The land of Canaan is described, Numbers 34:1, Numbers 34:2. The south quarter, Numbers 34:3-5. The western border, Numbers 34:6. The north border, Numbers 34:7-9. The east border, Numbers 34:10-12. This land to be divided by lot among the nine tribes and half, Numbers 34:13; two tribes and half, Reuben and Gad, and the half of Manasseh, having already got their inheritance on the east side of Jordan, Numbers 34:14, Numbers 34:15. Eleazar the priest, and Joshua, to assist in dividing the land, Numbers 34:16, Numbers 34:17; and with them a chief out of every tribe, Numbers 34:18. The names of the twelve chiefs, Numbers 34:19-29.
And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,
Command the children of Israel, and say unto them, When ye come into the land of Canaan; (this is the land that shall fall unto you for an inheritance, even the land of Canaan with the coasts thereof:)The land of Canaan with the coasts thereof - All description here is useless. The situation and boundaries of the land of Canaan can only be known by actual survey, or by consulting a good map.
Then your south quarter shall be from the wilderness of Zin along by the coast of Edom, and your south border shall be the outmost coast of the salt sea eastward:The salt sea - The Dead Sea, or lake Asphaltites. See the note on Genesis 19:25.
And your border shall turn from the south to the ascent of Akrabbim, and pass on to Zin: and the going forth thereof shall be from the south to Kadeshbarnea, and shall go on to Hazaraddar, and pass on to Azmon:
And the border shall fetch a compass from Azmon unto the river of Egypt, and the goings out of it shall be at the sea.The river of Egypt - The eastern branch of the river Nile; or, according to others, a river which is south of the land of the Philistines, and fails into the gulf or bay near Calieh.
And as for the western border, ye shall even have the great sea for a border: this shall be your west border.Ye shall even have the great sea for a border - The Mediterranean Sea, called here the Great Sea, to distinguish it from the Dead Sea, the Sea of Tiberias, etc., which were only a sort of lakes. In Hebrew there is properly but one term, ים yam, which is applied to all collections of water apparently stagnant, and which is generally translated sea. The Greek of the New Testament follows the Hebrew, and employs, in general, the word θαλασσα, Sea, whether it speaks of the Mediterranean, or of the sea or lake of Galilee.
And this shall be your north border: from the great sea ye shall point out for you mount Hor:
From mount Hor ye shall point out your border unto the entrance of Hamath; and the goings forth of the border shall be to Zedad:
And the border shall go on to Ziphron, and the goings out of it shall be at Hazarenan: this shall be your north border.
And ye shall point out your east border from Hazarenan to Shepham:
And the coast shall go down from Shepham to Riblah, on the east side of Ain; and the border shall descend, and shall reach unto the side of the sea of Chinnereth eastward:The sea of Chinnereth - The same as the sea of Galilee, sea of Tiberias, and sea of Gennesareth.
And the border shall go down to Jordan, and the goings out of it shall be at the salt sea: this shall be your land with the coasts thereof round about.The border shall go down to Jordan - This river is famous both in the Old and New Testaments. It takes its rise at the foot of Mount Libanus, passes through the sea of Chinnereth or Tiberias, and empties itself into the lake Asphaltites or Dead Sea, from which it has no outlet. In and by it God wrought many miracles. God cut off the waters of this river as he did those of the Red Sea, so that they stood on a heap on each side, and the people passed over on dry ground. Both Elijah and Elisha separated its waters in a miraculous way, 2 Kings 2:8-14. Naaman, the Syrian general, by washing in it at the command of the prophet, was miraculously cured of his leprosy, 2 Kings 5:10-14. In this river John baptized great multitudes of Jews; and in it was Christ himself baptized, and the Spirit of God descended upon him, and the voice from heaven proclaimed him the great and only Teacher and Savior of men, Matthew 3:16, Matthew 3:17; Mark 1:5-11.
