Leviticus 16:32
And the priest, whom he shall anoint, and whom he shall consecrate to minister in the priest's office in his father's stead, shall make the atonement, and shall put on the linen clothes, even the holy garments:
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(32) And the priest, whom he shall anoint.—Better, And the priest who shall be anointed. Not only is Aaron to make atonement on this occasion, but, in future, the priest who shall be consecrated by the proper authorities as his successor to the pontificate shall perform this act of expiation on the Day of Atonement.

And whom he shall consecrate.—Better, and who shall be consecrated. According to the canonical interpretation which obtained during the second Temple, this clause makes the hereditary right to the high priesthood conditional. Unlike property, which descends to the heirs unconditionally, the son of the high priest can only succeed his father if he is morally and physically blameless. The decision upon these points was vested in the community, represented by their elders—the Sanhedrin—who pronounced whether the heir apparent was qualified or disqualified to step into the office of pontiff, and who appointed the delegates to anoint and invest the new high priest with the insignia of his functions.

And shall put on the linen clothes.—Better, and shall put on the linen garments, as it is rendered in the Authorised Version in Leviticus 16:23. This phrase only occurs twice, and in this very section. To render it by two different expressions within so short a space is almost equivalent to depriving it of its identity. Now the priest who has thus been deemed worthy to succeed to this high office is to put on the holy white garments on the Day of Atonement.

Leviticus 16:32. The priest whom he shall anoint, and whom he shall consecrate — This ought to be translated, who shall be anointed, and who shall be consecrated, as the Vulgate hath it. For an active verb without a person is frequently in Scripture to be taken passively; the well observing whereof will tend to the removing of many difficulties. For example; those words of Isaiah, quoted John 12:39-40, He hath blinded their eyes, and hardened their hearts, import merely, Their eyes were blinded, and their hearts hardened, as it is expressed Acts 28:27, and Matthew 13:14-15, compared with Isaiah 6:9. So, he hardened Pharaoh’s heart, is equivalent to, his heart was hardened, Exodus 7:22. So, he moved David, 2 Samuel 24:1, ought to be translated, David was moved, namely, by his own evil heart, or Satan’s instigation, 1 Chronicles 21:1.16:15-34 Here are typified the two great gospel privileges, of the remission of sin, and access to God, both of which we owe to our Lord Jesus. See the expiation of guilt. Christ is both the Maker and the Matter of the atonement; for he is the Priest, the High Priest, that makes reconciliation for the sins of the people. And as Christ is the High Priest, so he is the Sacrifice with which atonement is made; for he is all in all in our reconciliation to God. Thus he was figured by the two goats. The slain goat was a type of Christ dying for our sins; the scape-goat a type of Christ rising again for our justification. The atonement is said to be completed by putting the sins of Israel upon the head of the goat, which was sent away into a wilderness, a land not inhabited; and the sending away of the goat represented the free and full remission of their sins. He shall bear upon him all their iniquities. Thus Christ, the Lamb of God, takes away the sin of the world, by taking it upon himself, Joh 1:29. The entrance into heaven, which Christ made for us, was typified by the high priest's entrance into the most holy place. See Heb 9:7. The high priest was to come out again; but our Lord Jesus ever lives, making intercession, and always appears in the presence of God for us. Here are typified the two great gospel duties of faith and repentance. By faith we put our hands upon the head of the offering; relying on Christ as the Lord our Righteousness, pleading his satisfaction, as that which alone is able to atone for our sins, and procure us a pardon. By repentance we afflict our souls; not only fasting for a time from the delights of the body, but inwardly sorrowing for sin, and living a life of self-denial, assuring ourselves, that if we confess our sins, God is faithful and just to forgive us our sins, and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness. By the atonement we obtain rest for our souls, and all the glorious liberties of the children of God. Sinner, get the blood of Christ effectually applied to thy soul, or else thou canst never look God in the face with any comfort or acceptance. Take this blood of Christ, apply it by faith, and see how it atones with God.Seventh month, on the tenth day - The month Ethanim or Tisri, as being the seventh in the Sacred year, has been called the sabbatical month. On the first day was celebrated the Feast of Trumpets Leviticus 23:24, the tenth day was the Day of Atonement, and on the fourteenth day the Feast of tabernacles commenced (Leviticus 23:24 note; Exodus 23:16).

