each esteem other better than themselves;" Colossians 2:18, "in a voluntary humility;" Colossians 2:23; Colossians 3:12; 1 Peter 5:5. The word does not elsewhere occur in the New Testament. The idea is, that humility of mind becomes those who are "called" Ephesians 4:1, and that we walk worthy of that calling when we evince it.

And meekness - see the notes on Matthew 5:5. Meekness relates to the manner in which we receive injuries. We are to bear them patiently, and not to retaliate, or seek revenge. The meaning here is, that; we adorn the gospel when we show its power in enabling us to bear injuries without anger or a desire of revenge, or with a mild and forgiving spirit; see 2 Corinthians 10:1; Galatians 5:23; Galatians 6:1; 2 Timothy 2:25; Titus 3:2; where the same Greek word occurs.

With longsuffering, ... - Bearing patiently with the foibles, faults, and infirmities of others; see the notes on 1 Corinthians 13:4. The virtue here required is that which is to be manifested in our manner of receiving the provocations which we meet with from our brethren. No virtue, perhaps, is more frequently demanded in our contact with others. We do not go far with any fellow-traveler on the journey of life, before we find there is great occasion for its exercise. He has a temperament different from our own. He may be sanguine, or choleric, or melancholy; while we may be just the reverse. He has peculiarities of taste, and habits, and disposition, which differ much from ours. He has his own plans and purposes of life, and his own way and time of doing things. He may be naturally irritable, or he may have been so trained that his modes of speech and conduct differ much from ours. Neighbors have occasion to remark this in their neighbors; friends in their friends; kindred in their kindred; one church-member in another.

A husband and wife - such is the imperfection of human nature - can find enough in each other to embitter life, if they choose to magnify imperfections, and to become irritated at trifles; and there is no friendship that may not be marred in this way, if we will allow it. Hence, if we would have life move on smoothly, we must learn to bear and forbear. We must indulge the friend that we love in the little peculiarities of saying and doing things which may be important to him, but which may be of little moment to us. Like children, we must suffer each one to build his play-house in his own way, and not quarrel with him because he does not think our way the best. All usefulness, and all comfort, may be prevented by an unkind, a sour, a crabbed temper of mind - a mind that can bear with no difference of opinion or temperament. A spirit of fault-finding; an unsatisfied temper; a constant irritability; little inequalities in the look, the temper, or the manner; a brow cloudy and dissatisfied - your husband or your wife cannot tell why - will more than neutralize all the good you can do, and render life anything but a blessing.

It is in such gentle and quiet virtues as meekness and forbearance, that the happiness and usefulness of life consist, far more than in brilliant eloquence, in splendid talent, or illustrious deeds, that shall send the name to future times. It is the bubbling spring which flows gently; the little rivulet which glides through the meadow, and which runs along day and night by the farmhouse, that is useful, rather than the swollen flood or the roaring cataract. Niagara excites our wonder; and we stand amazed at the power and greatness of God there, as he "pours it from his hollow hand." But one Niagara is enough for a continent or a world; while that same world needs thousands and tens of thousands of silver fountains, and gently flowing rivulets, that shall water every farm, and every meadow, and every garden, and that shall flow on, every day and every night, with their gentle and quiet beauty. So with the acts of our lives. It is not by great deeds only, like those of Howard - not by great sufferings only, like those of the martyrs - that good is to be done; it is by the daily and quiet virtues of life - the Christian temper, the meek forbearance, the spirit of forgiveness in the husband, the wife, the father, the mother, the brother, the sister, the friend, the neighbor - that good is to be done; and in this all may be useful.

