Ephesians 5:9 Commentaries: (for the fruit of the Light consists in all goodness and righteousness and truth),
Ephesians 5:9
(For the fruit of the Spirit is in all goodness and righteousness and truth;)
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(9) For the fruit . . .—The true reading is, of the Light, for which the easier phrase, “the fruit of the Spirit,” has been substituted, to the great detriment of the force and coherency of the whole passage. Light has its fruits; darkness (see Ephesians 5:11) is “unfruitful.” The metaphor is striking, but literally correct, inasmuch as light is the necessary condition of that vegetative life which grows and yields fruit, while darkness is the destruction, if not of life, at any rate of fruit-bearing perfection.

Goodness and righteousness and truth.—These are practical exhibitions of the “being true in love,” described in Ephesians 4:15 as the characteristic of the Christ-like soul. For “goodness” is love in practical benevolence, forming, in Galatians 5:22, a climax to “longsuffering” and “kindness,” and, in 2Thessalonians 1:11, distinguished as practical from the “faith” which underlies practice. The other two qualities, “righteousness” and “truth”—that is, probably, truthfulness-are both parts of the great principle of “being true.”



Ephesians 5:9This is one of the cases in which the Revised Version has done service by giving currency to an unmistakably accurate and improved reading. That which stands in our Authorised Version, ‘the fruit of the Spirit’ seems to have been a correction made by some one who took offence at the violent metaphor, as he conceived it, that ‘light’ should bear ‘fruit’ and desired to tinker the text so as to bring it into verbal correspondence with another passage in the Epistle to the Galatians, where ‘the fruits of the Spirit’ are enumerated. But the reading, ‘the fruit of the light,’ has not only the preponderance of manuscript authority in its favour, but is preferable because it preserves a striking image, and is in harmony with the whole context.

The Apostle has just been exhorting his Ephesian friends to walk as ‘children of the light’ and before he goes on to expand and explain that injunction he interjects this parenthetical remark, as if he would say, To be true to the light that is in you is the sum of duty, and the condition of perfectness, ‘for the fruit of the light is in all goodness and righteousness and truth’ That connection is entirely destroyed by the substitution of ‘spirit.’ The whole context, both before and after my text, is full of references to the light as working in the life; and a couple of verses after it we read about ‘the unfruitful works of darkness’ an expression which evidently looks back to my text.

So please do understand that our text in this sermon is-’The fruit of the light consists in all goodness and righteousness and truth.’

I. Now, first of all, I have just a word to say about this light which is fruitful.

Note-for it is, I think, not without significance-a minute variation in the Apostle’s language in this verse and in the context. He has been speaking of ‘light,’ now he speaks of ‘the light’; and that, I think, is not accidental. The expression, ‘walk as children of light,’ is more general and vague. The expression, ‘the fruit of the light,’ points to some specific source from which all light flows. And observe, also, that we have in the previous context, ‘Ye were sometime darkness, but now are ye light in the Lord,’ which evidently implies that the light of which my text speaks is not natural to men, but is the result of the entrance into their darkness of a new element.

Now I do not suppose that we should be entitled to say that Paul here is formally anticipating the deep teaching of the Apostle John that Jesus Christ is ‘the Light of men,’ and especially of Christian men. But he is distinctly asserting, I think, that the light which blesses and hallows humanity is no diffused glow, but is all gathered and concentrated into one blazing centre, from which it floods the hearts of men. Or, to put away the metaphor, he is here asserting that the only way by which any man can cease to be, in the doleful depths of his nature, darkness in its saddest sense is by opening his heart through faith, that into it there may rush, as the light ever does where an opening-be it only a single tiny cranny-is made, the light which is Christ, and without whom is darkness.

I know, of course, that, apart altogether from the exercise of faith in Jesus Christ, there do shine in men’s hearts rays of the light of knowledge and of purity; but if we believe the teaching of Scripture, these, too, are from Christ, in His universally-diffused work, by which, apart altogether from individual faith, or from a knowledge of revelation, He is ‘the light that lighteth every man coming into the world.’ And I hold that, wheresoever there is conscience, wheresoever there is judgment and reason, wheresoever there are sensitive desires after excellence and nobleness, there is a flickering of a light which I believe to be from Christ Himself. But that light, as widely diffused as humanity, fights with, and is immersed in, darkness. In the physical world, light and darkness are mutually exclusive: where the one is the other comes not; but in the spiritual world the paradox is true that the two co-exist. Apart from revelation and the acceptance of Jesus Christ’s person and work by our humble faith, the light struggles with the darkness, and the darkness obstinately refuses to admit its entrance, and ‘comprehendeth it not.’ And so, ineffectual but to make restless and to urge to vain efforts and to lay up material for righteous judgment, is the light that shines in men whose hearts are shut against Christ. The fruitful light is Christ within us, and, unless we know and possess it by the opening of heart and mind and will, the solemn words preceding my text are true of us: ‘Ye were sometime darkness.’ Oh, brother! do you see to it that the subsequent words are true of you: ‘Now are ye light in the Lord.’ Only if you are in Christ are you truly light.

