Matthew Poole's Commentary
Now those that sealed were, Nehemiah, the Tirshatha, the son of Hachaliah, and Zidkijah,The names of those that sealed the covenant, Nehemiah 10:1-27. The rest of the people cleave to them: the covenant, Nehemiah 10:28-39.
Those that sealed, both in their own names, and in the name of all the rest. It may seem strange that Ezra doth not appear among them. But that might be because he was prevented, either by death, or by some sickness, or other extraordinary impediment, for which we have this presumption, that whereas Ezra appears, and preacheth, and prayeth with Jeshua and Bani, &c., before the feast of tabernacles, Nehemiah 8:4, &c., we have no mention of him Ne 9, but the whole work of that solemn fast day was managed by them alone, without any mention of Ezra, whose name would not have been omitted, if he had been then present. It is true, we meet with Ezra after this, at the dedication of the wall of Jerusalem, Nehemiah 12:36, and therefore he was then freed from this impediment, whatsoever it was; but thence it appears that he was not dead. Nehemiah, the Tirshatha: this is added to distinguish him from others of that name, whereof we have one, Nehemiah 3:16.
Seraiah, Azariah, Jeremiah,No text from Poole on this verse.
Pashur, Amariah, Malchijah,No text from Poole on this verse.
Hattush, Shebaniah, Malluch,No text from Poole on this verse.
Harim, Meremoth, Obadiah,No text from Poole on this verse.
Daniel, Ginnethon, Baruch,No text from Poole on this verse.
Meshullam, Abijah, Mijamin,No text from Poole on this verse.
Maaziah, Bilgai, Shemaiah: these were the priests.No text from Poole on this verse.
And the Levites: both Jeshua the son of Azaniah, Binnui of the sons of Henadad, Kadmiel;No text from Poole on this verse.
And their brethren, Shebaniah, Hodijah, Kelita, Pelaiah, Hanan,No text from Poole on this verse.
Micha, Rehob, Hashabiah,No text from Poole on this verse.
Zaccur, Sherebiah, Shebaniah,No text from Poole on this verse.
Hodijah, Bani, Beninu.No text from Poole on this verse.
The chief of the people; Parosh, Pahathmoab, Elam, Zatthu, Bani,The chief of the people, i.e. their elders, or representatives, acting in the stead and by the appointment of all the rest; for it had been troublesome and unnecessary for every one of the people to seal.
Bunni, Azgad, Bebai,No text from Poole on this verse.
Adonijah, Bigvai, Adin,No text from Poole on this verse.
Ater, Hizkijah, Azzur,No text from Poole on this verse.
Hodijah, Hashum, Bezai,No text from Poole on this verse.
Hariph, Anathoth, Nebai,No text from Poole on this verse.
Magpiash, Meshullam, Hezir,No text from Poole on this verse.
Meshezabeel, Zadok, Jaddua,No text from Poole on this verse.
Pelatiah, Hanan, Anaiah,No text from Poole on this verse.
Hoshea, Hananiah, Hashub,No text from Poole on this verse.
Hallohesh, Pileha, Shobek,No text from Poole on this verse.
Rehum, Hashabnah, Maaseiah,No text from Poole on this verse.
And Ahijah, Hanan, Anan,No text from Poole on this verse.
Malluch, Harim, Baanah.No text from Poole on this verse.
And the rest of the people, the priests, the Levites, the porters, the singers, the Nethinims, and all they that had separated themselves from the people of the lands unto the law of God, their wives, their sons, and their daughters, every one having knowledge, and having understanding;The rest of the people; those who did not write and seal with their own hands, but only by their deputies above-mentioned.
They clave to their brethren, their nobles, and entered into a curse, and into an oath, to walk in God's law, which was given by Moses the servant of God, and to observe and do all the commandments of the LORD our Lord, and his judgments and his statutes;They clave to their brethren; they owned and ratified what the others had done in their names, declaring their assent to it by their words, or by the lifting up of their hands, as the manner was.
Into an oath, i.e. an oath bound with a curse or imprecation upon themselves, in case they violated it.
And that we would not give our daughters unto the people of the land, nor take their daughters for our sons:We would not give our daughters, to wit, in marriage. Having sworn obedience to God’s laws in the general, they now do so to some particulars, wherein they had lately transgressed, or were most prone to transgress.
