Thomas
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Hitchcock's Bible Names Dictionary
Thomas

a twin

Smith's Bible Dictionary
Thomas

(a twin), one of the apostles. According to Eusebius, his real name was Judas. This may have been a mere confusion with Thaddeus, who is mentioned in the extract. But it may also be that; Thomas was a surname. Out of this name has grown the tradition that he had a twin-sister, Lydia, or that he was a twin-brother of our Lord; which last, again, would confirm his identification with Judas. Comp. (Matthew 13:55) He is said to have been born at Antioch. In the catalogue of the apostles he is coupled with Matthew in (Matthew 10:3; Mark 3:18; Luke 6:15) and with Philip in (Acts 1:13) All that we know of him is derived from the Gospel of St. John; and this amounts to three traits, which, however, so exactly agree together that, slight as they are they place his character before us with a precision which belongs to no other of the twelve apostles except Peter, John and Judas Iscariot. This character is that of a man slow to believe, seeing all the difficulties of a case, subject to despondency, viewing things on the darker side, yet full of ardent love of his Master. The latter trait was shown in his speech when our Lord determined to face the dangers that awaited him in Judea on his journey to Bethany. Thomas said to his fellow disciples, "Let us also go, that we may die with him." (John 11:16) His unbelief appeared in his question during the Last Supper: "Thomas saith unto him Lord we know not whither thou goest, and how can we: know the way" (John 14:5) It was the prosaic, incredulous doubt as to moving a step in the unseen future, and yet an eager inquiry as to how this step was to be taken. The first-named trait was seen after the resurrection. He was absent --possibly by accident, perhaps characteristically --from the first assembly when Jesus had appeared. The others told him what they had seen. He broke forth into an exclamation, the terms of which convey to us at once the vehemence of his doubt, and at the same time the vivid picture that his mind retained of his Master's form as he had last seen him lifeless on the cross. (John 20:25) On the eighth day he was with them st their gathering, perhaps in expectation of a recurrence of the visit of the previous week; and Jesus stood among them. He uttered the same salutation, "Peace be unto you;" and then turning to Thomas, as if this had been the special object of his appearance, uttered the words which convey as strongly the sense of condemnation and tender reproof as those of Thomas had shown the sense of hesitation and doubt. The effect on him was immediate. The conviction produced by the removal of his doubt became deeper and stronger than that of any of the other apostles. The words in which he expressed his belief contain a far higher assertion of his Master's divine nature than is contained in any other expression used by apostolic lips--"My Lord and my God." The answer of our Lord sums up the moral of the whole narrative: "Because thou hast seen me, thou hast believed: blessed are they that have not seen me, and yet have-believed." (John 20:29) In the New Testament we hear of Thomas only twice again, once on the Sea of Galilee with the seven disciples, where he is ranked next after Peter, (John 21:2) and again in the assemblage of the apostles after the ascension. (Acts 1:13) The earlier traditions, as believed in the fourth century, represent him as preaching in Parthia or Persia, and as finally buried at Edessa. The later traditions carry him farther east, His martyrdom whether in Persia or India, is said to have been occasioned by a lance, and is commemorated by the Latin Church on December 21 the Greek Church on October 6, and by the Indians on July 1.

ATS Bible Dictionary
Thomas

The apostle, Matthew 10:3, called in Greek Didymus, that is, a twin, John 20:24, was probably a Galilean, as well as the other apostles; but the place of his birth, and the circumstances of his calling, are unknown, Luke 6:13-15. He appears to have been of an impulsive character, sincerely devoted to Christ, ready to act upon his convictions, and perhaps slow to be convinced, as he at first doubted our Lord's resurrection, John 11:16; 14:5-6; 20:19-29. Several of the fathers inform us that he preached in the Indies; and others say that he preached in Cush, or Ethiopia, near the Caspian sea.

There are nominal Christians in the East Indies, who bear the name of St. Thomas, because they report that this apostle preached the gospel there. They dwell in a peninsula of the Indus, on this side the gulf.

