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Hitchcock's Bible Names Dictionary

measure; habit; covering

ATS Bible Dictionary

Called by the Hebrews MADAI, and supposed to have been peopled by the descendants of Madai the son of Japheth, Genesis 10:2; extended itself on the west and south of the Caspian Sea, from Armenia and Assyria on the north and west, to Farsistan or Persia proper on the south; and included the districts now called Shirvan, Adserbijan, Ghilan, Masanderan, and Irak Adjemi. It covered a territory larger than that of Spain, lying between 32 degrees and 40 degrees of north latitude, and was one of the most fertile and earliest cultivated among the kingdoms of Asia. It had two grand divisions, of which the northwestern was called Atropatene, or Lesser Media, and the southern Greater Media. The former corresponds to the modern Abserbijan, now, as formerly, a province of the Persian empire, on the west of the Caspian, surrounded by high mountains of the Tauritic range, except towards the east, where the river Kur, or Byrus, discharges its waters into the Caspian. The Greater Media corresponds principally to the modern Irak Adjemi, or Persian Irak. Ecbatana was the ancient capital.

Media is one of the most ancient independent kingdoms of which history makes mention. After several centuries of subjugation under Assyria, the Medes rebelled under Arbaces in the time of Sardanapalus, and again in the time of Sennacherib, about 700 B. C.. They became powerful, cultivated, and wealthy, Isaiah 13:17,18 21:2-3, and continued an independent kingdom until under Cyrus, Media became united with Persia. In this way arose the Medro-Persian kingdom; and the "laws of the Medes and Persians" are always mentioned by the sacred writers together, Esther 1:19, etc.; Daniel 6:8,12, etc. So also the "Chronicles" of the Medes and Persians are mentioned together, Esther 10:2. Indeed, from this time inward, the manners, customs, religion, and civilization of the Medes and Persians seem ever to have become more and more amalgamated. And in general it would seem, as we may gather from the ancient Zend writings, that the Medes, Persians, and Bactraians were originally the same people, having in common one language, the Zend, and one religion, the worship of Ormuzd, the highest being, under the symbol of fire. They also worshipped the stars, particularly the planets; and still more, the sun and moon. The priests of this religion, the Magi, were a Median race, to whom were intrusted the cultivation of the sciences, and the performance of the sacred rites. Among these, and as is supposed before the time of Cyrus, appeared Zerdusht, or Zoroaster, as a reformer, or rather as the restorer of the ancient but degenerated religion of light, whose disciples have maintained themselves even to the present day in Persia and India, under the name of Guebres.

Media is first mentioned in the Bible as the part of Assyria to which the ten tribes were transported: at first, those beyond the Jordan, by Tiglath-pileser, 1 Chronicles 5:26; and afterwards, about 721 B. C., the remainder of Israel, by Shalmaneser, 2 Kings 17:6. The subsequent history of Media is involved in that of Persia. Both countries were subdued by Alexander of Macedon, 330 B. C.; and in the next century became tributary to the Parthians on their east, in connection with whom they are mentioned in Acts 2:9. See PERSIA.

Easton's Bible Dictionary
Hebrews Madai, which is rendered in the Authorized Version (1) "Madai," Genesis 10:2; (2) "Medes," 2 Kings 17:6; 18:11; (3) "Media," Esther 1:3; 10:2; Isaiah 21:2; Dan. 8:20; (4) "Mede," only in Dan. 11:1.

We first hear of this people in the Assyrian cuneiform records, under the name of Amada, about B.C. 840. They appear to have been a branch of the Aryans, who came from the east bank of the Indus, and were probably the predominant race for a while in the Mesopotamian valley. They consisted for three or four centuries of a number of tribes, each ruled by its own chief, who at length were brought under the Assyrian yoke (2 Kings 17:6). From this subjection they achieved deliverance, and formed themselves into an empire under Cyaxares (B.C. 633). This monarch entered into an alliance with the king of Babylon, and invaded Assyria, capturing and destroying the city of Nineveh (B.C. 625), thus putting an end to the Assyrian monarchy (Nahum 1:8; 2:5, 6; 3:13, 14).

Media now rose to a place of great power, vastly extending its boundaries. But it did not long exist as an independent kingdom. It rose with Cyaxares, its first king, and it passed away with him; for during the reign of his son and successor Astyages, the Persians waged war against the Medes and conquered them, the two nations being united under one monarch, Cyrus the Persian (B.C. 558).

The "cities of the Medes" are first mentioned in connection with the deportation of the Israelites on the destruction of Samaria (2 Kings 17:6; 18:11). Soon afterwards Isaiah (13:17; 21:2) speaks of the part taken by the Medes in the destruction of Babylon (Comp. Jeremiah 51:11, 28). Daniel gives an account of the reign of Darius the Mede, who was made viceroy by Cyrus (Dan. 6:1-28). The decree of Cyrus, Ezra informs us (6:2-5), was found in "the palace that is in the province of the Medes," Achmetha or Ecbatana of the Greeks, which is the only Median city mentioned in Scripture.