And if the people of the land bring ware or any victuals on the sabbath day to sell, that we would not buy it of them on the sabbath, or on the holy day: and that we would leave the seventh year, and the exaction of every debt.That we would leave the seventh year, i.e. leave the land at rest from ploughing or tilling it in that year, according to God’s command, Exodus 23:10,11 Le 25:4.
The exaction of every debt, Heb. hand: debts are called hands, because they are commonly contracted or confirmed by a bill under the hand of the debtor.
Also we made ordinances for us, to charge ourselves yearly with the third part of a shekel for the service of the house of our God;To charge ourselves, i.e. every particular head or person among us; which they had warrant to do, both from the nature of the thing, because this was necessary to be done for the upholding of God’s worship, and from the warrant of former examples in the like case, 2 Chronicles 24:5.
For the shewbread, and for the continual meat offering, and for the continual burnt offering, of the sabbaths, of the new moons, for the set feasts, and for the holy things, and for the sin offerings to make an atonement for Israel, and for all the work of the house of our God.Formerly
the shew-bread, and the continual meat-offering, and
the continual burnt-offering, were provided out of the treasuries of the temple, 1 Chronicles 26:20; and when those failed, out of the king’s treasure, 2 Chronicles 31:3. But now, both these failing, provision is here made for them another way.
For the holy things, i.e. for the sacrifices, all which were holy.
The sin-offerings; which are particularly mentioned, as most necessary and suitable to their present state, which was exceeding sinful, and therefore miserable, and calling aloud for atoning sacrifices.
And we cast the lots among the priests, the Levites, and the people, for the wood offering, to bring it into the house of our God, after the houses of our fathers, at times appointed year by year, to burn upon the altar of the LORD our God, as it is written in the law:We cast the lots, to determine the time and order in which each of them should take the care of the business.
For the wood-offering; for the wood, which was to be spent in great quantity, being used in every sacrifice, and formerly had been supplied out of the temple’s treasures, or by the king; which could not now be done.
Into the house of our God, i.e. into the place appointed to receive it in the buildings adjoining or belonging to the temple.
After the houses of our fathers, i. e. according to our several families, which were to take the charge of it by course.
And to bring the firstfruits of our ground, and the firstfruits of all fruit of all trees, year by year, unto the house of the LORD:The first-fruits of our ground, i.e. of the fruits of our ground. All the particulars of the first-fruits are exactly and distinctly mentioned, that none might pretend ignorance when they withheld any part of the priests’ dues; which at that time especially the people were very prone to do, through poverty, or covetousness, or profaneness; and that the priests’ rights might be firmly assured to them.
Also the firstborn of our sons, and of our cattle, as it is written in the law, and the firstlings of our herds and of our flocks, to bring to the house of our God, unto the priests that minister in the house of our God:No text from Poole on this verse.
And that we should bring the firstfruits of our dough, and our offerings, and the fruit of all manner of trees, of wine and of oil, unto the priests, to the chambers of the house of our God; and the tithes of our ground unto the Levites, that the same Levites might have the tithes in all the cities of our tillage.i.e. The tithes of all the fruits of the ground belonging to our several cities.
And the priest the son of Aaron shall be with the Levites, when the Levites take tithes: and the Levites shall bring up the tithe of the tithes unto the house of our God, to the chambers, into the treasure house.The priest the son of Aaron, i.e. some priest or priests appointed to this work, that so neither the people might wrong the Levites, nor the Levites defraud the priests of their dues.
The Levites shall bring up at their own charges,
Into the treasure-house, to wit, of the temple; where it was laid up for the use of the priests.
For the children of Israel and the children of Levi shall bring the offering of the corn, of the new wine, and the oil, unto the chambers, where are the vessels of the sanctuary, and the priests that minister, and the porters, and the singers: and we will not forsake the house of our God.Unto the chambers, where are the vessels of the sanctuary; where other things belonging to the temple are laid up, and therefore these things also shall be put there.
And the priests that minister, and the porters, and the singers, i.e. where also are the priests and others that minister in their courses, for whose use these provisions are made.
We will not forsake the house of our God, i.e. we do here solemnly declare and engage ourselves that we will take care, from time to time, that the house and service of God be not neglected or forsaken for want of necessary provisions to support it.