John 21:12
Jesus saith unto them, Come and dine. And none of the disciples durst ask him, Who art thou? knowing that it was the Lord.
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(12) Jesus saith unto them, Come and dine.—Comp. Note on John 21:15 and Luke 11:37, which are the only other instances of the verb in the New Testament. The meal referred to was the early morning meal which we call breakfast (John 21:4).

And none of the disciples durst ask him . . .—Comp. John 4:27. They approach Him in reverent silence. Knowing it is the Lord, they yet desire the assurance in His own words, and still they do not dare to ask, “Who art thou?” The Greek word rendered “ask” means to “prove” “inquire.” It is found elsewhere in the New Testament in Matthew 2:8; Matthew 10:11 only. The word rendered “durst,” is also not found again in St. John, but its use in the Gospels is—except in the instance of Nicodemus, “who went in boldly unto Pilate” (Mark 15:43)—confined to the expression of the reverence which dared not question our Lord. (Comp. Matthew 22:46; Mark 12:34; Luke 20:40.) In all these instances it is used with a negative, and with a verb of inquiry, as here.

21:1-14 Christ makes himself known to his people, usually in his ordinances; but sometimes by his Spirit he visits them when employed in their business. It is good for the disciples of Christ to be together in common conversation, and common business. The hour for their entering upon action was not come. They would help to maintain themselves, and not be burdensome to any. Christ's time of making himself known to his people, is when they are most at a loss. He knows the temporal wants of his people, and has promised them not only grace sufficient, but food convenient. Divine Providence extends itself to things most minute, and those are happy who acknowledge God in all their ways. Those who are humble, diligent, and patient, though their labours may be crossed, shall be crowned; they sometimes live to see their affairs take a happy turn, after many struggles. And there is nothing lost by observing Christ's orders; it is casting the net on the right side of the ship. Jesus manifests himself to his people by doing that for them which none else can do, and things which they looked not for. He would take care that those who left all for him, should not want any good thing. And latter favours are to bring to mind former favours, that eaten bread may not be forgotten. He whom Jesus loved was the first that said, It is the Lord. John had cleaved most closely to his Master in his sufferings, and knew him soonest. Peter was the most zealous, and reached Christ the first. How variously God dispenses his gifts, and what difference there may be between some believers and others in the way of their honouring Christ, yet they all may be accepted of him! Others continue in the ship, drag the net, and bring the fish to shore, and such persons ought not to be blamed as worldly; for they, in their places, are as truly serving Christ as the others. The Lord Jesus had provision ready for them. We need not be curious in inquiring whence this came; but we may be comforted at Christ's care for his disciples. Although there were so many, and such great fishes, yet they lost none, nor damaged their net. The net of the gospel has enclosed multitudes, yet it is as strong as ever to bring souls to God.Come and dine - The word in the original means the meal which is taken in the morning, or breakfast. 12-14. none … durst ask him, Who art thou, knowing it was the Lord—implying that they would have liked Him just to say, "It is I"; but having such convincing evidence they were afraid of being "upbraided for their unbelief and hardness of heart" if they ventured to put the question. It was in the morning, and may as well be translated, Come and break your fasts, as

Come and dine. They now knew it was the Lord, if not by his face and voice, yet by this miracle; therefore they durst not ask him, for fear of a sharp reproof, after he had by such a miraculous operation made himself known to them.

Jesus saith unto them, come and dine,.... One would think it should rather have been said, come and take a breakfast than a dinner, since it was so early in the morning: but Grotius has observed, out of Homer, that is used for food taken in a morning; so that it may signify here, not what we properly call dining, but eating a morning's meal; and may be an emblem of that spiritual refreshment believers enjoy with Christ in his house and ordinances now, and of those everlasting pleasures they will partake with him in the resurrection morn: and it is to be observed, that he does not say go and dine, but come and dine; that is, along with himself: he does not send his disciples elsewhere for food, but invites them to come to him, to hear his word, which is food for faith, to wait in his house, where plenty of provision is made, and to attend on his ordinances, and in all to feed upon himself, and to feed with him; to all which they are heartily welcome.