2, 3. lowliness—In classic Greek, the meaning is meanness of spirit: the Gospel has elevated the word to express a Christian grace, namely, the esteeming of ourselves small, inasmuch as we are so; the thinking truly, and because truly, therefore lowlily, of ourselves [Trench].

meekness—that spirit in which we accept God's dealings with us without disputing and resisting; and also the accepting patiently of the injuries done us by men, out of the thought that they are permitted by God for the chastening and purifying of His people (2Sa 16:11; compare Ga 6:1; 2Ti 2:25; Tit 3:2). It is only the lowly, humble heart that is also meek (Col 3:12). As "lowliness and meekness" answer to "forbearing one another in love" (compare "love," Eph 4:15, 16), so "long-suffering" answers to (Eph 4:4) "endeavoring (Greek, 'earnestly' or 'zealously giving diligence') to keep (maintain) the unity of the Spirit (the unity between men of different tempers, which flows from the presence of the Spirit, who is Himself 'one,' Eph 4:4) in (united in) the bond of peace" (the "bond" by which "peace" is maintained, namely, "love," Col 3:14, 15 [Bengel]; or, "peace" itself is the "bond" meant, uniting the members of the Church [Alford]).

With all lowliness, or humility; submissiveness of mind, whereby we esteem others better than ourselves, Philippians 2:3. A virtue peculiar to Christians, unknown to philosophers: see Acts 20:19 Colossians 3:12,13.

And meekness; whereby we are not easily provoked, or offended with the infirmities of others: this is opposed to peevishness, as the former to pride.

With long-suffering; whereby we bear with greater or repeated injuries, 2 Corinthians 6:6.

Forbearing one another; or supporting, i.e. bearing with the infirmities, frowardness, or moroseness of others, so as not to cease to love them, and do them good.

In love; not out of any carnal affection, or for our own advantage, but out of love, which is wont to make men patient and long-suffering, 1 Corinthians 13:4. With all lowliness and meekness,..... In the exercise of humility, which shows itself in believers, in entertaining and expressing the meanest thoughts of themselves, and the best of others; in not envying the gifts and graces of others, but rejoicing at them, and at every increase of them; in a willingness to receive instruction from the meanest saints; in submission to the will of God in all adverse dispensations of Providence; and in ascribing all they have, and are, to the grace of God: and so to behave, is to walk agreeably to their calling of God; and what the consideration of that may engage them to, when they serve the low estate and condition out of which they are called, in which they were before calling: and that in effectual calling they have nothing but what they have received; and that others are called with the same calling that they are: and to walk humbly before God and man, is to walk according to the will of God that calls; and it is walking as Christ walked, who is meek, and lowly; and is agreeable to the blessed Spirit, one of whose fruits is meekness; and is what is very ornamental to the saints, and is well pleasing in the sight of God.

With longsuffering; bearing much and long with the infirmities of each other; without being easily provoked to anger by any ill usage; and not immediately meditating and seeking revenge for every affront given, or injury done; and so to walk, is to walk worthy of the grace of calling, or agreeable to it, to God that calls by his grace, who is longsuffering both with wicked men, and with his own people.

Forbearing one another in love; overlooking the infirmities of one another, forgiving injuries done, sympathizing with, and assisting each other in distressed circumstances, the spring of all which should be love; by that saints should be moved, influenced, and engaged to such a conduct, and which should be so far attended to, as is consistent with love; for so to forbear one another, as to suffer sin to be on each other, without proper, gentle, and faithful rebukes for it, is not to act in love.

{2} With all lowliness and meekness, with {b} longsuffering, forbearing one another in love;

(2) Secondly, he commends the meekness of the mind, which is demonstrated by bearing with one another.

(b) See Mt 18:25-27.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
Ephesians 4:2. Μετὰ πάσ. ταπεινοφρ. κ. πραότ.] the characteristic dispositions accompanying this περιπατῆσαι; see Winer, p. 337 [E. T. 471], and with regard to πάσης, on Ephesians 1:8; it belongs to both substantives. On the subject-matter, comp. Matthew 11:29; Colossians 3:12. The opposite of humility: τὰ ὑψηλὰ φρονεῖν, Romans 12:16; Romans 11:20; 1 Timothy 6:17; δοκεῖν εἶναί τι, Galatians 6:3. On the notion of πραότης, gentleness, see Tittmann, Synon. p. 140.