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
1. (n.) pl. of Medium.

2. (n.) One of the sonant mutes /, /, / (b, d, g), in Greek, or of their equivalents in other languages, so named as intermediate between the tenues, /, /, / (p, t, k), and the aspiratae (aspirates) /, /, / (ph or f, th, ch). Also called middle mute, or medial, and sometimes soft mute.

3. (n.) Plural of Medium.

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia

me'-di-a (madhay; Achaem. Persian Mada; Media): Lay to the West and Southwest of the Caspian, and extended thence to the Zagrus Mountains on the West On the North in later times it was bounded by the rivers Araxes and Cyrus, which separated it from Armenia. Its eastern boundaries were formed by Hyrcania and the Great Salt Desert (now called the Kavir), and it was bounded on the South by Susiana. In earlier times its limits were somewhat indefinite. It included Atropatene, (Armenian Atrpatakan, the name, "Fire-guarding," showing devotion to the worship of Fire) to the North, and Media Magna to the South, the former being the present A'zarbaijan. Near the Caspian the country is low, damp and unhealthy, but inland most of it is high and mountainous, Mt. Demavand in the Alburz range reaching 18,600 ft. Atropatene was famed for the fertility of its valleys and table-lands, except toward the North. Media Magna is high; it has fruitful tracts along the course of the streams, but suffers much from want of water, though this was doubtless more abundant in antiquity. It contained the Nisaean Plain, famous for its breed of horses. The chief cities of ancient Media were Ecbatana, Gazaea, and Ragae. The Orontes range near Ecbatana is the present Alvand. Lake Spauta is now known as Urmi (Urumiah).

W. St. Clair Tisdall

3370. Medos -- a Mede, Median, an inhabitant of Media
... a Mede, Median, an inhabitant of Media. Part of Speech: Noun, Masculine Transliteration:
Medos Phonetic Spelling: (may'-dos) Short Definition: a Mede Definition ...
// - 6k
Strong's Hebrew
307. Achmetha -- the capital of Media
... 306, 307. Achmetha. 308 . the capital of Media. Transliteration: Achmetha
Phonetic Spelling: (akh-me-thaw') Short Definition: Ecbatana. ...
/hebrew/307.htm - 6k

133. Admatha -- a prince of Pers. and Media
... a prince of Pers. and Media. Transliteration: Admatha Phonetic Spelling:
(ad-maw-thaw') Short Definition: Admatha. ... and Media NASB Word Usage Admatha (1). ...
/hebrew/133.htm - 5k

4462. Memukan -- a prince of Persia and Media
... Memukan or Momukan. 4463 . a prince of Persia and Media. Transliteration: Memukan
or Momukan Phonetic Spelling: (mem-oo-kawn') Short Definition: Memucan. ...
/hebrew/4462.htm - 6k

4077. Maday -- an inhabitant of Media
... Maday. 4078 . an inhabitant of Media. Transliteration: Maday Phonetic Spelling:
(maw-dah'-ee) Short Definition: Mede. ... of Media NASB Word Usage Mede (1). Median ...
/hebrew/4077.htm - 6k

4075. Maday -- an inhabitant of Media
... Maday. 4076 . an inhabitant of Media. Transliteration: Maday Phonetic Spelling:
(maw-dah'-ee) Short Definition: Mede. ... of Media NASB Word Usage Mede (1). Mede. ...
/hebrew/4075.htm - 6k

4074. Maday -- a son of Japheth, also his desc. and their land
... a son of Japheth, also his desc. and their land. Transliteration: Maday Phonetic
Spelling: (maw-dah'-ee) Short Definition: Media. ... Madai, Medes, Media. ...
/hebrew/4074.htm - 6k

2024. Hara -- a region of N. Mesopotamia
... Hara. Perhaps from har; mountainousness; Hara, a region of Media -- Hara. see
HEBREW har. 2023, 2024. Hara. 2025 . Strong's Numbers.
/hebrew/2024.htm - 6k

4076. Maday -- descendant of Japheth, also their land
... Word Origin (Aramaic) corresponding to Maday Definition desc. of Japheth,
also their land NASB Word Usage Medes (4), Media (1). Medes. ...
/hebrew/4076.htm - 6k


The visit to Media.
... CHAPTER III. THE VISIT TO MEDIA. BC587-584 Astyages sends for
Cyrus."Cyrus goes to Media."Cyrus's reception."His astonishment ...
// the great/chapter iii the visit to.htm