Easton's Bible Dictionary
Twin, one of the twelve (Matthew 10:3; Mark 3:18, etc.). He was also called Didymus (John 11:16; 20:24), which is the Greek equivalent of the Hebrew name. All we know regarding him is recorded in the fourth Gospel (John 11:15, 16; 14:4, 5; 20:24, 25, 26-29). From the circumstance that in the lists of the apostles he is always mentioned along with Matthew, who was the son of Alphaeus (Mark 3:18), and that these two are always followed by James, who was also the son of Alphaeus, it has been supposed that these three, Matthew, Thomas, and James, were brothers.
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
THOMAS

tom'-as (Thomas; ta'om, "a twin" (in plural only):

1. In the New Testament:

One of the Twelve Apostles. Thomas, who was also called "Didymus" or "the Twin" (compare John 11:16; John 20:24; John 21:2), is referred to in detail by the Gospel of John alone. His election to the Twelve is recorded in Matthew 10:3 Mark 3:18 Luke 6:15 Acts 1:13. In John 11:1-54, when Jesus, despite imminent danger at the hands of hostile Jews, declared His intention of going to Bethany to heal Lazarus, Thomas alone opposed the other disciples who sought to dissuade Him, and protested, "Let us also go; that we may died with him" (John 11:16). On the eve of the Passion, Thomas put the question, "Lord, we know now whither thou goest; how know we the way?" (John 14:5). After the crucifixion, Thomas apparently severed his connection with the rest of the apostiles for a time, as he was not present when the risen Christ first appeared to them (compare John 20:24). But his subsequent conversation with them, while not convincing him of the truth of the resurrection-"except I shall see.... I will not believe" (John 20:25)-at least induced him to be among their number eight days afterward (John 20:26) in the upper room. There, having received the proofs for which he sought, he made the confession, "My Lord and my God" (John 20:28), and was reproved by Jesus for his previous unbelief: "Because thou hast seen me thou hast believed: blessed are they that have not seen, and yet have believed" (John 20:29). He was one of the disciples to whom Jesus manifested Himself during the fishing expedition at the Sea of Tiberias (John 21:1-11).

2. In Apocryphal Literature:

According to the "Genealogies of the Twelve Apostles" (compare Budge, The Contendings of the Apostles, II, 50), Thomas was of the house of Asher. The oldest accounts are to the effect that he died a natural death of (compare Clement of Alexandria iv.9, 71). Two fields are mentioned by apocryphal literature as the scene of Thomas' missionary labors.

(1) According to origen, he preached in Parthia, the according to a Syrian legend he died at Edessa. The Agbar legend also indicates the connection of Thomas with Edessa. But Eusebius indicates it was Thaddaeus and not Thomas who preached there (see THADDAEUS).

(2) Along with these are other sources identifying Thomas with India. Thus, "The Acts of Thomas" (see APOCRYPHAL ACTS, sec. B, V), a Gnostic work dating from the 2nd century, tells how when the world was partitioned out as a mission field among the disciples, India fell to "Judas Thomas, also called Didymus," and narrates his adventures on the way, his trials, missionary success, and death at the hands of Misdai, king of India (compare Budge, II, 404;; Hennecke, Neutestamentliche Apokryphen, 473-544; Pick, The Apocryphal Acts, 224;). The "Preaching of Thomas" (compare Budge, II, 319) relates still more fantastic adventures of Thomas in India, and the "Martyrdom of Thomas in India" states that on his departure toward Macedonia he was put to death as a sorcerer.

Of the two, the former is the more probable. An attempt at reconciliation has been made by supposing that the relics of Thomas were transported from India to Edessa, but this is based on inaccurate historical information (compare Hennecke, op. cit., 474). The additional names "Judas" and "Didymus" have causd further confusion in apocryphal literature in regard to Thomas, and have led to his identification with Judas of James, and hence, with Thaddaeus (see THADDAEUS), and also with Judas the brother of Jesus (compare Matthew 13:55). Thus in the "Acts of Thomas" he is twice called the "twin brother of the Messiah." Another legend makes Lysia the twin sister of Thomas. A Gnostic "Gospel of Thomas" (see APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS, III, 2, (a)) was known to Irenaeus (compare Irenaeus, Adv. Haer., 1, 20).