Afflict your souls - The old term for fasting; but its meaning evidently embraces, not only abstinence from food, but that penitence and humiliation which give scope and purpose to the outward act of fasting. The Day of Atonement was the only public fast commanded by the Law of Moses. See further directions in Leviticus 23:27-32. On fasts observed in later times, see Zechariah 8:19, and margin reference.

A stranger that sojourneth among you - Rather, the foreigner who dwelleth among you. See Exodus 20:10 note. The meaning is, one of foreign blood, who dwelt with the Israelites, had abjured false gods, and had become familiarly known to his neighbors, e. g. the Kenites (Judges 4:11, etc.); the Gibeonites Joshua 9; and a considerable portion of the "mixed multitude" (compare Exodus 12:38, Exodus 12:48). As the foreigner had the blessing and protection of the Law he was bound to obey its statutes.

29-34. this shall be a statute for ever unto you, that in the seventh month ye shall afflict your souls—This day of annual expiation for all the sins, irreverences, and impurities of all classes in Israel during the previous year, was to be observed as a solemn fast, in which "they were to afflict their souls"; it was reckoned a sabbath, kept as a season of "holy convocation," or, assembling for religious purposes. All persons who performed any labor were subject to the penalty of death [Ex 31:14, 15; 35:2]. It took place on the tenth day of the seventh month, corresponding to our third of October; and this chapter, together with Le 23:27-32, as containing special allusion to the observances of the day, was publicly read. The rehearsal of these passages appointing the solemn ceremonial was very appropriate, and the details of the successive parts of it (above all the spectacle of the public departure of the scapegoat under the care of its leader) must have produced salutary impressions both of sin and of duty that would not be soon effaced. Whom he shall anoint; he, i.e. either God, who commanded him to be anointed, as men are oft said to do what others do by their command, or the high priest, who was to anoint his successor. Or, the third person is here put indefinitely or impersonally, for who shall be anointed. And the priest whom he shall anoint,.... Whom God shall anoint, or shall be anointed, that shall succeed in the high priesthood, as Aaron's sons did, the eldest of them, and none but such were anointed:

and whom he shall consecrate; or fill his hands, by putting the sacrifices into them; See Gill on Exodus 28:41 andSee Gill on Exodus 29:9, Exodus 29:24; by which, and by anointing him, and clothing him with the priestly garments, he was consecrated and installed into his office, in order

to minister in the priest's office, in his father's stead: a son of an high priest was always preferred to any other, and to him it of right belonged to succeed his father in his office: and such an one, thus consecrated,

shall make the atonement; on this day of atonement; not a common priest, but the high priest only; so Jarchi observes, this expiation of the day of atonement was not right but by an high priest; for the whole section is said concerning Aaron, and therefore it must needs be said of an high priest that comes after him, that should be as he was:

and shall put on the linen clothes, even the holy garments: that is, on the day of atonement; in which clothes all the service peculiar to that day, as it was done by Aaron, so it was to be done by all his successors.

And the priest, {m} whom he shall anoint, and whom he shall consecrate to minister in the priest's office in his father's stead, shall make the atonement, and shall put on the linen clothes, even the holy garments:

(m) Whom the priest shall anoint by God's commandment to succeed in his father's place.

32. shall be consecrated] See on Leviticus 8:33.Verses 32, 33. - That there may be no mistake, it is specifically enjoined that not only Aaron, but the priest, whom he shall anoint, and whom he shall consecrate - meaning, the high priest that shall be anointed, and shall be consecrated - to minister in the priest's office in his father's stead - that is, to succeed from time to time to the high priesthood - shall make the atonement, and shall put on the linen clothes, even the holy garments. Again it may be noticed that the white robes are termed, not the penitential, but the holy, garments. The man who took the goat into the desert, and those who burned the two sin-offerings outside the camp (see at Leviticus 4:11, Leviticus 4:21), had also to wash their clothes and bathe their bodies before they returned to the camp, because they had been defiled by the animals laden with sin.
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