Esarhaddon
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Smith's Bible Dictionary
Esarhaddon

(victor), one of the greatest of the kings of Assyria, was the son of Sennacherib, (2 Kings 19:37) and the grandson of Sargon, who succeeded Shalmaneser. He appears by his monuments to have been one of the most powerful, if not the most powerful, of all the Assyrian monarchs. He is the only one of them whom we find to have actually reigned at Babylon, where he built himself a palace, bricks from which have been recently recovered bearing his name. His Babylonian reign lasted thirteen years, from B.C. 680 to B.C. 667; and it was doubtless within this space of time that Manasseh king of Judah, having been seized by his captains at Jerusalem on a charge of rebellion, was brought before him at Babylon, (2 Chronicles 33:11) and detained for a time as prisoner there. As a builder of great works Esar-haddon is particularly distinguished. Besides his palace at Babylon, he built at least three others in different parts of his dominions, either for himself or his sons, and thirty temples.

Easton's Bible Dictionary
Assur has given a brother, successor of Sennacherib (2 Kings 19:37; Isaiah 37:38). He ascended the throne about B.C. 681. Nothing further is recorded of him in Scripture, except that he settled certain colonists in Samaria (Ezra 4:2). But from the monuments it appears that he was the most powerful of all the Assyrian monarchs. He built many temples and palaces, the most magnificent of which was the south-west palace at Nimrud, which is said to have been in its general design almost the same as Solomon's palace, only much larger (1 Kings 7:1-12).

In December B.C. 681 Sennacherib was murdered by two of his sons, who, after holding Nineveh for forty-two days, were compelled to fly to Erimenas of Ararat, or Armenia. Their brother Esarhaddon, who had been engaged in a campaign against Armenia, led his army against them. They were utterly overthrown in a battle fought April B.C. 680, near Malatiyeh, and in the following month Esarhaddon was crowned at Nineveh. He restored Babylon, conquered Egypt, and received tribute from Manasseh of Judah. He died in October B.C. 668, while on the march to suppress an Egyptian revolt, and was succeeded by his son Assur-bani-pal, whose younger brother was made viceroy of Babylonia.

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
ESARHADDON

e-sar-had'-on ('ecar-chaddon; Assyrian Asur-ach-iddina, "Ashur hath given a brother"):

During his lifetime, Sennacherib, king of Assyria, made his favorite son, Esarhaddon (680-668 B.C.), the viceroy of Babylon; and although he was not the eldest son, he decreed that he should become the legal heir to the throne of Assyria. Sennacherib, having been slain in 681, apparently by two of his sons, who are called in the Old Testament Adrammelech and Sharezer (2 Kings 19:37), Esarhaddon proceeded to Nineveh, where the rebellion which followed the death of his father collapsed, having existed for about a month and a half. The Old Testament informs us that the murderers of his father fled to Armenia. This is corroborated by the inscriptions which say that at Melid, in the land of Hanirabbat, which can be said to be in Armenia, Esarhaddon fought the rebels and defeated them; whereupon he was proclaimed king. His father had been so displeased with Babylon that he had attempted to annihilate the city by making it a swamp. Esarhaddon, however, having been infatuated with the ancient culture of the Babylonians, adopted a conciliatory attitude toward the people. Immediately he planned to restore the city on magnificent proportions. The foundations of his work were laid with impressive ceremonies, and in every way he endeavored to ameliorate the inhabitants by his gracious deeds. Even at Nippur evidences of his work in restoring the ancient shrine of Ellil are seen. The kings of the West who became his vassals, among them being Manasseh of Judah, were required to furnish building materials for his operations in Babylonia. His work in that land explains why the Judean king was incarcerated at Babylon (2 Chronicles 33:11) instead of Assyria.

Esarhaddon was first compelled to defend the kingdom against the inroads of the hordes from the North. The Gimirra (perhaps referring to Gomer of the Old Testament), who were called Manda, seemed to pour into the land. A decisive victory was finally gained over them, and they were driven back into their own country. Afterward, the Medes and the Chaldeans were also subjugated. He then directed his attentions toward the West. Sidon having revolted against Assyria, Esarhaddon laid siege to the city, which after three years was finally captured and destroyed. He built another city upon the same site, which he called Kar-Esarhaddon, and endeavored to revive its commerce. And, as is mentioned in Ezra 4:2; compare 10, he repopulated the city (Samaria) with captives from Elam and Babylonia.

The capture of Tyre was also attempted, but, the city being differently situated, a siege from the land was insufficient to bring about submission, as it was impossible to cut off the commerce by sea. The siege, after several years, seems to have been lifted. Although on a great monolith Esarhaddon depicts Ba`al, the king of Tyre, kneeling before him with a ring through his lips, there is nothing in the inscriptions to bear this out.

