Romans 12:9
Let love be without dissimulation. Abhor that which is evil; cleave to that which is good.
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(9-21) Now follow to the end of the chapter a number of general exhortations, not addressed to particular persons or classes, but to the Church at large.

(9) Without dissimulation.—The same Greek word is translated “unfeigned” in 2Corinthians 6:6; 1Timothy 1:5; 2Timothy 1:5, and “without hypocrisy” in James 3:17. This last is the most literal rendering, and brings out the resemblance to Matthew 23:13, et al.

Abhor that which is evil.—This clause seems linked on to the last through the word “without hypocrisy”: “Let your love arise from genuine and deep emotion; let the basis of your character be an intense hatred of evil and as strong an adhesion to good.” The Apostle does not here enter into the more difficult question as to how those in whom these emotions are naturally weak are to strengthen them. Perhaps no shorter advice is to be given than “become Christians.”



Romans 12:9 - Romans 12:10

Thus far the Apostle has been laying down very general precepts and principles of Christian morals. Starting with the one all-comprehensive thought of self-sacrifice as the very foundation of all goodness, of transformation as its method, and of the clear knowledge of our several powers and faithful stewardship of these, as its conditions, he here proceeds to a series of more specific exhortations, which at first sight seem to be very unconnected, but through which there may be discerned a sequence of thought.

The clauses of our text seem at first sight strangely disconnected. The first and the last belong to the same subject, but the intervening clause strikes a careless reader as out of place and heterogeneous. I think that we shall see it is not so; but for the present we but note that here are three sets of precepts which enjoin, first, honest love; then, next, a healthy vehemence against evil and for good; and finally, a brotherly affection and mutual respect.

I. Let love be honest.

Love stands at the head, and is the fontal source of all separate individualised duties. Here Paul is not so much prescribing love as describing the kind of love which he recognises as genuine, and the main point on which he insists is sincerity. The ‘dissimulation’ of the Authorised Version only covers half the ground. It means, hiding what one is; but there is simulation, or pretending to be what one is not. There are words of love which are like the iridescent scum on the surface veiling the black depths of a pool of hatred. A Psalmist complains of having to meet men whose words were ‘smoother than butter’ and whose true feelings were as ‘drawn swords’; but, short of such consciously lying love, we must all recognise as a real danger besetting us all, and especially those of us who are naturally inclined to kindly relations with our fellows, the tendency to use language just a little in excess of our feelings. The glove is slightly stretched, and the hand in it is not quite large enough to fill it. There is such a thing, not altogether unknown in Christian circles, as benevolence, which is largely cant, and words of conventional love about individuals which do not represent any corresponding emotion. Such effusive love pours itself in words, and is most generally the token of intense selfishness. Any man who seeks to make his words a true picture of his emotions must be aware that few harder precepts have ever been given than this brief one of the Apostle’s, ‘Let love be without hypocrisy.’

But the place where this exhortation comes in the apostolic sequence here may suggest to us the discipline through which obedience to it is made possible. There is little to be done by the way of directly increasing either the fervour of love or the honesty of its expression. The true method of securing both is to be growingly transformed by ‘the renewing of our minds,’ and growingly to bring our whole old selves under the melting and softening influence of ‘the mercies of God.’ It is swollen self-love, ‘thinking more highly of ourselves than we ought to think,’ which impedes the flow of love to others, and it is in the measure in which we receive into our minds ‘the mind that was in Christ Jesus,’ and look at men as He did, that we shall come to love them all honestly and purely. When we are delivered from the monstrous oppression and tyranny of self, we have hearts capable of a Christlike and Christ-giving love to all men, and only they who have cleansed their hearts by union with Him, and by receiving into them the purging influence of His own Spirit, will be able to love without hypocrisy.

