Deuteronomy 10:10
And I stayed in the mount, according to the first time, forty days and forty nights; and the LORD listened to me at that time also, and the LORD would not destroy you.
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10:1-11 Moses reminded the Israelites of God's great mercy to them, notwithstanding their provocations. There were four things in and by which the Lord showed himself reconciled to Israel. God gave them his law. Thus God has intrusted us with Bibles, sabbaths, and sacraments, as tokens of his presence and favour. God led them forward toward Canaan. He appointed a standing ministry among them for holy things. And now, under the gospel, when the pouring forth of the Spirit is more plentiful and powerful, the succession is kept up by the Spirit's work on men's hearts, qualifying and making some willing for that work in every age. God accepted Moses as an advocate or intercessor for them, and therefore appointed him to be their prince and leader. Moses was a type of Christ, who ever lives, pleading for us, and has all power in heaven and in earth.At that time - i. e., that of the encampment at Sinai, as the words also import in Deuteronomy 10:1. Throughout the passage the time of the important events at Sinai is kept in view; it is reverted to as each incident is brought forward by Moses, alluded to sufficiently for his purpose, and dismissed.

Moses is evidently here speaking of the election by God of the tribe of Levi at large, priests and others also, for His own service.

10-22. Moses here resumes his address, and having made a passing allusion to the principal events in their history, concludes by exhorting them to fear the Lord and serve Him faithfully. No text from Poole on this verse. And I stayed in the mount, according to the first time, forty days and forty nights,.... Which is to be connected with Deuteronomy 10:6 and relates what passed before he came down from the mount with the two tables; as that he stayed there as long as he did when he received the first tables, and fasted also as long as he did then; see Exodus 34:28.

and the Lord hearkened unto me at that time also; to his prayer on the behalf of the people:

and the Lord would not destroy thee; though he had threatened it, and their sin had deserved it.

And I stayed in the mount, according to the first time, forty days and forty nights; and the LORD hearkened unto me at that time also, and the LORD would not destroy thee.
10, 11. These vv. present no little difficulty alike by their position, their language and their substance. They are separated from the historical retrospect by Deuteronomy 10:6-9. They are in the Sg. address, while it is in the Pl. Do they belong to it, or to Deuteronomy 10:12 ff., which continue the hortatory discourse? They record an intercession by Moses, and compare it with a previous intercession or intercessions. Is this identical with one of those recorded in the historical retrospect or a fresh one? The explanations have been many and various, but may be grouped under three heads: (a) Deuteronomy 10:10 is secondary, the result of various attempts by scribes, working on Exodus 32-34 and this passage, to arrange the different references to intercessions by Moses; while Deuteronomy 10:11 a is the continuation of Deuteronomy 10:5 and the conclusion of the historical retrospect (Steuernagel); (b) Deuteronomy 10:10-11 are the natural sequel to Deuteronomy 9:13-14, and with these form a summary narrative parallel to the rest of Deuteronomy 9:9 ff.; they belong not to the retrospect, but to the hortatory discourse continued in Deuteronomy 10:12 ff. (Bertholet, who omits with LXX the troublesome words as at the first time). These arguments, though ingenious, are not convincing. On the whole, the most probable explanation is (c) that which takes Deuteronomy 10:10 as a natural recapitulation of Deuteronomy 9:18 ff., carried in Deuteronomy 10:11 to its proper conclusion. This view is supported by the possible Heb. pluperfect in Deuteronomy 10:10, I had stayed; by the repetition from Deuteronomy 9:19 of the words: ‘and Jehovah hearkened unto me at that time also’ (yet see on Deuteronomy 9:19 b); by the fact that it was natural to repeat these words once again after the prayer Deuteronomy 9:26-29, which otherwise remains without answer to it being recorded; and by the unfinished condition in which the retrospect would be left without Deuteronomy 10:11 (Steuern.’s instinct is right in retaining at least Deuteronomy 10:11 a). The single Sg. would not destroy thee is a difficulty, but may be explained as due to the attraction of the neighbouring Sg. in Deuteronomy 10:12 ff. Almost all MSS of LXX have you.

10. And I stayed] The Heb. may well be translated, And I had stayed.

as at the first time] om. by LXX.

11. take thy journey] get thee to thy journey, lit. to thy breaking of camp. See on Deuteronomy 2:1.Verses 10, 11. - Moses here sums up the general result of his intercession. As at the first, he was on the mount the second time forty days and forty nights; and in response to his pleading, the Lord willed not to destroy Israel, and commanded him to resume his place as leader of the people, and conduct them to the Promised Land "This commandment and promise was a testimony that God now was reconciled unto them by the intercession of Moses" (Ainsworth). In Deuteronomy 10:1-5 Moses briefly relates the success of his earnest intercession. "At that time," of his intercession, God commanded him to hew out new tables, and prepare an ark in which to keep them (cf. Exodus 34:1.). Here again Moses links together such things as were substantially connected, without strictly confining himself to the chronological order, which was already well known from the historical account, inasmuch as this was not required by the general object of his address. God had already given directions for the preparation of the ark of the covenant, before the apostasy of the nation (Exodus 25:10.); but it was not made till after the tabernacle had been built, and the tables were only deposited in the ark when the tabernacle was consecrated (Exodus 40:20).
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