Proverbs 10:10
He that winks with the eye causes sorrow: but a prating fool shall fall.
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(10) Causeth sorrow to the person who is the butt of his ridicule, or against whom his malice is directed.

Proverbs 10:10. He that winketh with his eye — That secretly and cunningly designs mischiefs against others: see on Proverbs 6:13 : causeth sorrow — To others, and afterward to himself; but — Or, and, as it is in the Hebrew; for vice is not here opposed to virtue, as it is in many other proverbs, but one vice is compared with another; a prating fool — Who is so far from such deceits, that he runs into the other extreme, and utters all his mind, as is said of the fool, Proverbs 29:11, and thereby speaks many things offensive to others, and mischievous to himself.10:7. Both the just and the wicked must die; but between their souls there is a vast difference. 8. The wise in heart puts his knowledge in practice. 9. Dissemblers, after all their shuffling, will be exposed. 10. Trick and artifice will be no excuse for iniquity. 11. The good man's mouth is always open to teach, comfort, and correct others. 12. Where there is hatred, every thing stirs up strife. By bearing with each other, peace and harmony are preserved. 13. Those that foolishly go on in wicked ways, prepare rods for themselves. 14. Whatever knowledge may be useful, we must lay it up, that it may not be to seek when we want it. The wise gain this wisdom by reading, by hearing the word, by meditation, by prayer, by faith in Christ, who is made of God unto us wisdom. 15. This refers to the common mistakes both of rich and poor, as to their outward condition. Rich people's wealth exposes them to many dangers; while a poor man may live comfortably, if he is content, keeps a good conscience, and lives by faith. 16. Perhaps a righteous man has no more than what he works hard for, but that labour tends to life. 17. The traveller that has missed his way, and cannot bear to be told of it, and to be shown the right way, must err still. 18. He is especially a fool who thinks to hide anything from God; and malice is no better. 19. Those that speak much, speak much amiss. He that checks himself is a wise man, and therein consults his own peace. 20,21. The tongue of the just is sincere, freed from the dross of guile and evil design. Pious discourse is spiritual food to the needy. Fools die for want of a heart, so the word is; for want of thought.In Proverbs 10:8 the relation between the two clauses was one of contrast, here of resemblance. Cunning, reticence, and deceit (Proverbs 6:12 note) bring sorrow no less than garrulity. 10. Two vices contrasted; hypocrisy, or insinuating evil against one (Pr 6:13; Ps 35:19), and rashness of speech. In each case, the results are on the evildoers. That winketh with the eye; that secretly and cunningly designs mischiefs against others, as this phrase is used, Psalm 35:19 Proverbs 6:13.

Causeth sorrow to others, and afterwards to himself.

But; or, and, as it is in the Hebrew; for vice is not here opposed to virtue, as it is in many other proverbs, but one vice is compared with another.

A prating fool; who is so far from such deceits, that he runs into the other extreme, and uttereth all his mind, as is said of the fool, Proverbs 29:11, and thereby speaks many things offensive to others, and mischievous to himself. He that winketh with the eye,.... The Syriac and Arabic versions add, "with fraud". A descriptive character of a wicked man, Proverbs 6:13; who so does, either to draw and allure persons to go along with him, and join him in his evil practices; or by way of scorn and contempt of others; or as a token to another of its being the proper time to circumvent his neighbour, or do him an injury. Such an one

causeth sorrow; to himself in the issue, however he may for the present please himself with his evil doings; and to others, whom he allures and deceives. The Arabic version is, "heaps afflictions" or "sorrows on men"; whom he corrupts and draws into his evil company and conversation;

but a prating fool shall fall; or, "be taken", as the Targum; or "beaten", as the Vulgate Latin; See Gill on Proverbs 10:8.

He that {e} winketh with the eye causeth sorrow: but a {f} prating fool shall fall.

(e) That bears a fair countenance and imagines mischief in his heart, as in Pr 6:13.

(f) For the corruption of his heart is known by his talk.

10. a prating fool &c.] The repetition of this clause in a new connection is interesting. In Proverbs 10:8 the contrast is between a wise heart and an unbridled tongue, in its consequences to its possessor. Here it is between crafty reticence which injures others, and foolish loquacity which injures oneself.

“The Sept. and Syr. read, But he that rebuketh openly maketh peace,” R.V. marg.; but nothing is gained by the change.Verse 10. - He that winketh with the eye (Proverbs 6:13). This is a sign of craft, malice, and complicity with other wicked comrades. Ecclus. 27:22, "He that winketh with the eyes worketh evil." Causeth sorrow (Proverbs 15:13). He causes trouble and vexation by his cunning and secrecy. A prating fool (as Ver. 8). The two clauses are intended to teach that the garrulous fool is even more certain to bring ruin on himself and others than the crafty plotter. The Septuagint and Syriac have changed the latter clause into a sentence supposed to be more forcibly antithetical, "He who reproveth with boldness maketh peace." But there are sentences not strictly antithetical in this chapter, e.g. vers. 18, 22 (comp. Proverbs 11:10). There follow two proverbs which say how one man fails and another succeeds:

He becomes poor who bears a sluggish hand;

But the hand of the diligent maketh rich.

These three proverbs, Proverbs 19:15; Proverbs 12:24, Proverbs 12:27, are similar. From the last two it is seen that רמיּה is a subst., as also from Psalm 120:2. (לשׁון רמיּה, from a crafty tongue) that it is an adject., and from Leviticus 14:15. (where כּף is fem.) that it may be at the same time an adject. here also. The masc. is רמי, like טרי to טריּה ot , but neither of these occur; "the fundamental idea is that of throwing oneself down lazily, when one with unbent muscles holds himself no longer erect and stretched, Arab. taramy" (Fl.). The translation: deceitful balances (Lwenstein after Rashi), is contrary to biblical usage, which knows nothing of כף in this Mishnic meaning. But if כף is here regarded as fem., then it cannot be the subject (Jerome, egestatem operata est manus remissa), since we read עשׂה, not עשׂה. But ראשׁ also is not suitable as the subject (lxx, Syr., Targ.), for poverty is called רישׁ, רישׁ, ראשׁ; on the contrary, רשׁ, plur. רשׁים or ראשׁים, is used adjectively. Since now the adject. רשׁ, 1 Samuel 12:14, is also written ראשׁ, it may be translated: Poor is he who... (Bertheau); but we much rather expect the statement of that which happens to such an one, thus: Poor will he be... ראשׁ, 3 praet. equals רשׁ, Psalm 34:11, with the same (grammatically incorrect) full writing as קאם, Hosea 10:14. In the conception of the subject, כף־רמיה, after Jeremiah 48:10, is interpreted as the accus. of the manner (Berth.: whoever works with sluggish hand); but since עשׂה רמיה (in another sense indeed: to practise cunning) is a common phrase, Psalm 52:4; Psalm 101:7, so also will כף־רמיה be regarded as the object: qui agit manum remissam, whoever carries or moves such a hand (Hitzig). In 4b working is placed opposite to bearing: the diligent hand makes rich, ditat or divitias parit; but not for itself (Gesen. and others: becomes rich), but for him who bears it. The diligent man is called חרוּץ, from חרץ, to sharpen, for, as in ὀξύς, acer, sharpness is transferred to energy; the form is the same as הלּוּק, smooth (for the ā is unchangeable, because recompensative), a kindred form to קטול like חמוץ, and Arab. fâ'ûl as fashawsh, a boaster, wind-bag, either of active (as חנּוּן) or (as חלוק, חרוץ, עמּוּד, שׁכּוּל) of passive signification.

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