And none of the disciples durst ask him, who art thou? knowing that it was the Lord: to ask such a question was altogether unnecessary, and would have been impertinent, and they might justly have been upbraided and rebuked for it: it would have looked like insolence, or unbelief, or both, and that greatly aggravated, when it was so clear a case that it was the Lord; who might be known by his voice and person, especially when they came near to him, and also by the miracles which he wrought: so at the last day, when every eye shall see him coming in the clouds of heaven, none will ask who he is; all will know him.

Jesus saith unto them, Come and dine. And none of the disciples durst ask him, Who art thou? knowing that it was the Lord.
John 21:12-13. Ἄριστον is, as little as in Matthew 22:4, Luke 11:38, the principal meal, which, in spite of John 21:4, Hengstenberg suggests in the interest of allegorical interpretation, but breakfast.

ἐτόλμα] dared, presumed. Although, that is, it had been possible for them, in respect of the external appearance, to doubt whether He was the Lord, they were nevertheless convinced of His identity, and hence dared not to ask Him: Who art thou? Reverential awe (comp. already John 4:27), in presence of the marvellous appearance of the Risen One, deprived them of the courage to do so. According to Augustine, Beda, Jansen, and several others, they dared not doubt, which however, is not expressed. Chrysostom aptly remarks: οὐκέτι γὰρ τὴν αὐτὴν παῤῥησίαν εἶχον· … τὴν δὲ μορφὴν ἀλλοιοτέραν ὁρῶντες καὶ πολλῆς ἐκπλήξεως γέμουσαν, σφόδρα ἦσαν καταπεπληγμένοι, καὶ ἐβούλοντο τι περὶ αὐτῆς ἐρωτᾶν· ἀλλὰ τὸ δέος καὶ τὸ εἰδέναι αὐτοὺς, ὅτι οὐχ ἕτερός τις ἦν, ἀλλʼ αὐτὸς, ἐπεῖχον τὴν ἐρώτησιν.

ἐξετάσαι] to explore (Matthew 2:8; Matthew 10:11; Sir 11:7; Sir 13:11, frequently in the classics), sciscitari; strong expression from the point of view from which the respectful timidity of the disciples regarded the daring nature of the question.

εἰδότες] Constructio κατὰ σύνεσιν. See Kühner, II. § 419a; Krüger, § 58. 4. 5.

John 21:13. ἔρχεται] The δεῦτε, John 21:12, has summoned the disciples to the place of the meal where the fire of coals was; Jesus Himself, who had therefore stood at some distance therefrom, now steps forward, in order to distribute the breakfast.

τὸν ἄρτον] points back to John 21:9, but τὸ ὀψάριον to John 21:9-10 : the bread lying there, etc. Both are again collective. It is not merely one loaf and one fish which Jesus distributes, as Hengstenberg, for the purpose of symbolically interpreting it of a heavenly reward of toil, assumes; see John 21:10.

A thanksgiving before the δίδωσιν is not related, not as though Jesus omitted τὰ ἀνθρώπινα (Euth. Zigabenus); nor as though He did not desire positively to offer Himself to their recognition (Lange, in opposition to John 21:12); nor, again, as though the meal was to be a silent[281] one (Luthardt, who adds: “for such is the table fellowship of Jesus and His own in the present aeon”); nor, again, because the meal represented future blessings (Hengstenberg),—but because here it is not a question of any proper meal, as in Luke 24:20, but rather only of a breakfast, of a morning meal, partaken of only while standing (there is no mention, moreover, of a lying down), which also was not to have, like that early meal of Paul, Acts 27:35, a character of solemnity. It was not this breakfast in itself, which Christ prepared for the disciples, but that which preceded (the draught of fishes) and succeeded (John 21:15 ff.), which was the object for which the Risen One here appeared.

[281] That the meal passed generally in entire silence, as also Hengstenberg suggests, as little appears from the text as that Jesus did not Himself partake of it (Hengstenberg). In favour of a symbolical interpretation of details, a dismal and extravagant character is given to the incident. But the text breaks off with the distribution of the bread and of the mess of fish, and it says nothing of the progress of the breakfast.