3. Character:

Although little is recorded of Thomas in the Gospels, he is yet one of the most fascinating of the apostles. He is typical of that nature-a nature by no means rare-which contains within it certain conflicting elements exceedingly difficult of reconciliation. Possessed of little natural buoyancy of spirit, and inclined to look upon life with the eyes of gloom or despondency, Thomas was yet a man of indomitable courage and entire unselfishness. Thus with a perplexed faith in the teaching of Jesus was mingled a sincere love for Jesus the teacher. In the incident of Christ's departure for Bethany, his devotion to his Master proved stronger than his fear of death. Thus far, in a situation demanding immediate action, the faith of Thomas triumphed; but when it came into conflict with his standards of belief it was put to a harder test. For Thomas desired to test all truth by the evidence of his senses, and in this, coupled with a mind tenacious both of its beliefs and disbeliefs, lay the real source of his religious difficulties. It was his sincerity which made him to stand aloof from the rest of the disciples till he had attained to personal conviction regarding the resurrection; but his sincerity also drew from him the testimony to that conviction, "My Lord and my God," the greatest and fullest in all Christianity.

C. M. Kerr

THOMAS, GOSPEL OF

See APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS, III, 2, (a).

Greek
2381. Thomas -- "the twin," Thomas, one of the twelve apostles
... 2380, 2381. Thomas. 2382 . "the twin," Thomas, one of the twelve apostles.
Part of Speech: Noun, Masculine Transliteration: Thomas ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/2381.htm - 6k

1324. Didumos -- Didymus.
... Part of Speech: Noun, Masculine Transliteration: Didumos Phonetic Spelling:
(did'-oo-mos) Short Definition: the Twin, Didymus, Thomas Definition: the Twin ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/1324.htm - 6k

4102. pistis -- faith, faithfulness
... "Faith always pre-supposes revelation" (WH Griffith Thomas, 55). "Faith is always
a response to a divine revelation" (WH Griffith Thomas, 143). "Faith . . . ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/4102.htm - 18k

Library

The Gospel of Thomas
The Gospel of Thomas. <. The Gospel of Thomas Unknown. Alexander Walker, Esq.
(Translator) Table of Contents. Title Page. First Greek Form. ...
//christianbookshelf.org/unknown/the gospel of thomas/

Thomas and Jesus
... THOMAS AND JESUS. 'And after eight days, again His disciples were within,
and Thomas with them. Then came Jesus.'"John 20:26. There ...
/.../expositions of holy scripture st john chaps xv to xxi/thomas and jesus.htm

Thomas of Celano
... Thomas of Celano. Thomas of Celano is so called from Celano, a town on the borders
of Lake Fucino, Italy. He was born the latter part of the twelfth century. ...
//christianbookshelf.org/nutter/hymn writers of the church/thomas of celano.htm

Thomas Chubb.
... COLLECTION OF TESTIMONIES OF UNBELIEVERS. THOMAS CHUBB. An English Deist (1679-1748).
From the "True Gospel of Jesus Christ," sect. viii. pp.55, 56. ...
//christianbookshelf.org/schaff/the person of christ/thomas chubb.htm

Thomas' Test.
... XXIII. THOMAS' TEST. "When therefore ... retained. But Thomas, one of the twelve,
called Didymus, was not with them when Jesus came. The ...
/.../dods/the expositors bible the gospel of st john vol ii/xxiii thomas test.htm

St. Thomas
... II. THE CHRISTIAN YEAR St. Thomas. [1009]269 O Thou who didst, with love untold
[1010]270 We walk by faith, and not by sight See also [1011]No.555, Pt.4-8. ...
/.../various/the hymnal of the protestant episcopal church in the usa/st thomas.htm

Jesus and Thomas.
... CHAPTER VIII. JESUS AND THOMAS. I ... PRINCIPAL SHAIRP. There is no record of
the beginning of the friendship of Jesus and Thomas. We ...
/.../miller/personal friendships of jesus/chapter viii jesus and thomas.htm