Concerning Nebuchadnezzar and his Successors and How their ...
... Concerning Nebuchadnezzar And His Successors And How Their Government Was Dissolved
By The Persians; And What Things Befell Daniel In Media; And What ...
/.../the antiquities of the jews/chapter 11 concerning nebuchadnezzar and.htm

How Shalmaneser Took Samaria by Force and How He Transplanted the ...
... How Shalmaneser Took Samaria By Force And How He Transplanted The Ten Tribes Into
Media, And Brought The Nation Of The Cutheans Into Their Country [In Their ...
/.../josephus/the antiquities of the jews/chapter 14 how shalmaneser took.htm

The Birth of Cyrus.
... There are records coming down to us from the very earliest times of three several
kingdoms situated in the heart of Asia-Assyria, Media, and Persia, the two ...
// the great/chapter ii the birth of.htm

Queen Esther's Love for Her People
... The commanders of the armies of Persia and Media, the nobles and governors were
before him; while for one hundred and eighty days he showed them the wonderful ...
/.../sherman/the childrens bible/queen esthers love for her.htm

Accession of Cyrus to the Throne.
... mental and personal accomplishments."Harpagus's plans for revenge."Suspicions of
Astyages."Condition of Persia."Discontent in Media."Proceedings of ...
/...// the great/chapter v accession of cyrus.htm

All Mankind Guilty; Or, Every Man Knows More than He Practises.
... affirms that the Creator originally gave all mankind, in the moral constitution
of a rational soul and in the works of creation and providence, the media to a ...
/.../shedd/sermons to the natural man/all mankind guilty or every.htm

The Sixth vial.
... The kings of Media and Persia, from the east of Babylon, subjugated it by diverting
from the city the waters of the river, and entering by its unprotected bed. ...
/.../bliss/a brief commentary on the apocalypse/the sixth vial.htm

The Consensus of Zurich. AD 1549.
... 'The Sacraments,' he declares, 'are helps and media (adminicula et media), by which
we are either inserted into the body of Christ, or being so inserted ...
/.../ 59 the consensus of.htm

How Upon the Death of Jotham, Ahaz Reigned in his Stead; against ...
... Made War; And How Tiglath-Pileser, King Of Assyria Came To The Assistance Of Ahaz,
And Laid Syria Waste And Removing The Damascenes Into Media Placed Other ...
/.../josephus/the antiquities of the jews/chapter 12 how upon the.htm

Media (14 Occurrences)
... Hebrews Madai, which is rendered in the Authorized Version (1) "Madai," Genesis
10:2; (2) "Medes," 2 Kings 17:6; 18:11; (3) "Media," Esther 1:3; 10:2; Isaiah 21 ...
/m/media.htm - 15k

Media's (1 Occurrence)
... Multi-Version Concordance Media's (1 Occurrence). Isaiah 21:2 A grievous vision
is declared to me. ... Go up, Elam; attack! I have stopped all of Media's sighing. ...
/m/media's.htm - 6k

Darius (26 Occurrences)
... almighty." (b) Gutium was the designation of the country North of Babylon and was
in all possibility in the time of Cyrus a part of the province of Media. ...
/d/darius.htm - 24k

Medes (15 Occurrences)
... i.96). Shalmaneser II mentions them (Nimrod Obelisk, i.121) about 840 BC They
then inhabited the modern A'zarbaijan (Media Atropatene). ...
/m/medes.htm - 18k

Persia (30 Occurrences)
... Cyrus II., king of Anzan, finally united the divided power, conquered Media,
Lydia, and Babylonia, and carried his arms into the far East. ...
/p/persia.htm - 20k

Median (3 Occurrences)
... 3. (n.) A median line or point. Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia. MEDIAN.
me'-di-an. See DARIUS; MEDES; MEDIA. Multi-Version Concordance Median (3 Occurrences). ...
/m/median.htm - 7k

Magi (4 Occurrences)
... tab mugi sa narkabti, "commander of chariots"), having no connection with "Magus"
(unless perhaps Magians were employed as charioteers, Media being famous for ...
/m/magi.htm - 26k

Achmetha (1 Occurrence)
... Easton's Bible Dictionary (Ezra 6:2), called Ecbatana by classical writers,
the capital of northern Media. Here was the palace which ...
/a/achmetha.htm - 10k

... faith, had fallen into similar distress-Raguel, his wife Edna and his daughter Sarah,
who resided at Ecbatana (Vulgate "Rages"; compare Tobit 1:14) in Media. ...
/t/tobit.htm - 34k

Anaharath (1 Occurrence)
... faith, had fallen into similar distress-Raguel, his wife Edna and his daughter Sarah,
who resided at Ecbatana (Vulgate "Rages"; compare Tobit 1:14) in Media. ...
/a/anaharath.htm - 87k

Bible Concordance
Media (14 Occurrences)

Acts 2:9 Men of Parthia, Media, and Elam, and those living in Mesopotamia, in Judaea and Cappadocia, in Pontus and Asia,

Ezra 6:2 There was found at Achmetha, in the palace that is in the province of Media, a scroll, and therein was thus written for a record:

Esther 1:3 in the third year of his reign, he made a feast for all his princes and his servants; the power of Persia and Media, the nobles and princes of the provinces, being before him.

