|Matthew Henry's Concise Commentary|
3:1-5 The peace-offerings had regard to God as the giver of all good things. These were divided between the altar, the priest, and the owner. They were called peace-offering, because in them God and his people did, as it were, feast together, in token of friendship. The peace-offerings were offered by way of supplication. If a man were in pursuit of any mercy, he would add a peace-offering to his prayer for it. Christ is our Peace, our Peace-offering; for through him alone it is that we can obtain an answer of peace to our prayers. Or, the peace-offering was offered by way of thanksgiving for some mercy received. We must offer to God the sacrifice of praise continually, by Christ our Peace; and then this shall please the Lord better than an ox or bullock.
Verses 3, 4. - "There were four parts to be burned upon the altar:
(1) the fat that covereth the inwards, i.e., the large net, omentum, ἐπίπλους, caul, or adipose membrane found in mammals, attached to the stomach and spreading over the bowels, and which in the ruminants abounds with fat;
(2) all the fat which is upon the inwards, i.e., the fat attached to the intestines, and which could be peeled off;
(3) the two kidneys, and the fat that is on them, which is by the flanks, or loins, i.e., the kidneys and all the fat connected with them; the kidneys are the only thing to be burnt except the fat;
(4) the smaller net, omentum minus, or caul above the liver, which stretches on one side to the region of the kidneys, hence on the kidneys; עַל = by them, not with them' (Gardiner).
Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible
And he shall offer of the sacrifice of the peace offering,.... That is, the priest, not all of it, but some of it, even what is after mentioned:
an offering made by fire unto the Lord; for what was offered to the Lord was burnt, and is that part of it which is next mentioned in this and the following verse:
the fat that covereth the inwards, and all the fat that is upon the inwards; both that which covered them, and that which stuck to them; and the fat being the best, it was the Lord's, and offered to him, and denoted Christ the fatted calf, whose sacrifice is best and most excellent; and which was typified by that which Abel offered up, and which being of the fat of the flock, and offered up by faith in Christ's sacrifice, was more excellent than Cain's, Genesis 4:4.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Bible Commentary
3. he shall offer of the sacrifice of the peace offering—The peace offering differed from the oblations formerly mentioned in this respect: while the burnt offering was wholly consumed on the altar, and the freewill offering was partly consumed and partly assigned to the priests; in this offering the fat alone was burnt; only a small part was allotted to the priests while the rest was granted to the offerer and his friends, thus forming a sacred feast of which the Lord, His priests, and people conjointly partook, and which was symbolical of the spiritual feast, the sacred communion which, through Christ, the great peace offering, believers enjoy. (See further on Le 19:5-8; 22:21).
the fat that covereth the inwards—that is, the web work that presents itself first to the eye on opening the belly of a cow.
the fat … upon the inwards—adhering to the intestines, but easily removable from them; or, according to some, that which was next the ventricle.
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