Brief Memoir of Thomas Watson
... Brief Memoir Of Thomas Watson. Compiled by CH Spurgeon Thomas Watson's
Body of Practical Divinity is one of the most precious of ...
/.../watson/a body of divinity/brief memoir of thomas watson.htm

S. Thomas's Sunday.
... S. THOMAS'S SUNDAY. The four following Odes are the first four of our Saint's Canon
for S. Thomas's Sunday, called also Renewal Sunday: with us Low Sunday. ...
//christianbookshelf.org/neale/hymns of the eastern church/s thomass sunday.htm

Letter Xl to Thomas, Prior of Beverley
... LETTER XL To Thomas, Prior of Beverley. To Thomas, Prior of Beverley This Thomas
had taken the vows of the Cistercian Order at Clairvaux. ...
/.../some letters of saint bernard abbot of clairvaux/letter xl to thomas prior.htm

Thesaurus
Thomas (12 Occurrences)
... Mark 3:18), and that these two are always followed by James, who was also the son
of Alphaeus, it has been supposed that these three, Matthew, Thomas, and James ...
/t/thomas.htm - 17k

Thaddaeus (2 Occurrences)
... Abgar, king of Syria, and Christ, states in its Syriac form, as translated by Eusebius
(Historia Ecclesiastica, I, xiii, 6-22) (compare THOMAS), that "after ...
/t/thaddaeus.htm - 11k

Didymus (3 Occurrences)
... (Gr. twin = Hebrews Thomas, qv), John 11:16; 20:24; 21:2. Int. ... DIDYMUS.
did'-i-mus (Didumos, ie "twin"): The surname of thOMAS (which see). ...
/d/didymus.htm - 7k

Alpheus (5 Occurrences)
... Matthew 10:3 Philip, and Bartholomew; Thomas, and Matthew the publican; James the
son of Alpheus, and Lebbeus, whose surname was Thaddeus; (WBS YLT). ...
/a/alpheus.htm - 7k

Alphaeus (5 Occurrences)
... Matthew 10:3 Philip; Bartholomew; Thomas; Matthew the tax collector; James the son
of Alphaeus; Lebbaeus, whose surname was Thaddaeus; (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY ...
/a/alphaeus.htm - 12k

Twin (9 Occurrences)
... Twin (9 Occurrences). John 11:16 "Let us go also," Thomas, the Twin, said to
his fellow disciples, "that we may die with him." (WEY RSV). ...
/t/twin.htm - 10k

Bartholomew (4 Occurrences)
... Matthew 10:3 Philip; Bartholomew; Thomas; Matthew the tax collector; James the son
of Alphaeus; Lebbaeus, whose surname was Thaddaeus; (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY ...
/b/bartholomew.htm - 10k

Zealot (4 Occurrences)
... (BBE NAS NIV). Mark 3:18 Andrew; Philip; Bartholomew; Matthew; Thomas; James, the
son of Alphaeus; Thaddaeus; Simon the Zealot; (WEB BBE NAS NIV). ...
/z/zealot.htm - 12k

Named (428 Occurrences)
... NAS RSV NIV). Luke 6:15 And Matthew and Thomas and James, the son of Alphaeus,
and Simon, who was named the Zealot, (BBE). Luke 7:11 ...
/n/named.htm - 33k

Logia
... and Thomas." In whatever way the gap is supplied-whether by "Philip," or "Judas"
or "the other disciples"-one of the Twelve known as Thomas is clearly referred ...
/l/logia.htm - 19k

Concordance
Thomas (12 Occurrences)

Matthew 10:3
Philip; Bartholomew; Thomas; Matthew the tax collector; James the son of Alphaeus; Lebbaeus, whose surname was Thaddaeus;
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Mark 3:18
Andrew; Philip; Bartholomew; Matthew; Thomas; James, the son of Alphaeus; Thaddaeus; Simon the Zealot;
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Luke 6:15
Matthew; Thomas; James, the son of Alphaeus; Simon, who was called the Zealot;
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

John 11:16
Thomas therefore, who is called Didymus, said to his fellow disciples, "Let's go also, that we may die with him."
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

John 14:5
Thomas said to him, "Lord, we don't know where you are going. How can we know the way?"
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