His work in Canaan was preparatory to his conquest of Egypt. Tirhakah, the Ethiopian king of Egypt, was attacked on the borders, but no victory was gained. Several years later he crossed the borders and gained a decisive victory at Iskhupri. He then proceeded to lay siege to Memphis, which soon capitulated; and Egypt, to the confines of Nubia, surrendered to Assyria. Esarhaddon reorganized the government, and even changed the names of the cities. Necoh was placed over the 22 princes of the land. In 668, Egypt revolted and Esarhaddon, while on his way to put down the revolt, died. He had arranged that the kingdom be divided between two of his sons: Ashurbanipal was to be king of Assyria, and Shamash-shum-ukin was to reign over Babylonia. The nobles decreed, however, that the empire should not be divided, but Shamash-shum-ukin was made viceroy of Babylonia.

A. T. Clay

Strong's Hebrew
634. Esarchaddon -- "Ashur has given a brother," an Assyrian king
... "Ashur has given a brother," an Assyrian king. Transliteration: Esarchaddon Phonetic
Spelling: (ay-sar' Chad-dohn') Short Definition: Esarhaddon. ...
/hebrew/634.htm - 6k
Library

The Power of Assyria at Its Zenith; Esarhaddon and Assur-Bani-Pal
... CHAPTER II"THE POWER OF ASSYRIA AT ITS ZENITH; ESARHADDON AND ASSUR-BANI-PAL. THE
MEDES AND CIMMERIANS: LYDIA"THE CONQUEST OF EGYPT, OP ARABIA, AND OF ELAM. ...
/.../chapter iithe power of assyria.htm

The Power of Assyria at Its Zenith; Esarhaddon and Assur-Bani-Pal
... CHAPTER II"THE POWER OF ASSYRIA AT ITS ZENITH; ESARHADDON AND ASSUR-BANI-PAL. The
Medes and Cimmerians: Lydia"The conquest of Egypt, of Arabia, and of Elam. ...
/.../chapter iithe power of assyria 2.htm

Nineveh.
... Sennacherib was murdered in the year 720 by two of his sons, while worshipping
his god Nisroch; and another son, Esarhaddon, became king. ...
//christianbookshelf.org/yonge/the chosen people/lesson ix nineveh.htm

Questions.
... Who was the King of Nineveh after Sennacherib? A. Esarhaddon, also called Sardocheus,
and Asnapper. 23. ... 24. How did Esarhaddon fill the empty land of Samaria? ...
//christianbookshelf.org/yonge/the chosen people/questions.htm

History Of Egypt, Chaldaea, Syria, Babylonia, and Assyria, V 8
... CHAPTER II--THE POWER OF ASSYRIA AT ITS ZENITH; ESARHADDON AND ASSUR-BANI-PAL. CHAPTER
II--THE POWER OF ASSYRIA AT ITS ZENITH; ESARHADDON AND ASSUR-BANI-PAL. ...
/.../maspero/history of egypt chaldaea syria babylonia and assyria v 8/

The Christian View of the Old Testament
... Devotional literature, 17 f., 242 f. Divine element, 26 ff. Doctrinal value, 257
f. Ecclesiastes, 250 f. Elephantine, 141. Eponym lists, 153. Esarhaddon, 140. ...
/.../eiselen/the christian view of the old testament/index 2.htm

The Rebuilding of the Temple.
... The men of Samaria, children of those whom Esarhaddon had planted there, came, saying
that they worshipped the God of the Jews, and wished to be one with them ...
/.../yonge/the chosen people/lesson xiii the rebuilding of.htm

"The Prophets of God Helping Them"
... "Let us build with you," they proposed; "for we seek your God, as ye do; and we
do sacrifice unto Him since the days of Esarhaddon king of Assur, which brought ...
/.../white/the story of prophets and kings/chapter 46 the prophets of.htm

'He Uttered his Voice, the Earth Melted'
... house of Nisroch his god, that Adrammelech and Sharezer his sons smote him with
the sword; and they escaped into the land of Armenia: and Esarhaddon his son ...
/.../maclaren/expositions of holy scripture g/he uttered his voice the.htm

The Triumph of Faith
... house of Nisroch his god, that Adrammelech and Sharezer his sons smote him with
the sword; and they escaped into the land of Armenia: and Esarhaddon his you ...
/.../maclaren/expositions of holy scripture h/the triumph of faith.htm

Thesaurus
Esarhaddon (3 Occurrences)
... Their brother Esarhaddon, who had been engaged in a campaign against Armenia, led
his army against them. ... Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia. ESARHADDON. ...
/e/esarhaddon.htm - 13k

Ashurbanipal (1 Occurrence)
... a-shoor-ba'-ne-pal (Ashur-bani-apal, "Ashur creates a son"): Before setting out
on his last campaign to Egypt, Esarhaddon king of Assyria doubtless having had ...
/a/ashurbanipal.htm - 12k