II. Let love abhor what is evil, and cleave to what is good.

If we carefully consider this apparently irrelevant interruption in the sequence of the apostolic exhortations, we shall, I think, see at once that the irrelevance is only apparent, and that the healthy vehemence against evil and resolute clinging to good is as essential to the noblest forms of Christian love as is the sincerity enjoined in the previous clause. To detest the one and hold fast by the other are essential to the purity and depth of our love. Evil is to be loathed, and good to be clung to in our own moral conduct, and wherever we see them. These two precepts are not mere tautology, but the second of them is the ground of the first. The force of our recoil from the bad will be measured by the firmness of our grasp of the good; and yet, though inseparably connected, the one is apt to be easier to obey than is the other. There are types of Christian men to whom it is more natural to abhor the evil than to cleave to the good; and there are types of character of which the converse is true. We often see men very earnest and entirely sincere in their detestation of meanness and wickedness, but very tepid in their appreciation of goodness. To hate is, unfortunately, more congenial with ordinary characters than to love; and it is more facile to look down on badness than to look up at goodness.

But it needs ever to be insisted upon, and never more than in this day of spurious charity and unprincipled toleration, that a healthy hatred of moral evil and of sin, wherever found and however garbed, ought to be the continual accompaniment of all vigorous and manly cleaving to that which is good. Unless we shudderingly recoil from contact with the bad in our own lives, and refuse to christen it with deceptive euphemisms when we meet it in social and civil life, we shall but feebly grasp, and slackly hold, that which is good. Such energy of moral recoil from evil is perfectly consistent with honest love, for it is things, not men, that we are to hate; and it is needful as the completion and guardian of love itself. There is always danger that love shall weaken the condemnation of wrong, and modern liberality, both in the field of opinion and in regard to practical life, has so far condoned evil as largely to have lost its hold upon good. The criminal is pitied rather than blamed, and a multitude of agencies are so occupied in elevating the wrong-doers that they lose sight of the need of punishing.

Nor is it only in reference to society that this tendency works harm. The effect of it is abundantly manifest in the fashionable ideas of God and His character. There are whole schools of opinion which practically strike out of their ideal of the Divine Nature abhorrence of evil, and, little as they think it, are thereby fatally impoverishing their ideal of God, and making it impossible to understand His government of the world. As always, so in this matter, the authentic revelation of the Divine Nature, and the perfect pattern for the human are to be found in Jesus Christ. We recall that wonderful incident, when on His last approach to Jerusalem, rounding the shoulder of the Mount of Olives, He beheld the city, gleaming in the morning sunshine across the valley, and forgetting His own sorrow, shed tears over its approaching desolation, which yet He steadfastly pronounced. His loathing of evil was whole-souled and absolute, and equally intense and complete was His cleaving to that which is good. In both, and in the harmony between them, He makes God known, and prescribes and holds forth the ideal of perfect humanity to men.

III. Let sincere and discriminating love be concentrated on Christian men.

In the final exhortation of our text ‘the love of the brethren’ takes the place of the more diffused and general love enjoined in the first clause. The expression ‘kindly affectioned’ is the rendering of a very eloquent word in the original in which the instinctive love of a mother to her child, or the strange mystical ties which unite members of a family together, irrespective of their differences of character and temperament, are taken as an example after which Christian men are to mould their relations to one another. The love which is without hypocrisy, and is to be diffused on all sides, is also to be gathered together and concentrated with special energy on all who ‘call upon Jesus Christ as Lord, both their Lord and ours.’ The more general precept and the more particular are in perfect harmony, however our human weakness sometimes confuses them. It is obvious that this final precept of our text will be the direct result of the two preceding, for the love which has learned to be moral, hating evil, and clinging to good as necessary, when directed to possessors of like precious faith will thrill with the consciousness of a deep mystical bond of union, and will effloresce in all brotherly love and kindly affections. They who are like one another in the depths of their moral life, who are touched by like aspirations after like holy things, and who instinctively recoil with similar revulsion from like abominations, will necessarily feel the drawing of a unity far deeper and sacreder than any superficial likenesses of race, or circumstance, or opinion. Two men who share, however imperfectly, in Christ’s Spirit are more akin in the realities of their nature, however they may differ on the surface, than either of them is to another, however like he may seem, who is not a partaker in the life of Christ.