μετὰ μακροθ.] is attached by Calvin, Estius, Zeltner, Calixtus, Baumgarten, Michaelis, Zachariae, Rückert, Holzhausen, Harless, Olshausen, to the following ἀνεχόμενοι. But the very repetition of the preposition, to which appeal is made, most naturally points backwards, so that μετὰ μακροθ. appears as parallel to μετὰ π. ταπεινοφρ. κ. πραότ., inasmuch, namely, as Paul makes the general be followed by the special, and then gives to the latter the elucidation ἀνεχόμενοι κ.τ.λ. Besides, μετὰ μακροθ., if it belonged to ἀνεχόμ., would have an undue emphasis, since without long-suffering the ἀνέχεσθαι ἀλλήλων would not exist at all; Colossians 3:12 f. Bengel and Matthies, following Theodoret and Oecumenius, have attached the whole μετὰ π. ταπ. κ. πραότ., μετὰ μακροθ. to ἀνεχόμενοι. But in this way we lose the gradual transition from the general ἀξίως περιπατ. τ. κλ. to the special ἀνεχόμ. ἀλλήλ., which under our construction is very naturally brought about.

ἀνεχόμ. ἀλλήλ. ἐν ἀγάπῃ] The reciprocal forbearance in (ethical habit) love (comp. Romans 15:1; Galatians 6:2) is the practical expression of the μακροθυμία. Comp. Colossians 3:13. It consists in the fact that we “aliorum infirmitates aequo animo ferimus, nec ob ea, quae nobis in proximo displicent, ab ejus amicitia recedimus, sed personam constanter amamus, etsi vitia in odio habeamus,” Calovius. The nominative of the participle (comp. Colossians 1:10) is put κατὰ τὸ νοούμενον, because the logical subject of ἀξίως περιπατ., Ephesians 4:1, is ὑμεῖς. See on Ephesians 3:18; comp. on 2 Corinthians 1:7, and Pflugk, ad Eur. Hec. 970. Ignoring this familiar construction, Heinsius, Knatchbull, and Homberg have placed a full stop after Ephesians 4:1, and then supplied estote to the participles—a course, which would only be admissible if, as in Romans 12:9, this concise, pregnant mode of expression were implied in the context.