Chaldeans (82 Occurrences)
... 7. Merodach-baladan's Son: In the reign of Esarhaddon, Nabu-zer-napistilisir, one
of the sons of Merodach-baladan, gathered an army at Larsa, but was defeated ...
/c/chaldeans.htm - 48k

Chaldea (8 Occurrences)
... 7. Merodach-baladan's Son: In the reign of Esarhaddon, Nabu-zer-napistilisir, one
of the sons of Merodach-baladan, gathered an army at Larsa, but was defeated ...
/c/chaldea.htm - 25k

Babylon (270 Occurrences)
... It was rebuilt by Esarhaddon, who made it his residence during part of the year,
and it was to Babylon that Manasseh was brought a prisoner (2 Chronicles 33:11 ...
/b/babylon.htm - 93k

Adram'melech (3 Occurrences)
... And Esarhaddon his son reigned in his stead. (See RSV). ... And Esarhaddon his son reigned
in his stead. (See RSV). Adrammelech, Adram'melech. Adramyttian . ...
/a/adram'melech.htm - 7k

Manasseh (140 Occurrences)
...Esarhaddon, Sennacherib's successor on the Assyrian throne, who had his residence
in Babylon for thirteen years (the only Assyrian monarch who ever reigned in ...
/m/manasseh.htm - 68k

Calah (2 Occurrences)
... In the Southeast corner are the remains of the palace of Esarhaddon, built, at least
in part, with material taken from the palace of Tiglath-pileser IV, which ...
/c/calah.htm - 14k

Armenia (2 Occurrences)
... land of Armenia. And Esarhaddon his son reigned in his stead. (KJV WBS).
Isaiah 37:38 And it came to pass, as he was worshipping ...
/a/armenia.htm - 21k

Nineveh (23 Occurrences)
... Sargon has taken what remained to the Hittites; Sennacherib overcame Chaldea, and
the treasures of Babylon were transferred to his coffers; Esarhaddon and Assur ...
/n/nineveh.htm - 52k

Concordance
Esarhaddon (3 Occurrences)

2 Kings 19:37
And it came to pass, as he was worshipping in the house of Nisroch his god, that Adrammelech and Sharezer his sons smote him with the sword: and they escaped into the land of Armenia. And Esarhaddon his son reigned in his stead.
(KJV JPS DBY NAS NIV)

Ezra 4:2
Then they came to Zerubbabel, and to the chief of the fathers, and said unto them, Let us build with you: for we seek your God, as ye do; and we do sacrifice unto him since the days of Esarhaddon king of Assur, which brought us up hither.
(KJV JPS NAS NIV)

Isaiah 37:38
And it came to pass, as he was worshipping in the house of Nisroch his god, that Adrammelech and Sharezer his sons smote him with the sword; and they escaped into the land of Armenia: and Esarhaddon his son reigned in his stead.
(KJV JPS DBY NAS NIV)

Subtopics

Esarhaddon

Related Terms

Ashurbanipal (1 Occurrence)

Chaldeans (82 Occurrences)

Chaldea (8 Occurrences)

Babylon (270 Occurrences)

Adram'melech (3 Occurrences)

Manasseh (140 Occurrences)

Calah (2 Occurrences)

Armenia (2 Occurrences)

Nineveh (23 Occurrences)

Zerub'babel (23 Occurrences)

Tirhakah (2 Occurrences)

Telassar (2 Occurrences)

Esarhad'don (1 Occurrence)

Esar-haddon (3 Occurrences)

Esar (3 Occurrences)

Pharaohnecoh

Pharaoh-necoh (3 Occurrences)

Potter (14 Occurrences)

Pottery (11 Occurrences)

Buzi (1 Occurrence)

Buz (3 Occurrences)

Buzite (2 Occurrences)

Asbasareth

Achiacharus

Ammonites (97 Occurrences)

Apharsachites (2 Occurrences)

Apharsathchites (1 Occurrence)

Ammon (100 Occurrences)

Sennacherib (13 Occurrences)

Samaritans (9 Occurrences)

Share'zer (3 Occurrences)

Kittim (8 Occurrences)

Captivity (141 Occurrences)

Philistines (224 Occurrences)

Cyprus (12 Occurrences)

Assur (2 Occurrences)

Moabites (26 Occurrences)

Assyria (124 Occurrences)

Abraham (2539 Occurrences)

Stead (117 Occurrences)

Moab (162 Occurrences)

Patriarchs (6 Occurrences)

Antediluvian

Hither (84 Occurrences)

Hamath (36 Occurrences)

Elamites (2 Occurrences)

Elam (24 Occurrences)

Babylonia (17 Occurrences)

Chronology

Old (3966 Occurrences)

Testament (13 Occurrences)

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