John 20:24
But Thomas, one of the twelve, called Didymus, wasn't with them when Jesus came.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

John 20:26
After eight days again his disciples were inside, and Thomas was with them. Jesus came, the doors being locked, and stood in the midst, and said, "Peace be to you."
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

John 20:27
Then he said to Thomas, "Reach here your finger, and see my hands. Reach here your hand, and put it into my side. Don't be unbelieving, but believing."
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

John 20:28
Thomas answered him, "My Lord and my God!"
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

John 20:29
Jesus saith unto him, Thomas, because thou hast seen me, thou hast believed: blessed are they that have not seen, and yet have believed.
(KJV WBS YLT)

John 21:2
Simon Peter, Thomas called Didymus, Nathanael of Cana in Galilee, and the sons of Zebedee, and two others of his disciples were together.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Acts 1:13
When they had come in, they went up into the upper room, where they were staying; that is Peter, John, James, Andrew, Philip, Thomas, Bartholomew, Matthew, James the son of Alphaeus, Simon the Zealot, and Judas the son of James.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Subtopics

Skepticism of Thomas

Thomas

Thomas: Absent when Jesus First Appeared to the Disciples After the Resurrection

Thomas: Asks Jesus the Way to the Father's House

Thomas: Lives With the Other Apostles in Jerusalem

Thomas: Loyalty of, to Jesus

Thomas: One of the Twelve Apostles

Thomas: Present at the Raising of Lazarus

Thomas: Sees Jesus After the Resurrection

Thomas: Skepticism of

Related Terms

Thaddaeus (2 Occurrences)

Didymus (3 Occurrences)

Alpheus (5 Occurrences)

Alphaeus (5 Occurrences)

Twin (9 Occurrences)

Bartholomew (4 Occurrences)

Zealot (4 Occurrences)

Named (428 Occurrences)

Logia

Zelotes (2 Occurrences)

Faithless (46 Occurrences)

Thaddeus (2 Occurrences)

Resurrection (42 Occurrences)

Surnamed (15 Occurrences)

General (9 Occurrences)

Andrew (12 Occurrences)

Commentaries

Philip (37 Occurrences)

Matthew (5 Occurrences)

Gospels

Apocrypha

Zabdi (17 Occurrences)

Zacchaeus (3 Occurrences)

Zebedee (11 Occurrences)

Zeb'edee (11 Occurrences)

Nathan'a-el (6 Occurrences)

Unbelieving (22 Occurrences)

Uphaz (2 Occurrences)

Upstairs (8 Occurrences)

Upper (99 Occurrences)

Let's (74 Occurrences)

Lebbeus (1 Occurrence)

Later (89 Occurrences)

Locked (19 Occurrences)

Lebbaeus (1 Occurrence)

Goest (79 Occurrences)

Week (18 Occurrences)

Whither (151 Occurrences)

Wasn't (35 Occurrences)

Feel (58 Occurrences)

Fixed (284 Occurrences)

Fellow-disciples (1 Occurrence)

Fellowdisciples (1 Occurrence)

Tadmor (2 Occurrences)

Tax-gatherer (7 Occurrences)

Thrust (92 Occurrences)

Thocanus

Tax-farmer (7 Occurrences)

Thomei

Reach (63 Occurrences)

Endirons

Eight (81 Occurrences)

Epicureans (1 Occurrence)

Doors (149 Occurrences)

Disbelieve (4 Occurrences)

Doubting (13 Occurrences)

Dumah (4 Occurrences)

Meeting (323 Occurrences)

Master's (52 Occurrences)

Publican (7 Occurrences)

Collector (8 Occurrences)

Coincidence (1 Occurrence)

Cananaean (2 Occurrences)

Creeds

Cananite (2 Occurrences)

Anathema (6 Occurrences)

Ancient (64 Occurrences)

Abagarus

Abiding (40 Occurrences)

Abyss (11 Occurrences)

Amminadab (14 Occurrences)

Abode (112 Occurrences)

Accursed (26 Occurrences)

Abgarus

Abgar

Addition (112 Occurrences)

Ancients (17 Occurrences)

Adversary (100 Occurrences)

Air (74 Occurrences)

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