2 Kings 8:20
In his days Edom revolted from under the hand of Judah, and made a king over themselves.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(20) In his days Edom revolted.—The connection of ideas is this: Although Jehovah was not willing to extirpate Judah, yet He suffered it to be seriously weakened by the defections recorded in 2Kings 8:20-22.

Made a king over themselves.—Josephus says they slew the vassal king appointed over them by Jehoshaphat (1Kings 22:48). Edom appears to have been subject to the hegemony of Judah from the time of the disruption under Rehoboam.

2 Kings 8:20. In his days Edom revolted — After they had been subject to Judah one hundred and fifty years, ever since the time of David, who subdued that country. This was a great dishonour to him. Hereby, however, the prophecy of Isaac (Genesis 27:40) was fulfilled.8:16-24 A general idea is given of Jehoram's badness. His father, no doubt, had him taught the true knowledge of the Lord, but did ill to marry him to the daughter of Ahab; no good could come of union with an idolatrous family.Edom, which had been reduced by David 2 Samuel 8:14; 1 Kings 11:15-16, but had apparently revolted from Solomon 1 Kings 11:14, was again subjected to Judah in the reign of Jehoshaphat 2 Kings 3:8-26. The Edomites had, however, retained their native kings, and with them the spirit of independence. They now rose in revolt, and fulfilled the prophecy Genesis 27:40, remaining from henceforth a separate and independent people (Jeremiah 25:21; Jeremiah 27:3; Amos 1:11, etc.). Kings of Edom, who seem to be independent monarchs, are often mentioned in the Assyrian inscriptions. 18. daughter of Ahab—Athaliah, through whose influence Jehoram introduced the worship of Baal and many other evils into the kingdom of Judah (see 2Ch 21:2-20). This apostasy would have led to the total extinction of the royal family in that kingdom, had it not been for the divine promise to David (2Sa 7:16). A national chastisement, however, was inflicted on Judah by the revolt of Edom, which, being hitherto governed by a tributary ruler (2Ki 3:9; 1Ki 22:47), erected the standard of independence (2Ch 21:9). From under the hand of Judah; under which they had been from David’s time, 2 Samuel 8:14. Compare 1 Kings 22:47. In his days Edom revolted from under the hand of Judah,.... Who had been tributary to Judah ever since the times of David, for the space of one hundred and fifty years:

and made a king over themselves; for though they are said to have kings, those were only deputy kings, as in 1 Kings 22:47 and now the prediction of Isaac began to be accomplished, Genesis 27:40.

In his days Edom {m} revolted from under the hand of Judah, and made a king over themselves.

(m) Which had been subject from David's time until this time of Jehoram.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
20. Edom revolted] In Solomon’s time, Hadad (1 Kings 11:14) recovered the kingdom of Edom, which had been overthrown by David (2 Samuel 8:14). But by the time of Jehoshaphat the Edomites were again subject to Judah (1 Kings 22:47) and appear to have continued so until the time of the revolution here mentioned.

made a king over themselves] i.e. They deposed the deputy of Judah, and made one of their own royal family king, or chose a king of their own.Verse 20. - In his days Edom revolted from under the hand of Judah. Edom had been conquered by Joab in the time of David, and had been treated with great severity, all the males, or at any rate all those of full age, having been put to death (1 Kings 11:15, 16). On the death of David, Edom seems to have revolted under a prince named Hadad, and to have re-established its independence. It had been again sub-jeered by the time of Jehoshaphat, who appointed a governor over it (1 Kings 22:47), and treated it as a portion of his own territories (2 Kings 3:8). Now the yoke was finally thrown off, as had been prophesied (Genesis 27:40). Edom became once more a separate kingdom, and was especially hostile to Judah. In the reign of Ahaz the Edomites "smote Judah" and carried away many captives (2 Chronicles 28:17). When the Chaldaeans attacked and besieged Jerusalem, they cried, "Down with it, down with it, even to the ground!" (Psalm 137:7). They looked on with joy at the capture of the holy city (Obadiah 1:12), and "stood in the crossway, to cut off such as escaped" (Obadiah 1:14). After the return from the Captivity, they were still Judah's enemies, and am especially denounced as such by the Prophet Malachi (Malachi 1:3-5). In the Maccabee wars, we find them always on the Syrian side (1 Mac. 4:29, 61 1 Mac. 5:3 1 Mac. 6:31; 2 Macc. 10:15, etc.), doing their best to rivet the hateful yoke of the heathen on their suffering brethren. As Idumaeans, the Herodian family must have been specially hateful to the Jews. And made a king over themselves. The king mentioned in 2 Kings 3:9, 26 was probably a mere vassal king under Jehoshaphat. But when Hazael replied in feigned humility, What is thy servant, the dog (i.e., so base a fellow: for כּלב see at 1 Samuel 24:15), that he should do such great things? Elisha said to him, "Jehovah has shown thee to me as king over Aram;" whereupon Hazael returned to his lord, brought him the pretended answer of Elisha that he would live (recover), and the next day suffocated him with a cloth dipped in water. מכבּר, from כּבר, to plait or twist, literally, anything twisted; not, however, a net for gnats or flies (Joseph., J. D. Mich., etc.), but a twisted thick cloth, which when dipped in water became so thick, that when it was spread over the face of the sick man it was sufficient to suffocate him.
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