And Moses commanded the children of Israel, saying, This is the land which ye shall inherit by lot, which the LORD commanded to give unto the nine tribes, and to the half tribe:This is the land which ye shall inherit by lot - Much of what is said concerning this land is peculiarly emphatic. It is a land that contains a multitude of advantages in its climate, its soil, situation, etc. It is bounded on the south by a ridge of mountains, which separate it from Arabia, and screen it from the burning and often pestiferous winds which blow over the desert from that quarter. On the west it is bounded by the Mediterranean Sea; on the north, by Mount Libanus, which defends it from the cold northern blasts; and on the east by the river Jordan, and its fertile, well-watered plains. It is described by God himself as "a good land, a land of brooks of water, of fountains, and depths that spring out of valleys and hills; a land of wheat, and barley, and vines, and fig trees, and pomegranates; a land of olive oil and honey; a land wherein there was no scarcity of bread, and where both iron and copper mines abounded," Deuteronomy 8:7-9 : a land finely diversified with hills and valleys, and well watered by the rain of heaven, in this respect widely different from Egypt; a land which God cared for, on which his eyes were continually placed from the beginning to the end of the year; watched over by a most merciful Providence; in a word, a land which flowed with milk and honey, and was the most pleasant of all lands; Deuteronomy 11:11, Deuteronomy 11:12; Ezekiel 20:6. Such was the land, and such were the advantages that this most favored people were called to possess. They were called to possess it by lot that each might be satisfied with his possession, as considering it to be appointed to him by the especial providence of God; and its boundaries were ascertained on Divine authority, to prevent all covetousness after the territories of others.
For the tribe of the children of Reuben according to the house of their fathers, and the tribe of the children of Gad according to the house of their fathers, have received their inheritance; and half the tribe of Manasseh have received their inheritance:
The two tribes and the half tribe have received their inheritance on this side Jordan near Jericho eastward, toward the sunrising.
And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,
These are the names of the men which shall divide the land unto you: Eleazar the priest, and Joshua the son of Nun.
And ye shall take one prince of every tribe, to divide the land by inheritance.
And the names of the men are these: Of the tribe of Judah, Caleb the son of Jephunneh.And the names of the men - are these - It is worthy of remark that Moses does not follow any order hitherto used of placing the tribes, neither that in Numbers 1, nor that in Numbers 7, nor that in Numbers 26, nor any other; but places them here exactly in that order in which they possessed the land.
Judah is first, having the first lot; and he dwelt in the south part of the land, Joshua 15:1, etc.; and next to him Simeon, because his inheritance was within the inheritance of the children of Judah, Joshua 19:1. Benjamin was third; he had his inheritance by Judah, between the children of Judah and the children of Joseph, Joshua 18:11. Dan was the fourth; his lot fell westward of that of Benjamin, in the country of the Philistines, as may be seen in Joshua 19:40, Joshua 19:41, etc. Fifth, Manasseh; and sixth, by him, his brother Ephraim, whose inheritances were behind that of Benjamin, Joshua 16:7. Next to these dwelt, seventh, Zebulun; and eighth, Issachar; concerning whose lots see Joshua 19:10-17. Ninth, Asher; and tenth, Naphtali; see Joshua 19:24, Joshua 19:32, etc.
And as in encamping about the tabernacle they were arranged according to their fraternal relationship, (see Numbers 2)., so they were in the division and inheriting of the promised land. Judah and Simeon, both sons of Leah, dwelt abreast of each other. Benjamin, son of Rachel, and Dan, son of Rachel's maid, dwelt next abreast. Manasseh and Ephraim, both sons of Joseph, son of Rachel, had the next place abreast. Zebulun and Issachar, who dwelt next together, were both sons of Leah; and the last pair were Asher, of Leah's maid, and Naphtali, of Rachel's maid. Thus God, in nominating princes that should divide the land, signified beforehand the manner of their possession, and that they should be so situated as to dwell together as brethren in unity, for the mutual help and comfort of each other. See Ainsworth. In this arrangement there is much skill, judgment, and kindness every where displayed.
And of the tribe of the children of Simeon, Shemuel the son of Ammihud.
Of the tribe of Benjamin, Elidad the son of Chislon.
And the prince of the tribe of the children of Dan, Bukki the son of Jogli.
The prince of the children of Joseph, for the tribe of the children of Manasseh, Hanniel the son of Ephod.
And the prince of the tribe of the children of Ephraim, Kemuel the son of Shiphtan.
And the prince of the tribe of the children of Zebulun, Elizaphan the son of Parnach.
And the prince of the tribe of the children of Issachar, Paltiel the son of Azzan.
And the prince of the tribe of the children of Asher, Ahihud the son of Shelomi.
And the prince of the tribe of the children of Naphtali, Pedahel the son of Ammihud.
These are they whom the LORD commanded to divide the inheritance unto the children of Israel in the land of Canaan.