This instinctive, Christian love, like all true and pure love, is to manifest itself by ‘preferring one another in honour’; or as the word might possibly be rendered, ‘anticipating one another.’ We are not to wait to have our place assigned before we give our brother his. There will be no squabbling for the chief seat in the synagogue, or the uppermost rooms at the feast, where brotherly love marshals the guests. The one cure for petty jealousies and the miserable strife for recognition, which we are all tempted to engage in, lies in a heart filled with love of the brethren because of its love to the Elder Brother of them all, and to the Father who is His Father as well as ours. What a contrast is presented between the practice of Christians and these precepts of Paul! We may well bow ourselves in shame and contrition when we read these clear-drawn lines indicating what we ought to be, and set by the side of them the blurred and blotted pictures of what we are. It is a painful but profitable task to measure ourselves against Paul’s ideal of Christ’s commandment; but it will only be profitable if it brings us to remember that Christ gives before He commands, and that conformity with His ideal must begin, not with details of conduct, or with emotion, however pure, but with yielding ourselves to the God who moves us by His mercies, and being ‘transformed by the renewing of our minds’ and ‘the indwelling of Christ in our hearts by faith.’

Romans 12:9-11. Having spoken of faith and its fruits, Romans 12:3, he comes now to speak of love. Let love be without dissimulation — Not in pretence, but in reality; not in word and tongue only, but in deed and in truth, 1 John 3:18. In consequence of loving God because he hath first loved you, sincerely love and desire the temporal and eternal welfare of all mankind; and let all your expressions of mutual friendship be as free as possible from base flattery and vain compliment. Abhor that which is evil — In every instance; and cleave to that which is good — Both inwardly and outwardly, whatever ill-will or danger may follow: practise benevolence and every other virtue with the greatest determination and perseverance of mind. Be kindly affectioned one to another — Or, as the very expressive words of the original, τη φιλαδελφια, εις αλληλους φιλοστοργοι, may be rendered, In love to one another, as brethren in Christ, show that kindness of affection which near relations bear to one another. So Macknight, who justly observes, “the force of the word φιλοστοργοι, can hardly be reached in any translation.” It is compounded of a word signifying that affection which animals, by instinct, bear to their young; and so teaches us, that Christian charity must be warm and strong, like that, and joined with delight, which the word also implies. In honour preferring one another — That is, let each, in his turn, be ready to think better of his brethren than of himself, which he will do, if he habitually consider what is good and excellent in others, and what is evil or weak in himself. It may imply also the preventing others in every office of respect and kindness; and, out of regard to their advantage, giving up, with as good a grace as possible, any thing in which our own honour or personal interest may be concerned. The original words, however, τη τιμη αλληλους προηγουμενοι, are interpreted by some, In every honourable action going before, and leading on one another. Not slothful in business — That is, being diligent and industrious in your particular callings; or in your endeavours to advance the glory of God, and the good, especially the spiritual good, of one another, as the singular phraseology of the original, τη σπουδη μη οκνηροι, is thought by many to imply: “not slothful in the concerns of God and one another,” says Dr. Whitby; — “in care for each other be not slothful,” Macknight; — “perform not your duty slothfully, unwillingly, and heavily, but diligently,” Baxter; — “whatsoever you do, do it with your might,” Wesley. Although it is proper that Christians should attend to, and be diligent in prosecuting their temporal business, yet it does not appear that was the chief thing the apostle had in view in this passage. Fervent in spirit — Zealous and earnest, especially in all the duties of religion, and in every business diligently and fervently serving the Lord; doing all to God, and not to man; making God’s will your rule, and his glory your end, in all your actions.

