And Barak called Zebulun and Naphtali to Kedesh; and he went up with ten thousand men at his feet: and Deborah went up with him.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)Called.—The word used is the technical word for summoning an army (2Samuel 20:4-5). Naturally Zebulun and Naphtali would be more difficult to arouse than the central tribes, because, though they felt the oppression most, they would have to bear the brunt of the vengeance in case of defeat. Ephraim and Benjamin (Judges 5:14), being more strong and secure, could raise their contingents without the personal help of Deborah, especially if that view of the chronology be admissible which avoids other difficulties by the difficult supposition that this event took place before the death of Joshua.
Zebulun and Naphtali.—(See Judges 5:18.) Of course it is only meant that in the first instance the leaders of those tribes were invited to a conference, like those of the Swiss on the Rütli in 1307.
Deborah went up with him.—A trace of this fact may yet be preserved in the name Debarieh, given to a village at the foot of Tabor.Jdg 4:10. With ten thousand men at his feet — That is, following him as their leader. Possibly it also intimates that they were all footmen, there being no horses in Judea but what were brought out of other countries. This made the victory the more glorious, by the overthrow of a vast number of chariots and horses in the opposite army.Judges 4:14). At his feet, i.e. who followed him or his footsteps; possibly he intimates that they were all footmen, the Israelites neither now having, nor otherwise allowed to have, a multitude of horses; and so this is emphatically added, to signify by what contemptible means God overthrew Sisera’s great host, wherein there were ten thousand horses, as Josephus reports.
and he went up with ten thousand men at his feet; they following him up to Mount Tabor cheerfully and readily, being all footmen; for the Israelites had no cavalry, and yet got the victory over Sisera's army, which, according to Josephus (g), had ten thousand horses in it:
and Deborah went up with him; and his ten thousand footmen, to the top of Mount Tabor, to encourage him and them with her presence, and give her best advice when to descend and engage the enemy.And Barak called Zebulun and Naphtali to Kedesh; and he went up with ten thousand men at his feet: and Deborah went up with him.
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)10. See notes on Jdg 4:6.
and Deboṛah went up with him] i.e. to mount Tabor, Jdg 4:12; the clause seems to belong to the story of Sisera. at his feet means following him, cf. Jdg 8:5, 1 Samuel 25:27, 1 Kings 20:10.Verse 10. - Called, or rather gathered together, as the same word is rendered in ver. 13. Went up, viz., to Mount Tabor, as in vers. 6 and 12. Translate the verse. There went up ten thousand men at his feet, i.e. following him. Joshua 18:25) and Bethel (Beitin: see at Joshua 7:2) in the tribe of Benjamin, upon the mountains of Ephraim. Deborah is called נמיאה אשּׁה on account of her prophetic gift, like Miriam in Exodus 15:20, and Hulda the wife of Shallum in 2 Kings 22:14. This gift qualified her to judge the nation (the participle שׁפטה expresses the permanence of the act of judging), i.e., first of all to settle such disputes among the people themselves as the lower courts were unable to decide, and which ought therefore, according to Deuteronomy 17:8, to be referred to the supreme judge of the whole nation. The palm where she sat in judgment (cf. Psalm 9:5) was called after her the Deborah-palm. The Israelites went up to her there to obtain justice. The expression "came up" is applied here, as in Deuteronomy 17:8, to the place of justice, as a spiritual height, independently of the fact that the place referred to here really stood upon an eminence.
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