Esther 1:14 and the next to him were Carshena, Shethar, Admatha, Tarshish, Meres, Marsena, and Memucan, the seven princes of Persia and Media, who saw the king's face, and sat first in the kingdom),

Esther 1:18 Today, the princesses of Persia and Media who have heard of the queen's deed will tell all the king's princes. This will cause much contempt and wrath.

Esther 1:19 If to the king 'it be' good, there goeth forth a royal word from before him, and it is written with the laws of Persia and Media, and doth not pass away, that Vashti doth not come in before the king Ahasuerus, and her royalty doth the king give to her companion who 'is' better than she;

Esther 10:2 All the acts of his power and of his might, and the full account of the greatness of Mordecai, to which the king advanced him, aren't they written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Media and Persia?

Isaiah 21:2 A grievous vision is declared to me. The treacherous man deals treacherously, and the destroyer destroys. Go up, Elam; attack! I have stopped all of Media's sighing.

Jeremiah 25:25 And all the kings of Zimri, And all the kings of Elam, And all the kings of Media,

Jeremiah 51:28 Prepare against her the nations with the kings of Media, her captains, and all her rulers, and all the land of his dominion.

Daniel 6:8 Now, O king, thou dost establish the interdict, and sign the writing, that it is not to be changed, as a law of Media and Persia, that doth not pass away.'

Daniel 6:12 then they have come near, yea, they are saying before the king concerning the king's interdict: 'Hast thou not signed an interdict, that any man who seeketh from any god and man until thirty days, save of thee, O king, is cast into a den of lions?' Answered hath the king, and said, 'The thing 'is' certain as a law of Media and Persia, that doth not pass away.'

Daniel 6:15 Then these men have assembled near the king, and are saying to the king, 'know, O king, that the law of Media and Persia 'is': That any interdict and statute that the king doth establish is not to be changed.'

Daniel 8:20 The ram which you saw, that had the two horns, they are the kings of Media and Persia.



Media Medes

Related Terms

Media's (1 Occurrence)

Darius (26 Occurrences)

Medes (15 Occurrences)

Persia (30 Occurrences)

Median (3 Occurrences)

Magi (4 Occurrences)

Achmetha (1 Occurrence)


Anaharath (1 Occurrence)

Cyrus (20 Occurrences)

Nobles (71 Occurrences)

Marsena (1 Occurrence)

Mede (3 Occurrences)

Memucan (3 Occurrences)

Parthians (1 Occurrence)

Carshena (1 Occurrence)

Chilmad (1 Occurrence)

Admatha (1 Occurrence)

Ahasuerus (28 Occurrences)

Nebuchadnezzar (90 Occurrences)

Hara (1 Occurrence)

Edict (22 Occurrences)


Haman (46 Occurrences)

Queen's (3 Occurrences)

Northward (41 Occurrences)

Nobility (5 Occurrences)

Jehoahaz (22 Occurrences)

Looter (1 Occurrence)

Ladies (8 Occurrences)

Loot (15 Occurrences)

Gomer (7 Occurrences)


Waster (7 Occurrences)

India (2 Occurrences)

Treacherous (34 Occurrences)

Tarshish (24 Occurrences)

Rages (5 Occurrences)

Royalty (7 Occurrences)

Represents (3 Occurrences)

Ragau (1 Occurrence)

Respond (21 Occurrences)

Eden (19 Occurrences)


Explanation (9 Occurrences)


Ecbat'ana (1 Occurrence)

Exile (101 Occurrences)

Ecbatana (1 Occurrence)

Discord (7 Occurrences)

Dealeth (22 Occurrences)

Disrespect (1 Occurrence)

Destroys (23 Occurrences)

Dispersion (4 Occurrences)

Declaration (9 Occurrences)

Dealer (5 Occurrences)

Memu'can (3 Occurrences)

Marse'na (1 Occurrence)

Meres (1 Occurrence)

Memorandum (1 Occurrence)

Mediate (1 Occurrence)

Persians (6 Occurrences)

Pison (1 Occurrence)

Plunderer (4 Occurrences)

Plunders (1 Occurrence)

Plundereth (1 Occurrence)

Prefects (18 Occurrences)

Pishon (1 Occurrence)

Princesses (4 Occurrences)

Provinces (40 Occurrences)

Possessing (18 Occurrences)

Princess (2 Occurrences)

Betrays (13 Occurrences)

Besiege (17 Occurrences)

Behavior (20 Occurrences)

Bdellium (2 Occurrences)

Citadel (20 Occurrences)


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