12:9-16 The professed love of Christians to each other should be sincere, free from deceit, and unmeaning and deceitful compliments. Depending on Divine grace, they must detest and dread all evil, and love and delight in whatever is kind and useful. We must not only do that which is good, but we must cleave to it. All our duty towards one another is summed up in one word, love. This denotes the love of parents to their children; which is more tender and natural than any other; unforced, unconstrained. And love to God and man, with zeal for the gospel, will make the wise Christian diligent in all his wordly business, and in gaining superior skill. God must be served with the spirit, under the influences of the Holy Spirit. He is honoured by our hope and trust in him, especially when we rejoice in that hope. He is served, not only by working for him, but by sitting still quietly, when he calls us to suffer. Patience for God's sake, is true piety. Those that rejoice in hope, are likely to be patient in tribulation. We should not be cold in the duty of prayer, nor soon weary of it. Not only must there be kindness to friends and brethren, but Christians must not harbour anger against enemies. It is but mock love, which rests in words of kindness, while our brethren need real supplies, and it is in our power to furnish them. Be ready to entertain those who do good: as there is occasion, we must welcome strangers. Bless, and curse not. It means thorough good will; not, bless them when at prayer, and curse them at other times; but bless them always, and curse not at all. True Christian love will make us take part in the sorrows and joys of each other. Labour as much as you can to agree in the same spiritual truths; and when you come short of that, yet agree in affection. Look upon worldly pomp and dignity with holy contempt. Do not mind it; be not in love with it. Be reconciled to the place God in his providence puts you in, whatever it be. Nothing is below us, but sin. We shall never find in our hearts to condescend to others, while we indulge conceit of ourselves; therefore that must be mortified.Let love - The apostle proceeds to specify the duties of Christians in general, that they might secure the beauty and order of the church. The first which he specifies is love. This word here evidently refers to benevolence, or to good-will toward all mankind. In Romans 12:10 he specifies the duty of brotherly love; and there can be no doubt that he here refers to the benevolence which we ought to cherish toward all people. A similar distinction is found in 2 Peter 1:7, "And to brotherly-kindness add charity," that is, benevolence, or good will, and kind feelings to others.

Without dissimulation - Without hypocrisy. Let it be sincere and unfeigned. Let it not consist in words or professions only, but let it be manifested in acts of kindness and in deeds of charity; 1 John 3:18; compare 1 Peter 1:22. Genuine benevolence is not what merely professes attachment, but which is evinced by acts of kindness and affection.

Abhor that which is evil - The word "abhor" means to hate; to turn from; to avoid. The word "evil" here has reference to malice, or unkindness, rather than to evil in general. The apostle is exhorting to love, or kindness; and between the direction to love all people, and the particular direction about brotherly love, he places this general direction to abhor what is evil; what is evil in relation to the subject under discussion, that is, malice or unkindness. The word "evil" is not infrequently used in this limited sense to denote some particular or special evil; Matthew 5:37, Matthew 5:39, etc.; compare Psalm 34:14; 2 Timothy 2:19; Psalm 97:10; 1 Thessalonians 5:22.

Cleave to that which is good - The word rendered "cleave" to denotes properly the act of gluing, or uniting firmly by glue. It is then used to denote a very firm adherence to an object; to be firmly united to it. Here it means that Christians should be firmly attached to what is good, and not separate or part from it. The good here referred to is particularly what pertains to benevolence - to all people, and especially to Christians. It should not be occasional only, or irregular; but it should be constant, active, decided.

9. Let love be without dissimulation—"Let your love be unfeigned" (as in 2Co 6:6; 1Pe 2:22; and see 1Jo 3:18).

Abhor that which is evil; cleave to that which is good—What a lofty tone of moral principle and feeling is here inculcated! It is not, Abstain from the one, and do the other; nor, Turn away from the one, and draw to the other; but, Abhor the one, and cling, with deepest sympathy, to the other.

The former exhortations respect church officers in particular; those that follow concern all Christians in general. He begins with love, because that is a radical grace; other graces, and gracious actions, do spring from it, and must be accompanied with it. By love here, you may understand the love of God, or of our neighbour: the latter seems chiefly to be intended. The great requisite in love is this, that it be without dissimulation, or (as the word is) without hypocrisy; i.e. that it be sincere and unfeigned, 2 Corinthians 6:6 1 Peter 1:22. It must not be in word and in tongue only, but in deed and in truth, 1Jo 3:18.

Abhor that which is evil; do not only avoid it, but hate it, and that as hell itself. The simple verb imports extreme detestation, and it is aggravated by the composition: see Psalm 119:104 Amos 5:15.

Cleave to that which is good; be glued to it; so the word signifieth. Things that are glued together are hardly disjoined. The same word is used of the union and conjunction between man and wife: see Matthew 19:5 Ephesians 5:31.

