Ezekiel 1:22
New International Version
Spread out above the heads of the living creatures was what looked something like a vault, sparkling like crystal, and awesome.

New Living Translation
Spread out above them was a surface like the sky, glittering like crystal.

English Standard Version
Over the heads of the living creatures there was the likeness of an expanse, shining like awe-inspiring crystal, spread out above their heads.

Berean Study Bible
Spread out above the heads of the living creatures was the shape on an awesome expanse, gleaming like crystal.

New American Standard Bible
Now over the heads of the living beings there was something like an expanse, like the awesome gleam of crystal, spread out over their heads.

King James Bible
And the likeness of the firmament upon the heads of the living creature was as the colour of the terrible crystal, stretched forth over their heads above.

Christian Standard Bible
Over the heads of the living creatures the likeness of an expanse was spread out. It gleamed like awe-inspiring crystal,

Good News Translation
Above the heads of the creatures there was something that looked like a dome made of dazzling crystal.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
The shape of an expanse, with a gleam like awe-inspiring crystal, was spread out over the heads of the living creatures.

International Standard Version
There was spread out over the heads of the living beings what looked like a canopy, in outward appearance resembling ice,

NET Bible
Over the heads of the living beings was something like a platform, glittering awesomely like ice, stretched out over their heads.

New Heart English Bible
And over the heads of the living creatures there was the likeness of an expanse, like glittering ice, it was awesome to look upon, stretched out over their heads above.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
Something like a dome was spread over the heads of the living creatures. It looked like dazzling crystal.

JPS Tanakh 1917
And over the heads of the living creatures there was the likeness of a firmament, like the colour of the terrible ice, stretched forth over their heads above.

New American Standard 1977
Now over the heads of the living beings there was something like an expanse, like the awesome gleam of crystal, extended over their heads.

Jubilee Bible 2000
And over the heads of each living creature there appeared a heaven like a marvellous crystal, stretched forth over their heads above.

King James 2000 Bible
And the likeness of the firmament above the heads of the living creature was as the color of awesome crystal, stretched forth over their heads above.

American King James Version
And the likeness of the firmament on the heads of the living creature was as the color of the terrible crystal, stretched forth over their heads above.

American Standard Version
And over the head of the living creature there was the likeness of a firmament, like the terrible crystal to look upon, stretched forth over their heads above.

Brenton Septuagint Translation
And the likeness over the heads of the living creatures was as a firmament, as the appearance of crystal, spread out over their wings above.

Douay-Rheims Bible
And over the heads of the living creatures was the likeness of the firmament, as the appearance of crystal terrible to behold, and stretched out over their heads above.

Darby Bible Translation
And there was the likeness of an expanse over the heads of the living creature, as the look of the terrible crystal, stretched forth over their heads above.

English Revised Version
And over the head of the living creature there was the likeness of a firmament, like the colour of the terrible crystal, stretched forth over their heads above.

Webster's Bible Translation
And the likeness of the firmament upon the heads of the living creature was as the color of the terrible crystal, stretched forth over their heads above.

World English Bible
Over the head of the living creature there was the likeness of an expanse, like the awesome crystal to look on, stretched forth over their heads above.

Young's Literal Translation
And a likeness is over the heads of the living creatures of an expanse, as the colour of the fearful ice, stretched out over their heads from above.
Study Bible
The Divine Glory
22Spread out above the heads of the living creatures was the shape on an awesome expanse, gleaming like crystal. 23And under the expanse, their wings stretched out toward one another. Each one also had two wings covering its body.…
Cross References
Revelation 4:6
And before the throne was something like a sea of glass, as clear as crystal. In the center, around the throne, were four living creatures, covered with eyes in front and back.

Ezekiel 1:25
And as they stood still with their wings lowered, a voice came from above the expanse that was over their heads.

Ezekiel 1:26
Above the expanse over their heads was the likeness of a throne with the appearance of sapphire, and on the throne high above was a figure like that of a man.

Ezekiel 10:1
And I looked and saw above the expanse, above the heads of the cherubim, the likeness of a throne of sapphire.

Ezekiel 10:20
These were the living creatures I had seen beneath the God of Israel by the River Kebar, and I knew that they were cherubim.

Treasury of Scripture

And the likeness of the firmament on the heads of the living creature was as the color of the terrible crystal, stretched forth over their heads above.

the likeness

Ezekiel 1:26
And above the firmament that was over their heads was the likeness of a throne, as the appearance of a sapphire stone: and upon the likeness of the throne was the likeness as the appearance of a man above upon it.

Ezekiel 10:1
Then I looked, and, behold, in the firmament that was above the head of the cherubims there appeared over them as it were a sapphire stone, as the appearance of the likeness of a throne.