II. Now, secondly, notice the fruitfulness of this indwelling light.

Of course the metaphor that light, like a tree, grows and blossoms and puts forth fruit, is a very strong one. And its very violence and incongruity help its force. Fruit is generally used in Scripture in a good sense. It conveys the notion of something which is the natural outcome of a vital power, and so, when we talk about the light being fruitful, we are setting, in a striking image, the great Christian thought that, if you want to get right conduct, you must have renewed character; and that if you have renewed character you will get right conduct. This is the principle of my text. The light has in it a productive power; and the true way to adorn a life with all things beautiful, solemn, lovely, is to open the heart to the entrance of Jesus Christ.

God’s way is-first, new life, then better conduct. Men’s way is, ‘cultivate morality, seek after purity, try to be good.’ And surely conscience and experience alike tell us that that is a hopeless effort. To begin with what should be second is an anachronism in morals, and will be sure to result in failure in practice. He is not a wise man that tries to build a house from the chimneys downwards. And to talk about making a man’s doings good before you have secured a radical change in the doer, by the infusion into him of the very life of Jesus Christ Himself, is to begin at the top story, instead of at the foundation. Many of us are trying to put the cart before the horse in that fashion. Many of us have made the attempt over and over again, and the attempt always has failed and always will fail. You may do much for the mending of your characters and for the incorporation in your lives of virtues and graces which do not grow there naturally and without effort. I do not want to cut the nerves of any man’s stragglings, I do not want to darken the brightness of any man’s aspirations, but I do say that the people who, apart from Jesus Christ, and the entrance into their souls by faith of His quickening power, are seeking, some of them nobly, some of them sadly, and all of them vainly, to cure their faults of character, will never attain anything but a superficial and fragmentary goodness, because they have begun at the wrong end.

But ‘make the tree good’ and its fruit will be good. Get Christ into your heart, and all fair things will grow as the natural outcome of His indwelling. The fruitfulness of the light is not put upon its right basis until we come to understand that the light is Christ Himself, who, dwelling in our hearts by faith, is made in us as well as ‘unto us wisdom, and righteousness, and salvation, and redemption.’ The beam that is reflected from the mirror is the very beam that falls on the mirror, and the fair things in life and conduct which Christian people bring forth are in very deed the outcome of the vital power of Jesus Christ which has entered into them. ‘I live, yet not I, but Christ liveth in me,’ is the Apostle’s declaration in the midst of his struggles; and the perfected saints before the throne cast their crowns at His feet, and say, ‘Not unto us! not unto us, but unto Thy name be the glory.’ The talent is the Lord’s, only the spending of it is the servant’s. And so the order of the Divine appointment is, first, the entrance of the light, and then the conduct that flows from it.

Note, too, how this same principle of the fruitfulness of the light gives instruction as to the true place of effort in the Christian life. The main effort ought to be to get more of the light into ourselves. ‘Abide in Me, and I in you.’ And so, and only so, will fruit come.

And such an effort has to take in hand all the circumference of our being, and to fix thoughts that wander, and to still wishes that clamour, and to empty hearts that are full of earthly loves, and to clear a space in minds that are crammed with thoughts about the transient and the near, in order that the mind may keep in steadfast contemplation of Jesus, and the heart may be bound to Him by cords of love that are not capable of being snapped, and scarcely of being stretched, and the will may in patience stand saying, ‘Speak, Lord! for Thy servant heareth’; and the whole tremulous nature may be rooted and built up in and on Him. Ah, brother! if we understand all that goes to the fulfilment of that one sweet and merciful injunction, ‘Abide in Me,’ we shall recognise that there is the field on which Christian effort is mainly to be occupied.