ἐν ἀγάπῃ] belongs to the preceding. On the thing itself, comp. 1 Corinthians 13:4. Lachmann, Holzhausen, and Olshausen attach it to σπουδάζοντες. The reason given by Olshausen, that, as the μακροθ. is only a form of expression of love, ἐν ἀγάπῃ could not belong to what precedes, would be set aside, even if it were in itself valid, by the correct separation of μετὰ μακροθ. from ἀνεχόμ. And ἀνεχόμ. ἀλλήλ., taken alone, renders the discourse simply abrupt. How harmonious is the structure, when both participial clauses begin with the participle and close with the definitions attached by ἐν, in which definitions there is opened up the whole ethical domain (love and peace) to which the before-named special virtues belong (1 Corinthians 13)!Ephesians 4:2. μετὰ πάσης ταπεινοφροσύνης καὶ πρᾳότητος: with all lowliness and meekness. Statement of moral dispositions which should attend their walk; μετά conveying the idea of accompaniment, relation, association, while σύν suggests closer conjunction, fellowship, especially a fellowship which helps. Krüger (Sprachl., § 68, 13, 1) puts the distinction thus—“σύν τινι denotes rather coherence, μετά τινος rather coexistence” (cf. Win.-Moult., pp. 470, 488). As in the case of πᾶσα σοφία (Ephesians 1:8), πᾶσα ταπεινοφροσύνη can mean only “all lowliness,” “all possible lowliness,” or “every kind of lowliness,” not summa humilitas. The word ταπεινοφροσύνη is of very rare occurrence in non-biblical Greek, and when it does occur it has the sense of pusillanimity (Epictet., Diss., 3, 24, 56; Joseph., Jewish Wars, iv., 9, 2). It is not used in the OT; but in the NT it denotes one of the passive graces, unrecognised or repudiated in Græco-Roman ethics, which Christianity has glorified—the lowliness of mind which springs from a true estimate of ourselves—a deep sense of our own moral smallness and demerit (cf. Acts 20:19; Php 2:3; Colossians 3:12; 1 Peter 5:5; Colossians 2:18; Colossians 2:23, of a false humility). πρᾳότης, or better πραΰτης (TTrWH) in the later form and without iota subscript; cf. Buttm., Gram. of N. T. Greek, p. 26 (who regards the form πρᾷος as apparently “unknown to the language of the NT”); and Blass, Gram. of N. T. Greek, p. 7 (who thinks there is not sufficient evidence to decide between πραότης and πρᾳότης). It means more than modestia (Vulg.), mansuetudo, ἀταραξία, gentleness, or equanimity, inasmuch as it has regard to our attitude towards God as well as towards men, and includes more than outward behaviour or natural disposition. It is a grace of the Spirit, the disposition of loving submissiveness in the first place to God and His dealings with us, and, as the consequence of that, of quiet restraint, mildness and patient abnegation of self in face of the provocations of others. It is a moral quality, therefore, with a far wider scope, a larger significance, a deeper and more vital relation to character than was thought of by the philosophers and moralists of the old world, who regarded it only as the opposite of ἀγριότης, savageness (Plato, Symp., 197 d), χαλεπότης, harshness (Arist., Hist. Anim., ix., 1), or ἀποτομία, roughness (Plut., De lib. ed., 18); cf. Trench, Syn., pp. 143, etc.; Schmidt, Synon., 98, 2.—μετὰ μακροθυμίας: with long-suffering. This is best taken as an independent clause, which is developed in the following sentence. Some (Theod., Beng., etc.) attach both the μετὰ πάσης ταπ., etc., and the μετὰ μακρ. to the ἀνεχόμενοι clause. But this gives one long sentence, which obscures the transition from idea to idea and makes the several clauses less distinctive. Others (Calv., Harl., Rück., Ols., etc.) attach the μετὰμακρ. to ἀνεχόμενοι; but to make it part of that clause takes from the point of the μακροθυμία and disturbs the balance of the clauses, in which we have first the general idea of worthiness of walk, then certain particulars involved in that, and then the further explanation (in the ἀνεχόμενοι clause) of these various particulars or of the one last noticed. The term μακροθυμία means both endurance or constancy in presence of illness and trouble (Colossians 1:11; 2 Timothy 3:10; Hebrews 6:12; Jam 5:10), and, as here (cf. also Romans 2:4; Romans 9:2; 2 Corinthians 6:6, etc.), the abnegation of revenge in presence of wrong—the opposite of ὀργή (Proverbs 16:32), ὀξοθυμία (Jam 1:19), etc., and akin to ὑπομονή (2 Corinthians 6:4; 2 Corinthians 6:6; Colossians 1:11; 2 Timothy 3:10; Jam 5:10-11). The word belongs to later Greek (Plut., Macc., etc.), and the LXX; but in neither has it the exact sense it gets in the NT.—ἀνεχόμενοι ἀλλήλων ἐν ἀγάπῃ: forbearing one another in love. Explanation and application of the μακροθυμία. By a natural and familiar irregularity which gives effect to the logic of the statement rather than to the construction the partic. reverts from the acc. to the nom. (cf. Colossians 1:10; Krüger, Sprachl., § 56, 9, 4). To attach ἐν ἀγάπῃ (Orig., Lachm., Olsh., etc.) to the following σπουδάζοντες is to make the ἀνεχόμενοι abrupt and bare, and to disturb the harmonious form of the participial sentences. The duty of mutual forbearance is to be practised in love. It was to be a loving forbearance—a forbearance having its motive, its inspiration, its life, in love.2. with all lowliness] So, exactly, Acts 20:19, in St Paul’s review of his own “walk” at Ephesus; “serving the Lord with all lowliness.”—“With:—the idea is strictly of accompaniment, attendance. But in view of actual N. T. usage of the preposition this must not be pressed. Lowliness was to characterize them.