Let love be without dissimulation,.... The apostle having given out suitable exhortations to the officers of this church, ministers and deacons, proceeds to stir up to the exercise of grace, and the discharge of such duties as were common to all the members of the church; and begins with "love", which is the cement of saints, and the bond of perfectness, without which all the gifts that men have, the profession they make, and works they do are of no avail, and they themselves nothing. Here it is to be taken, in the largest and most comprehensive sense, for love to God, Christ, the saints, and fellow creatures, and ought, with respect to each, to "be without dissimulation"; or "hypocrisy": love to God should be with all the heart, soul, and mind, otherwise the fear of him, and obedience to him, will be only outward, formal, customary, and hypocritical; love to Christ should be with sincerity, and so it is where it is right, hearty, and genuine; such can appeal to him as the searcher of hearts, that from the heart they love him; and love to one another should be not in word, and in tongue only, but in deed and in truth; yea, the love professed to fellow creatures, ought never to be through fear of men or mercenary views, but honest, upright, and sincere.

Abhor that which is evil; sin, both in its principle and in its actings; it being hateful to God, Father, Son, and Spirit, contrary to the nature, being, and perfections of God, a transgression of his righteous law, exceeding sinful in itself, and pernicious in its effects and consequences; for all which it is to be abhorred by the saints: the word here used, designs the greatest aversation imaginable, a turning away from it, as what is the most loathsome, detestable, and abominable; and such an hatred of it with horror, as of the Stygian lake, or hell itself:

cleave to that which is good; to God, who is originally, infinitely, and immutably good; who is good in his nature, and works, and to all his creatures, and especially his chosen people, and therefore should be cleaved unto; to his will, his ways, and worship; and to Christ the good shepherd of the sheep, the Lamb that is to be followed and cleaved unto, whithersoever he goes; and to the good Spirit of God, after whom we should walk, and not after the flesh; and to the good people of God, assembling with whom should not be forsaken; and to the good Gospel of Christ, and the truths of it, which should be held fast; and to the ordinances of the Gospel, which ought to be constantly attended on; and to every good work, to which we should be ready, careful to maintain, and ever follow, both among ourselves and all men: they should even be glued unto it, as the word here signifies.

{6} Let love be without dissimulation. Abhor that which is evil; cleave to that which is good.

(6) Now he comes to the duties of the second table of the ten commandments, which he derives from charity, which is as it were the fountain of them all. And he defines Christian charity as sincerity, hatred of evil, earnest study of good things, good affection to help our neighbour, and whose final goal is the glory of God.

Romans 12:9. Ἡ ἀγάπη ἀνυπόκρ.] sc. ἔστω. The supplying of the imperative (comp. Romans 12:7), which is rare in the classical writers (Bernhardy, p. 331; Kühner, II. 1, p. 37), cannot occasion any scruple in this so briefly sketching hortatory address. ἀνυπόκριτος is not found in classical Greek, but it occurs in Wis 5:19; Wis 18:16, 2 Corinthians 6:6, 1 Timothy 1:5, 2 Timothy 1:5, Jam 3:12, 1 Peter 1:22. Antoninus, viii. 5, has the adverb, like Clem. Cor. II. 12.

The absolute ἡ ἀγάπη is always love towards others (see esp. 1 Corinthians 13), of which φιλαδελφία is the special form having reference to Christian fellowship, Romans 12:10. As love must be, so must be also faith, its root, 1 Timothy 1:5; 2 Timothy 1:5.

The following participles and adjectives may be taken either together as preparing for the εὐλογεῖτε τοὺς διώκ. in Romans 12:14, and as dependent on this (Lachm. ed. min.); or, as corresponding to the personal subject of ἡ ἀγάπη ἀνυπόκρ. (so Fritzsche), see on 2 Corinthians 1:7; or, finally, by the supplying of ἐστέ as mere precepts, so that after ἀνυπόκρ. there should be placed a full stop, and another after διώκοντες in Romans 12:13. So usually; also by Lachmann, ed. maj., and Tischendorf. The latter view alone, after ἡ ἀγάπη ἀνυπόκρ. has been supplemented by the imperative of the substantive verb, is the natural one, and correspondent in its concise mode of expression to the whole character stamped on the passage; the two former modes of connection exhibit a formal interdependence on the part of elements that are heterogeneous in substance.

ἀποστυγοῦντες] abhorring. The strengthening significance of the compound, already noted by Chrysostom, Theodoret, Oecumenius, and Theophylact, has been groundlessly denied by Fritzsche; it is quite appropriate in passages like Herod, ii. 47, vi. 129; Soph. Oed. C. 186, 691; Eur. Ion. 488; Parthen. Erot. 8.