But that is not all. For there must be likewise the effort to appropriate, and still more to manifest in conduct, the fruit-bringing properties of that indwelling light. ‘Giving all diligence add to your faith.’ ‘Having these promises, let us cleanse ourselves from all filthiness of flesh and spirit, perfecting holiness in the fear of the Lord.’ We are often told that just as we trust Christ for our forgiveness and acceptance, so we are to trust Him for our sanctifying and perfecting. It is true, and yet it is not true. We are to trust Him for our sanctifying and our perfecting. But the faith which trusts Him for these is not a substitute for effort, but it is the foundation of effort. And the more we rely on His power to cleanse us from all evil, the more are we bound to make the effort in His power and in dependence on Him, to cleanse ourselves from all evil, and to secure as our own the natural outcomes of His dwelling within us, which are ‘the fruits of the light.’

III. And so, lastly, notice the specific fruits which the Apostle here dwells upon.

They consist, says he, in all goodness and righteousness and truth. Now ‘goodness’ here seems to me to be used in its narrower sense, just as the same Apostle uses it in the Epistle to the Romans, in contrast with ‘righteousness,’ where he says, ‘for a good man some would even dare to die.’ There he means by ‘good,’ as he does here by ‘goodness,’ not the general expression for all forms of virtue and gracious conduct, but the specific excellence of kindliness, amiability, or the like. ‘Righteousness’ again, is that which rigidly adheres to the strict law of duty, and carefully desires to give to every man what belongs to him, and to every relation of life what it requires. And ‘truth’ is rather the truth of sincerity, as opposed to hypocrisy and lies and shams, than the intellectual truth as opposed to error.

Now, all these three types of excellence-kindliness, righteousness, truthfulness-are apt to be separated. For the first of them-amiability, kindliness, gentleness-is apt to become too soft, to lose its grip of righteousness, and it needs the tonic of the addition of those other graces, just as you need lime in water if it is to make bone. Righteousness, on the other hand, is apt to become stern, and needs the softening of goodness to make it human and attractive. The rock is grim when it is bare; it wants verdure to drape it if it is to be lovely. Truth needs kindliness and righteousness, and they need truth. For there are men who pride themselves on ‘speaking out,’ and take rudeness and want of regard for other people’s sensitive feelings to be sincerity. And, on the other hand, it is possible that amiability may be sweeter than truth is, and that righteousness may be hypocritical and insincere. So Paul says, ‘Let this white light be resolved in the prism of your characters into the threefold rays of kindliness, righteousness, truthfulness.’

And then, again, he desires that each of us should try to make our own a fully developed, all-round perfection-all goodness and righteousness and truth; of every sort, that is, and in every degree. We are all apt to cultivate graces of character which correspond to our natural disposition and make. We are all apt to become torsos, fragmentary, one-sided, like the trees that grow against a brick wall, or those which stand exposed to the prevailing blasts from one quarter of the sky. But we should seek to appropriate types of excellence to which we are least inclined, as well as those which are most in harmony with our natural dispositions. If you incline to kindliness, try to brace yourselves with righteousness; if you incline to righteousness, to take the stern, strict view of duty, and to give to every man what he deserves, remember that you do not give men their dues unless you give them a great deal more than their deserts, and that righteousness does not perfectly allot to our fellows what they ought to receive from us, unless we give them pity and indulgence and forbearance and forgiveness when it is needed. The one light breaks into all colours-green in the grass, purple and red in the flowers, flame-coloured in the morning sky, blue in the deep sea. The light that is in us ought, in like manner, to be analysed into, and manifested in, ‘whatsoever things are lovely and of good report.’

And so, dear friends, here is a test for us all. Devout emotion, orthodox creed, practical diligence in certain forms of benevolence and philanthropic work, are all very well; but Jesus Christ came to make us like Himself, and to turn our darkness into light that betrays its source by its resemblance, though it be a weakened one, to the sun from which it came. We have no right to call ourselves Christ’s followers unless we are, in some measure, Christ’s pictures.

