Deuteronomy 9:10
And the LORD delivered to me two tables of stone written with the finger of God; and on them was written according to all the words, which the LORD spoke with you in the mount out of the middle of the fire in the day of the assembly.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(10) Two tables of stone.—Of these tables it is said in Exodus 32:16, “the tables were the work of God, and the writing was the writing of God, graven upon the tables.”

Deuteronomy 9:10. With the finger of God — Immediately and miraculously, which was done not only to procure the greater reverence to the law, but also to signify that it is the work of God alone to write this law upon the table of men’s hearts. In the day of the assembly — That is, when the people were gathered by God’s command to the bottom of mount Sinai, to hear and receive God’s ten commandments from his own mouth.9:7-29 That the Israelites might have no pretence to think that God brought them to Canaan for their righteousness, Moses shows what a miracle of mercy it was, that they had not been destroyed in the wilderness. It is good for us often to remember against ourselves, with sorrow and shame, our former sins; that we may see how much we are indebted to free grace, and may humbly own that we never merited any thing but wrath and the curse at God's hand. For so strong is our propensity to pride, that it will creep in under one pretence or another. We are ready to fancy that our righteousness has got for us the special favour of the Lord, though in reality our wickedness is more plain than our weakness. But when the secret history of every man's life shall be brought forth at the day of judgment, all the world will be proved guilty before God. At present, One pleads for us before the mercy-seat, who not only fasted, but died upon the cross for our sins; through whom we may approach, though self-condemned sinners, and beseech for undeserved mercy and for eternal life, as the gift of God in Him. Let us refer all the victory, all the glory, and all the praise, to Him who alone bringeth salvation.Also in Horeb - Rather, "even in Horeb." The time and circumstances made the apostasy at Horeb particularly inexcusable. 8. Also in Horeb—rather, "even in Horeb," where it might have been expected they would have acted otherwise. Immediately and miraculously, which was done not only to procure the greater reverence to the law, but also to signify that it was the work of God alone to write this law upon the tables of men’s hearts. See Jeremiah 31:33 2 Corinthians 3:3,7.

In the day of the assembly, i.e. when the people were gathered by God’s command to the bottom of Mount Sinai, to hear and receive God’s ten commandments from his own mouth. And the Lord delivered unto me two tables of stone, written with the finger of God,.... The letters were of his devising and forming, the writing was his, the engraving them on the stones was his own doing; and which was done to show its original, to stamp a divine authority on it, and to denote its duration; see Exodus 31:18.

and on them was written according to all the words which the Lord spake with you in the mount; the ten commands, exactly in the same order, and in the same words, without any variation, as they were delivered to them with an articulate voice in their hearing; but now were written in this manner, that they might be read by them, and remain with them, see Exodus 34:28.

out the midst of the fire; in which the Lord was, and whence he spake:

in the day of the assembly; when all the people of Israel were gathered together at the foot of the mount; see Exodus 19:17.

And the LORD delivered unto me two tables of stone written with the {g} finger of God; and on them was written according to all the words, which the LORD spake with you in the mount out of the midst of the fire in the day of the assembly.

(g) That is, miraculously, and not by the hand of men.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
10. tables of stone written with the finger of God] Taken exactly from. Exodus 31:18 b, E: the divine name is not changed to the usual the Lord thy God. With His own voice, face to face, God spake the words of the covenant (Deuteronomy 4:12 f., Deuteronomy 5:4) and now with His own finger wrote them. Thus by a double metaphor is the directly divine origin and supreme sanctity of the Ten Words emphasised.

all the words, which the Lord had spoken] Exodus 24:3. E.

out of the midst of the fire] Deuteronomy 4:12, Deuteronomy 5:4; Deuteronomy 5:22.

day of the assembly] Deuteronomy 10:4, Deuteronomy 18:16. See note on Deuteronomy 5:22.

The verse seems superfluous after 9 and before 11, and is regarded as a later intrusion (Steuern., Berth.). Note that—

11 follows naturally on Deuteronomy 9:9.Verse 10. - The day of the assembly; the day when the people, called out by Moses, were gathered together in the plain at the foot of Mount Sinai (Exodus 19:17). When therefore Jehovah thrust out these nations before them (הדף, as in Deuteronomy 6:19), the Israelites were not to say within themselves, "By (for, on account of) my righteousness Jehovah hath brought me (led me hither) to possess this land." The following word, וּברשׁעת, is adversative: "but because of the wickedness of these nations," etc. - To impress this truth deeply upon the people, Moses repeats the thought once more in Deuteronomy 9:5. At the same time he mentions, in addition to righteousness, straightness or uprightness of heart, to indicate briefly that outward works do not constitute true righteousness, but that an upright state of heart is indispensable, and then enters more fully into the positive reasons. The wickedness of the Canaanites was no doubt a sufficient reason for destroying them, but not for giving their land to the people of Israel, since they could lay no claim to it on account of their own righteousness. The reason for giving Canaan to the Israelites was simply the promise of God, the word which the Lord had spoken to the patriarchs on oath (cf. Deuteronomy 7:8), and therefore nothing but the free grace of God, - not any merit on the part of the Israelites who were then living, for they were a people "of a hard neck," i.e., a stubborn, untractable generation. With these words, which the Lord Himself had applied to Israel in Exodus 32:9; Exodus 33:3, Exodus 33:5, Moses prepares the way for passing to the reasons for his warning against self-righteous pride, namely, the grievous sins of the Israelites against the Lord.
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