τὸ πονηρόν and τῷ ἀγαθῷ are to be taken generally of moral evil and good; abhorrence of the one and adherence to the other form the fundamental moral character of unfeigned love. The evil and good which are found in the object of love (Hofmann) are included, but not specially meant. Comp. 1 Corinthians 13:6.

Romans 12:9-21. Exhortations for all without distinction, headed by love!

Romans 12:9-21. As far as any single idea pervades the rest of the chapter it is that of the first words in Romans 12:9 : ἡ ἀγάπη ἀνυπόκριτος. The passage as a whole has a strong affinity to 1 Corinthians 13, and along with what may be a reminiscence of our Lord’s words, it has something intensely and characteristically Christian. Whatever the grammatical construction may be—and all through the chapter Paul displays an indifference in this respect which is singular even in him—the intention must be supposed to be hortatory, so that it is most natural to supply imperatives (ἔστω or ἐστέ) with the numerous participles.

9–21. Christian practice: in further detail, with regard to personal and social duty

9. love] Lit. the love; your love, Christian love.

Abhor, &c.] Lit. Abhorring the evil, cleaving to the good. Here participles, as very frequently through this context, practically stand for hortative verbs; describing in order to set a standard for endeavour.—On the subject here, cp. Psalm 97:10.

Romans 12:9. Ἡ ἀγάπη, love) He treated of faith from Romans 12:3; he is now to treat of love. Verses 9, 10, 11 have respect to ch. 7; Romans 12:12 to ch. 8; Romans 12:13 to ch. 9 and the following chapters, concerning the communion of believers whether Jews or Greeks. The third clause of the sixteenth verse is repeated from ch. Romans 11:25.—ἀποστυγοῦντεςκολλώμενοι, abhorring—cleaving) both in the mind and in the outward manifestation of it, even when at the risk of incurring danger and ill-will. The ἀνυπόκριτος, the man without dissimulation, is shown in Proverbs 8:7, Let my lips HATE wickedness; wickedness is an ABOMINATION to my lips. This is rightly connected with love, 1 Corinthians 13:6. Very emphatic words. He, who is without hatred of evil, does not really love good. From this passage, the discourse moves forward in pairs of sentences. [There are men 1) who patronise evil and assail good: 2) who love good, but do not abhor evil with that indignation which it deserves: 3) who disdain evil, but cherish good more coldly than is proper: 4) who so abhor evil and cleave to good, as that in their case no one can be ignorant of it.—V. g.]

Verses 9-21. - Various admonitions, applicable to all; headed by inculcation of the all-pervading principle of love. Verse 9. - Let love be unfeigned (so is rendered elsewhere ἀνυπόκριτος in the Authorized Version, cf. 2 Corinthians 6:6; 1 Timothy 1:5; 2 Timothy 1:5; 1 Peter 1:22). Abhor (literally, abhorring) that which is evil; cleave (literally, cleaving) to that which is good. The participles ἀποστυγοῦντες, etc., here and afterwards, may be understood as mildly imperative. Or perhaps the apostle connected them in thought with ἡ ἀγάπη ἀνυπόκριτος, as if he had said, Love ye unfeignedly. Romans 12:9Love (ἡ ἀγάπη)

The article has the force of your. See on loveth, John 5:20.

Without dissimulation (ἀνυπόκριτος)

Rev., without hypocrisy. See on hypocrites, Matthew 23:13.

Abhor (ἀποστυγοῦντες)

Lit., abhorring. The only simple verb for hate in the New Testament is μισέω. Στυγέω, quite frequent in the classics, does not occur except in this compound, which is found only here. The kindred adjective στυγητός hateful, is found 1 Timothy 3:3. The original distinction between μισέω and στυγέω is that the former denotes concealed and cherished hatred, and the latter hatred expressed. The preposition ἀπό away from, may either denote separation or be merely intensive. An intense sentiment is meant: loathing.

Cleave (κολλώμενοι)

See on joined himself, Luke 15:15. Compare Acts 17:34; 1 Corinthians 6:16.

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