Here is a message of cheer and hope for us all. We have all tried, and tried, and tried, over and over again, to purge and mend these poor characters of ours. How long the toil, how miserable and poor the results! A million candles will not light the night; but when God’s mercy of sunrise comes above the hills, beasts of prey slink to their dens and birds begin to sing, and flowers open, and growth resumes again. We cannot mend ourselves except partially and superficially; but we can open will, heart, and mind, by faith, for His entrance; and where He comes, there He slays the evil creatures that live in and love the dark, and all gracious things will blossom into beauty. If we are in the Lord we shall be light; and if the Lord, who is the Light, is in us, we, too, shall bear fruits of ‘all righteousness and goodness and truth.’5:3-14 Filthy lusts must be rooted out. These sins must be dreaded and detested. Here are not only cautions against gross acts of sin, but against what some may make light of. But these things are so far from being profitable. that they pollute and poison the hearers. Our cheerfulness should show itself as becomes Christians, in what may tend to God's glory. A covetous man makes a god of his money; places that hope, confidence, and delight, in worldly good, which should be in God only. Those who allow themselves, either in the lusts of the flesh or the love of the world, belong not to the kingdom of grace, nor shall they come to the kingdom of glory. When the vilest transgressors repent and believe the gospel, they become children of obedience, from whom God's wrath is turned away. Dare we make light of that which brings down the wrath of God? Sinners, like men in the dark, are going they know not whither, and doing they know not what. But the grace of God wrought a mighty change in the souls of many. Walk as children of light, as having knowledge and holiness. These works of darkness are unfruitful, whatever profit they may boast; for they end in the destruction of the impenitent sinner. There are many ways of abetting, or taking part in the sins of others; by commendation, counsel, consent, or concealment. And if we share with others in their sins, we must expect to share in their plagues. If we do not reprove the sins of others, we have fellowship with them. A good man will be ashamed to speak of what many wicked men are not ashamed to do. We must have not only a sight and a knowledge that sin is sin, and in some measure shameful, but see it as a breach of God's holy law. After the example of prophets and apostles, we should call on those asleep and dead in sin, to awake and arise, that Christ may give them light.For the fruit of the Spirit - That is, since the Holy Spirit through the gospel produces goodness, righteousness, and truth, see that you exhibit these in your lives, and thus show that you are the children of light. On the fruits of the Spirit, see the notes on Galatians 5:22-23.

Is in all goodness - Is seen in producing all kinds of goodness. He who is not good is not a Christian.

9. fruit of the Spirit—taken by transcribers from Ga 5:22. The true reading is that of the oldest manuscripts, "The fruit of THE LIGHT"; in contrast with "the unfruitful works of darkness" (Eph 5:11). This verse is parenthetic. Walk as children of light, that is, in all good works and words, "FOR the fruit of the light is [borne] in [Alford; but Bengel, 'consists in'] all goodness [opposed to 'malice,' Eph 4:31], righteousness [opposed to 'covetousness,' Eph 5:3] and truth [opposed to 'lying,' Eph 4:25]." The fruit of the Spirit; either in the fruit or work of the new nature, or of the Holy Ghost, by whom we are made light in the Lord: see Galatians 5:22.

In all goodness; either a general virtue in opposition to wickedness, or benignity and bounty.

Righteousness; in opposition to injustice, by covetousness, fraud, &c.

Truth; in opposition to error, lies, hypocrisy. He shows what it is to walk as children of light. For the fruit of the Spirit,.... Either of the spirit of man, as renewed, or rather of the Spirit of God; the allusion is to fruits of trees: the believer is a tree of righteousness; Christ is his root; the Spirit is the sap, which supports and nourishes; and good works, under the influence of his grace, are the fruit: the Alexandrian copy, and some others, and the Vulgate Latin, Syriac, and Ethiopic versions, read "the fruit of light"; which agrees with the preceding words: and the genuine fruit of internal grace, or light,

is in all goodness, and righteousness, and truth; the fruit of "goodness", lies in sympathizing with persons in distress; in assisting such according to the abilities men have in a readiness to forgive offences and injuries; and in using meekness and candour in admonishing others: "righteousness" lies in living in obedience to the law of God; in attending the worship and service of him; and in discharging our duty to our fellow creatures; and this as goodness, is very imperfect, and not to be boasted of, or trusted to, nor is salvation to be expected from it: "truth" is opposed to lying, to hypocrisy, to error and falsehood; and where the Spirit of God, and the work of grace are, there will be more or less an appearance of these fruits.

(For the fruit of the {d} Spirit is in all goodness and righteousness and truth;)

(d) By whose power we are made light in the Lord.

Ephesians 5:9. Parenthetic incitement to the observance of the preceding summons, by holding forth the glorious fruit which the Christian illumination bears; δοκιμάζοντες is then (Ephesians 5:10) accompanying definition to περιπατεῖτε, and the μὴ συγκοινωνεῖτε, Ephesians 5:11, continues the imperative form of address. For taking the participle of Ephesians 5:10 as grammatically incorrect in the sense of the imperative (Bleek, following Koppe) there is absolutely no ground.