Exodus 24:10
And they saw the God of Israel: and there was under his feet as it were a paved work of a sapphire stone, and as it were the body of heaven in his clearness.

crystal







Lexicon
Spread out
נָט֥וּי (nā·ṭui)
Verb - Qal - QalPassParticiple - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 5186: To stretch out, spread out, extend, incline, bend

above
עַל־ (‘al-)
Preposition
Strong's Hebrew 5921: Above, over, upon, against

the heads
רָאשֵׁ֤י (rā·šê)
Noun - masculine plural construct
Strong's Hebrew 7218: The head

of the living creatures
הַחַיָּה֙ (ha·ḥay·yāh)
Article | Noun - feminine singular
Strong's Hebrew 2416: Alive, raw, fresh, strong, life

[was] the shape
וּדְמ֞וּת (ū·ḏə·mūṯ)
Conjunctive waw | Noun - feminine singular
Strong's Hebrew 1823: Resemblance, model, shape, like

on an awesome
הַנּוֹרָ֑א (han·nō·w·rā)
Article | Verb - Nifal - Participle - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 3372: To fear, to revere, caus, to frighten

expanse,
רָקִ֔יעַ (rā·qî·a‘)
Noun - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 7549: An expanse, the firmament, visible arch of the sky

gleaming
כְּעֵ֖ין (kə·‘ên)
Preposition-k | Noun - common singular construct
Strong's Hebrew 5869: An eye, a fountain

like crystal.
הַקֶּ֣רַח (haq·qe·raḥ)
Article | Noun - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 7140: Ice, hail, rock crystal
(22) The likeness of the firmament.--The word rendered "firmament" has undoubtedly originated, etymologically, from a verb originally signifying to beat out, as in the case of metals; but the derivative word, in its use in connection with the heavens, had wholly lost this reference, and had come to mean simply an expanse. The Hebrews do not appear to have ever entertained the classical idea of the sky as a metallic vault, the only passage seeming to indicate such a notion (Job 37:18) being capable of quite a different explanation. We are here to conceive, therefore, of that which was "stretched forth over their heads above" as a simple expanse, like the sky, as if he had said, "And above their heads was stretched forth the sky." This expanse is not represented as supported by the cherubim, or resting upon them, and it remained undisturbed when they let down their wings (Ezekiel 1:25). It was simply "stretched forth over their heads," at once separating them from, and yet uniting them with, the throne above. It fulfils, therefore, the complementary part to the wheels. They connected the vision with the earth; this connects it with God.

The colour of the terrible crystal--The expression "crystal" is doubtless derived from Exodus 24:10, as in turn it became the foundation for Revelation 4:6. Yet it is not here any particular crystal; the word is Merely used to convey some idea of the appearance of the expanse beneath the throne, clear as crystal, terrible in its dazzling brightness.

Verse 22. - And the likeness of the firmament, etc. The word is the same as that in Genesis 1, passim; Psalm 19:1; cf. 1; Daniel 12:3. It meets us again in vers. 23, 25, 26, and in 10:1, but does not occur elsewhere in the Old Testament. What met the prophet's eye was the expanse, the "body of heaven in its clearness" (Exodus 24:10), the deep intense blue of an Eastern sky. Like the colour of the terrible crystal, etc. The Hebrew noun is not found elsewhere. Its primary meaning, like that of the Greek κρύσταλλος, is that of "cold," and I incline therefore to the margin of the Revised Version, "ice." Rock crystal, seen, as it is, in small masses, and in its pure colourless transparency, hardly suggests the idea of terror; but the intense brightness of masses of ice, as shining in the morning sun, might well make that impression. Had Ezekiel seen the glories of a mountain throne of ice as he looked up, on his nay from Palestine to Chaldea, at the heights of Lebanon, or Hermon, and thought of them as the fitting symbol of the throne of God? We note, in this connection, the use of "terrible" in Job 37:22 (see note on ver. 4). 1:15-25 Providence, represented by the wheels, produces changes. Sometimes one spoke of the wheel is uppermost, sometimes another; but the motion of the wheel on its own axletree is regular and steady. We need not despond in adversity; the wheels are turning round and will raise us in due time, while those who presume in prosperity know not how soon they may be cast down. The wheel is near the living creatures; the angels are employed as ministers of God's providence. The spirit of the living creatures was in the wheels; the same wisdom, power, and holiness of God, that guide and govern the angels, by them order all events in this lower world. The wheel had four faces, denoting that the providence of God exerts itself in all parts. Look every way upon the wheel of providence, it has a face toward you. Their appearance and work were as a wheel in the middle of a wheel. The disposals of Providence seem to us dark, perplexed, and unaccountable, yet are all wisely ordered for the best. The motion of these wheels was steady, regular, and constant. They went as the Spirit directed, therefore returned not. We should not have to undo that by repentance which we have done amiss, if we followed the guidance of the Spirit. The rings, or rims of the wheels were so vast, that when put in motion the prophet was afraid to look upon them. The consideration of the height and depth of God's counsel should awe us. They were full of eyes round about. The motions of Providence are all directed by infinite Wisdom. All events are determined by the eyes of the Lord, which are in every place beholding the evil and the good; for there is no such thing as chance or fortune. The firmament above was a crystal, glorious, but terribly so. That which we take to be a dark cloud, is to God clear as crystal, through which he looks upon all the inhabitants of the earth. When the angels had roused a careless world, they let down their wings, that God's voice might be plainly heard. The voice of Providence is to open men's ears to the voice of the word. Sounds on earth should awaken our attention to the voice from heaven; for how shall we escape, if we turn away from Him that speaks from thence.
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OT Prophets: Ezekiel 1:22 Over the head of the living creature (Ezek. Eze Ezk) Christian Bible Study Resources, Dictionary, Concordance and Search Tools
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