Observe the moral lesson here. The first and most characteristic effect of the heights and depths of Divine privilege and spiritual experience just unfolded is to be the sincerest and most unselfish humility.

lowliness] The Gr. word imports an unaffected lowly estimate of self. See Trench’s Synonyms of the N. T., under ταπεινοφροσύνη, πραότης. It is a distinctively Christian grace, viewed as a thing always to be sought and cherished. Pagan ethics, at best, just recognized it as right where necessary, but not as good and happy per se. The Gospel puts its obligation and its blessedness on the same footing for all believers, as all absolutely dependent for all true good upon the mercy of Another.

The corresponding adjective is used (Matthew 11:29) by our Lord of Himself. Trench remarks that we have Him there recognizing His entire dependence as Man on the Father. Not moral defect but “creatureliness,” he says, is the thought there. “In His human nature He must be the pattern of all … creaturely dependence.”

Observe the force of the phrase; “all lowliness.” The grace was to have the most unreserved scope and exercise.

meekness] See Trench again, as just above. The Gr. word imports gentle and entire submission under trial, whatever the trial be, in the consciousness that no other attitude can be right for self. Meekness thus rests “on deeper foundations than its own, namely on those which lowliness has laid for it, and it can only continue while it continues to rest on these.” In this respect “it is a grace in advance of lowliness” (Trench).

longsuffering] Grouped with “meekness,” Galatians 5:22; Colossians 3:12. It so far differs from it as not necessarily to import the patience or submission due to a sense that a chastisement is right, but rather patience for whatever good reason; e. g. largeness of view of things, or deep internal peace and joy.—It is used of the Divine patience, Romans 2:4; Romans 9:22; 1 Timothy 1:16; 1 Peter 3:20; 2 Peter 3:15.

forbearing one another in love] Here was to be the special motive to “longsuffering,” the family-affection of fellow-members of Christ. It is implied that there were sure to be occasions for such forbearance. Cp. Colossians 3:13.Ephesians 4:2. Μετὰμετὰ, with—with) To these refer the two following participles, ἀνεχόμενοι, σπουδάζοντες, forbearing, endeavouring diligently, which, being in the nominative, depend on the preceding imperative implied, walk ye. [The man, who is affected, as he ought to be, with a sense of the Divine calling, will be found to be adorned with the virtues mentioned in this passage, 1 Peter 3:9; Php 1:27.—V. g.]—πάσης, with all) To be construed also with meekness [πραΰτητος] (as well as with ταπεινοφροσύνης, lowliness), Colossians 3:12-13.—ταπεινοφροσύνης, lowliness of mind) From a sense of grace, Romans 11:20.—ἐν ἀγάπῃ, in love) In the bond of peace, Ephesians 4:3, corresponds to this expression. “In love” occurs again, Ephesians 4:15-16. And here, love is preached [inculcated]: faith, in Ephesians 4:5; hope, in Ephesians 4:4.Verse 2. - SOME POINTS OF A WORTHY WALK. With all lowliness and meekness, with long-suffering, forbearing one another in love. He begins his enumeration with passive graces - eminently those of Christ. Lowliness or humility may well be gendered by our remembering what we were when God's grace took hold of us (Ephesians 2:1-3). Meekness is the natural expression of a lowly state of mind, opposed to boisterous self-assertion and rude striving with others; it genders a subdued manner and a peace-loving spirit that studies to give the soft answer that turneth away wrath. Long-suffering and loving forbearance are phases of the same state of mind - denoting the absence of that irascibility and proneness to take offence which flares up at every provocation or fancied neglect, and strives to maintain self-control on every occasion. It is from such qualities in God that our redemption has come; it is miserable to accept the redemption and not try to attain and exhibit its true spirit. Neglect of this verse has produced untold evil in the Christian Church Lowiness - meekness

See on Matthew 11:29; see on Matthew 5:5.

Long-suffering

See on James 5:7.

Forbearing (ἀνεχόμενοι)

See on Luke 9:41.

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