γάρ] for, not the merely explanatory namely, which introduces into the whole paraenetic chain of the discourse something feeble and alien.

ὁ καρπὸς τοῦ φωτός] indicates in a figurative manner the aggregate of the moral effects (καρπός collective, as in Matthew 3:8; Php 1:11) which the Christian enlightenment has as its result. Comp. on Galatians 5:22.[260]

ἐν πάσῃ ἀγαθωσύνῃ] sc. ἐστί, so that every kind of probity (ἀγαθωσ., see on Romans 15:14; Galatians 5:22), etc., is thought of as that, in which the fruit is contained (consists). Comp. Matthiae, p. 1342.

δικαιοσύνῃ] moral rectitude, Romans 6:13; Romans 14:17. See on Php 1:11.[261]

ἈΛΗΘΕΊᾼ] moral truth, opposed to hypocrisy as ethical ψεῦδος, 1 Corinthians 5:8; Php 1:18; Php 4:8; John 3:21. The general nature of these three words, which together embrace the whole of Christian morality, and that under the three different points of view “good, right, true,” forbids the assumption of more special contrasts, as e.g. in Chrysostom: ἀγαθωσ. is opposed to wrath, ΔΙΚΑΙΟΣ. to seduction and deceit, ἈΛΗΘ. to lying. Others present the matter otherwise; see Theophylact, Erasmus, Grotius.

[260] Where what is here termed καρπ. τοῦ φωτός is called καρπ. τοῦ πνεύματος. Not as though πνεῦμα and φῶς were one and the same thing (Delitzsch, Bibl. Psychol. p. 390), but the Spirit, through whom God and Christ dwell in the heart. Romans 8:9, produces the φῶς in the heart (2 Corinthians 4:6; Ephesians 1:17 f.), so that the fruit of the Spirit is also the fruit of the light, and vice versâ. Nor is the fruit of the word sown upon the good ground anything different.

[261] According to Php 1:11, the Christian moral rectitude has again its καρπός in the several Christian virtues, which are the expressions of its life.Ephesians 5:9. ὁ γὰρ καρπὸς τοῦ πνεύματος [φωτός]: for the fruit of the Spirit [the light]. The reading of the TR, τοῦ πνεύματος, which is that of such uncials as [540]3[541] [542], most cursives, Syr.-P., Chrys., etc., must give place to τοῦ φωτός, which is supported by [543] [544] [545] [546]*[547] [548], 672, Vulg., Goth., Boh., Arm., Orig., etc. The πνεύματος is probably a correction from Galatians 5:22. The whole verse is in effect a parenthesis, and is printed as such by the RV. But it is a parenthesis with a purpose, the γάρ being at once explanatory and confirmatory. It gives a reason for the previous injunction and an enforcement of it; the point being this—“Walk as I charge you; for anything else would be out of keeping with what is proper to the light and is produced by it”. καρπός, fruit, a figurative term for the moral results of the light, its products as a whole; cf. Matthew 3:8; Php 1:11, etc. In the corresponding statement in Galatians 5:22, where the καρπὸς τοῦ πνεύματος is contrasted with τὰ ἔργα τῆς σαρκός, the singular term may also suggest the idea of the unity of the life and character resulting from the Spirit.—ἐν πάσῃ ἀγαθωσύνῃ: is in all goodness. ἐστι, is, consists, is left unexpressed after καρπός. The πάσῃ here again has the force of “every form of,”—in goodness in all its forms. The noun ἀγαθωσύνη appears again in Romans 16:14; Galatians 5:22; 2 Thessalonians 1:11. Thus it occurs only four times in the Pauline writings. It is used in the LXX, but appears not to belong to classical Greek. It varies somewhat in sense. In the OT it means sometimes good as opposed to evil (Psalm 38:20; Psalm 52:3), sometimes enjoyment (Ecclesiastes 4:8), sometimes benevolence, the bountiful goodness of God (Nehemiah 9:25). Here and in the other Pauline passages it is taken by some in the sense of uprightness, but appears rather to mean active goodness, beneficence; cf. Trench, Syn., p. 218.—καὶ δικαιοσύνῃ: and righteousness. δικαιοσύνη here has the sense of rectitude, probity, freedom from the morally wrong or imperfect, as in Matthew 3:15; Matthew 5:6; Matthew 5:10; Matthew 5:20, etc., and as also in such Pauline passages as Romans 6:13; Romans 6:16; Romans 6:18-20; Romans 8:10; 2 Corinthians 6:7; 2 Corinthians 6:14, etc.—καὶ ἀληθείᾳ: and truth. ἀλήθεια here in the subjective sense of moral truth, sincerity and integrity as opposed to falsehood, hypocrisy and the like; cf. John 3:21; 1 Corinthians 5:8; Php 1:18, etc. Here, then, Christian morality is given in its three great forms of the good, the just, the true. Abbott compares the “justice, mercy, and truth” of the Gospels and Butler’s “justice, truth, and regard to the common good”.