John 21:12. λέγειἀριστήσατε, Jesus takes the place of host and says, “Come, breakfast,” make your morning meal. οὐδεὶςΚύριός ἐστιν, not one of the disciples ventured to interrogate Him; ἐξετάσαι is “to examine by questioning”. Each man felt convinced it was the Lord, and a new reverence prevented them from questioning Him.

12. Come and dine] The meal indicated is not the principal meal of the day (deipnon) which was taken in the afternoon, but the morning meal (ariston) or breakfast. See on Luke 11:37.

And none] Omit ‘and.’ There is a solemn simplicity in the narrative. The sentences from John 21:10 to John 21:14 have no connecting particles: comp. chap. 15 and John 20:13-19.

none durst ask … knowing] A mixture of perplexity, awe, and conviction. They are convinced that He is the Lord, yet feel that He is changed, and reverence restrains them from curious questions. Comp. Matthew 2:8; Matthew 10:11. The writer knows the inmost feelings of Apostles (comp. John 2:11; John 2:17; John 2:22, John 4:27; John 4:33, John 6:21, John 9:2, John 20:20) [11].

John 21:12. Δεῦτε, come) The Lord receives His disciples at the banquet. In John 21:9 there is mentioned the preparation for dinner (or rather luncheon, or breakfast, ἄριστον, the early meal).—ἀριστήσατε, breakfast or dine) viz. ye. Jesus had no necessity to eat. From the mention of breakfast or luncheon (the morning meal), with which comp. John 21:4, “the morning,” it is evident the manifestation (John 21:1) of Him lasted many hours.—οὐδεὶς, none) Implying the great solemnity of this feast.—εἰδότες, knowing) Syllepsis.[403]

[403] The sense being regarded in the construction more than the words. The participle plural agreeing with μαθηταὶ understood, taken out of οὐδεὶς μαθητῶν.—E. and T.

Verse 12. - Jesus saith to them, Come and break your fast. A Word is used which does not denote the principal meal of the day (not δειπνέω, but ἀριστάω, from ἄριστον), but a slight refreshment that was taken in early morning, or at least before noon, and answers to our breakfast at the dawning of the day. He calls them to the repast. He becomes once more their Host and their Minister. Even still, metaphorically, he washes their feet. He attends to their requirements. He feeds them from this strangely bestowed supply. He joins them in their hunger for souls. He inspires their methods. He shares in their victory, after painful fruitless toil. Now not one - i.e. not even Thomas - of the disciples durst inquire of him - put to him the interrogatory - Who art thou? knowing, each one of them that it was the Lord. The use of ἐξετάσαι instead of ἑρωτήσαι, John's own word, is not to be wondered at, as he does not think of a simple inquiry, but of such an examination as would furnish them with facts. These they possessed. A feeling of awe and reverence possessed them. They were of one mind about the marvelous revelation of himself to them. Some strange emotion sealed their lips. He had not manifested himself to the world, but to his disciples, and to them by "the interpretations they were putting upon their own experience" (Westcott). They knew it was the Lord. They looked into that other world. They were lost in silent amaze, and received the revelation once more of their risen Master and Lord. John 21:12Dine (ἀριστήσατε)

Rather, breakfast. In Attic Greek ἄριστον signified the mid-day meal; the evening meal being known as δεῖπνον. The regular hour for the ἄριστον cannot be fixed with precision. The drift of authority among Greek writers seems to be in favor of noon. The meal described here, however, evidently took place at an earlier hour, and would seem to have answered more nearly to the ἀκρατίσμα, or breakfast of the Greeks, which was taken directly upon rising. Plutarch, however, expressly states that both names were applied to the morning meal, and says of Alexander, "He was accustomed to breakfast (ἠρίστα) at early dawn, sitting, and to sup (ἐδείπνει) late in the evening." In Matthew 22:4, it is an ἄριστον to which the king's wedding-guests are invited.

Ask (ἐξετα.σαι)

Rev., inquire. Implying careful and precise inquiry. It occurs only three times in the New Testament; of Herod's command to search diligently for the infant Christ (Matthew 2:8), and of the apostles' inquiring out the worthy members of a household (Matthew 10:11).

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