[540] Codex Claromontanus (sæc. vi.), a Græco-Latin MS. at Paris, edited by Tischendorf in 1852.

[541] Codex Mosquensis (sæc. ix.), edited by Matthæi in 1782.

[542] Codex Angelicus (sæc. ix.), at Rome, collated by Tischendorf and others.

[543] Codex Vaticanus (sæc. iv.), published in photographic facsimile in 1889 under the care of the Abbate Cozza-Luzi.

[544] Codex Sinaiticus (sæc. iv.), now at St. Petersburg, published in facsimile type by its discoverer, Tischendorf, in 1862.

[545] Codex Alexandrinus (sæc. v.), at the British Museum, published in photographic facsimile by Sir E. M. Thompson (1879).

[546] Codex Claromontanus (sæc. vi.), a Græco-Latin MS. at Paris, edited by Tischendorf in 1852.

[547] Codex Boernerianus (sæc. ix.), a Græco-Latin MS., at Dresden, edited by Matthæi in 1791. Written by an Irish scribe, it once formed part of the same volume as Codex Sangallensis (δ) of the Gospels. The Latin text, g, is based on the O.L. translation.

[548] Codex Porphyrianus (sæc. ix.), at St. Petersburg, collated by Tischendorf. Its text is deficient for chap. Ephesians 2:13-16.9. for] The suppressed link of thought is, “Walk in a path wholly unlike that of the disobedient; for the path of the light must be such.”

the fruit of the Spirit] Cp. Galatians 5:22. But the literary evidence here supports the reading the fruit of the light. The metaphor “fruit” (found here only in the Epistle) gives the idea not only of result but of natural and congenial result; growth rather than elaboration. Christian virtue is, in its true essence, grace having its way.

is in] Consists in, comes out in.

all] Observe here, as continually, the absoluteness in idea of the Christian character. It is an unsinning character. “Whosoever is born of God, doth not commit sin” (1 John 3:9). The Christian, as a Christian, sins not: a truth at once humiliating and stimulating.

goodness] The Gr. word occurs besides, Romans 15:14; Galatians 5:22; 2 Thessalonians 1:11. The Gr. word like the English, while properly meaning the whole quality opposite to evil, tends to mean specially the goodness of beneficence, or at least benevolence. Such, on the whole, is the evidence of the LXX. usage. But the context here favours the wider and more original reference; all that is anti-vicious.

St Chrysostom sees in it here a special antithesis to anger; but this is surely too narrow a reference. See further on the word, Trench, N.T. Synonyms, § 1.

righteousness] See above on Ephesians 4:24. And cp. Titus 2:12. The special reference here doubtless is to the observance of God’s Law in regard of the rights of others, in things of honesty and purity.

truth] The deep, entire reality which is the opposite to the state of “the simular of virtue that is incestuous” (King Lear, iii. 3).Ephesians 5:9. Ὁ καρπὸς τοῦ φωτὸς,[80] the fruit of light) The antithesis is, the unfruitful works of darkness, Ephesians 5:11.—ἐν, in) is in, consists in, etc.—ἀγαθωσύνῃ καὶ δικαιοσύνῃ καὶ ἀληθείᾳ, in goodness, and righteousness, and truth) These are opposed to the vices just before described, from ch. Ephesians 4:25, and onwards.

[80] Rec. Text has πνεύματος with later Syr. But ABD(Δ) corrected later, Gfg Vulg. Lucif. have φωτὸς.—ED.Verse 9. - For the fruit of light is [shown] in all goodness and righteousness and truth. The exhortation is confirmed by this statement of what is the natural result of light - goodness, the disposition that leads to good works; righteousness, rectitude, or integrity, which is most careful against all disorder and injustice, and renders to all their due, and especially to God the things that are God's; and truth, meaning a regard for truth in every form and way - believing it, reverencing it, speaking it, acting according to it, hoping and rejoicing in it, being sincere and honest, not false or treacherous. Is in

Consists in. The verse is parenthetical.

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