Daniel 6:10
Now when Daniel knew that the writing was signed, he went into his house; and his windows being open in his chamber toward Jerusalem, he kneeled upon his knees three times a day, and prayed, and gave thanks before his God, as he did aforetime.
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(10) Toward Jerusalem.—On the custom of praying thus see 1Kings 8:33; 1Kings 8:35; Psalm 5:7; Psalm 28:2; and on prayer at the intervals mentioned here, see Psalm 55:17. There is nothing ostentatious in Daniel’s prayer. He removed the lattices (see Ezekiel 40:16) from his window, that he might see as far as possible in the direction of Jerusalem, and then continued his devotions just as though the king’s decree had not been recorded. The prophet must by this time have been close upon ninety years of age, but still his faith is as firm and unwavering as that of his three companions many years before.

Daniel 6:10. Now when Daniel knew that the writing was signed, he went into his house, &c. — He did not retire to the country, or abscond for some time, though he knew that the law was levelled against him; but because he knew it was so, therefore he stood his ground, knowing that he had now a fair opportunity of honouring God before men, and showing that he preferred his favour, and his own duty to him, before life itself. And his windows being open in his chamber — The LXX. read, εν τοις υπερωοις αυτου, in his upper rooms. It seems to have been a custom among the devout Jews to set apart some upper room, or rooms, in their houses, for their oratories, as places the farthest from any noise or disturbance. So we read, Tob 3:17, that Sarah came down from her upper chamber: and, the apostles assembled in an upper room, Acts 1:13. Toward Jerusalem — According to the ancient custom of the Jews; for those who were in the country, or in foreign lands, turned themselves toward Jerusalem; and those who were in Jerusalem turned themselves toward the temple to pray, conformably to Solomon’s consecration-prayer, 1 Kings 8:48-49. He prayed, it seems, with his windows quite open to view, the shutters being removed, since he chose to make his testimony to the exclusive worship of God, neglected by others, as public as might be, that he might show he was neither ashamed of worshipping Jehovah, the God of his fathers, nor afraid of any thing he might suffer on that account; and he had them open toward Jerusalem, to signify his affection for the holy city, though now in ruins, and the remembrance he had of its concerns daily in his prayers. He kneeled upon his knees — The most proper posture in prayer, most expressive of humility before God, of reverence for him, and submission to him; three times a day — Morning, noon, and evening, the hours of prayer observed by devout men of former times, Psalm 55:17; which religious custom was continued by the apostles, with whom the third, the sixth, and the ninth hours were times of prayer; and prayed, and gave thanks before his God — He joined prayer and thanksgiving together in all his devotions, in which he is an example for our imitation. Thanksgiving ought to make a part of every one of our prayers; for when we pray to God for the mercies we want, we ought to praise him for those we have received. Observe, reader, though Daniel was a great man, he did not think it below him to be thrice a day upon his knees before his Maker; though he was an old man, and it had been his practice from his youth up, he was not weary of this kind of well-doing; and though he was a man of business, of great and important business, and that for the service of the public, he did not think this would excuse him from the daily exercises of prayer and praise. How inexcusable then are they who have but little to do in the world, and yet will not do thus much for God and their souls! As he did aforetime — He did not abate his prayers because of the king’s command, and through fear of death by the lions; nor did he break the law purposely: for he did no more than he had been wont to do aforetime, he only persevered in his former long-continued course.

6:6-10 To forbid prayer for thirty days, is, for so long, to rob God of all the tribute he has from man, and to rob man of all the comfort he has in God. Does not every man's heart direct him, when in want or distress, to call upon God? We could not live a day without God; and can men live thirty days without prayer? Yet it is to be feared that those who, without any decree forbidding them, present no hearty, serious petitions to God for more than thirty days together, are far more numerous than those who serve him continually, with humble, thankful hearts. Persecuting laws are always made on false pretences; but it does not become Christians to make bitter complaints, or to indulge in revilings. It is good to have hours for prayer. Daniel prayed openly and avowedly; and though a man of vast business, he did not think that would excuse him from daily exercises of devotion. How inexcusable are those who have but little to do in the world, yet will not do thus much for their souls! In trying times we must take heed, lest, under pretence of discretion, we are guilty of cowardice in the cause of God. All who throw away their souls, as those certainly do that live without prayer, even if it be to save their lives, at the end will be found to be fools. Nor did Daniel only pray, and not give thanks, cutting off some part of the service to make the time of danger shorter; but he performed the whole. In a word, the duty of prayer is founded upon the sufficiency of God as an almighty Creator and Redeemer, and upon our wants as sinful creatures. To Christ we must turn our eyes. Thither let the Christian look, thither let him pray, in this land of his captivity.Now when Daniel knew that the writing was signed - Probably there was some proclamation made in regard to that decree.

He went into his house - That is, he went in in his usual manner. He made no change in his habits on account of the decree.

And his windows being open in his chamber - Open in the usual manner. It does not mean that he took pains to open them for the purpose of ostentation, or to show that he disregarded the decree, but that he took no care to close them with any view to avoid the consequences. In the warm climate of Babylon, the windows probably were commonly open. Houses among the Jews in later times, if not in the time of the exile, were usually constructed with an upper chamber - ὑπερῷον huperōon - which was a room not in common use, but employed as a guest chamber, where they received company and held feasts, and where at other times they retired for prayer and meditation. See the note at Matthew 9:2. Those "upper rooms" are often the most pleasant and airy part of the house. Dr. Robinson (Researches, vol. iii. p. 417), describing the house of the American consularagent in Sidon, says, "His house was a large one, built upon the eastern wall of the city; the rooms were spacious, and furnished with more appearance of wealth than any I saw in the country. An upper parlour with many windows, on the roof of the proper house, resembled a summer palace; and commanded a delightful view of the country toward the east, full of trees and gardens, and country-houses, quite to the foot of the mountains."

Toward Jerusalem - It is not improbable that the windows were open on each side of the chamber, but this is particularly mentioned, because he turned his face toward Jerusalem when he prayed. This was natural to an exile Hebrew in prayer, because the temple of God had stood at Jerusalem, and that was the place where he abode by a visible symbol. It is probable that the Jews in their own country always in their prayers turned the face toward Jerusalem, and it was anticipated when the temple was dedicated, that this would be the case in whatever lands they might be. Thus in the prayer of Solomon, at the dedication, he says, "If thy people go out to battle against their enemy, whithersoever thou shalt send them, and shall pray unto the Lord toward the city which thou hast chosen, and toward the house which I have built for thy name," etc., 1 Kings 8:44. And again 1 Kings 8:46-49, "If they sin against thee, and thou be angry with them, and deliver them to the enemy, so that they carry them away captives unto the land of the enemy, far or near; if they shall bethink themselves in the land whither they were carried captives, and repent - and pray unto thee toward their land which thou gavest unto their fathers, the city which thou hast chosen, and the house which I have built for thy name, then hear thou their prayer," etc.

Compare 1 Kings 8:33, 1 Kings 8:35, 1 Kings 8:38. So in Psalm 5:7 : "As for me, I will come into thy house in the multitude of thy mercy: and in thy fear will I worship toward thy holy temple." So Jonah it. 4: "Then I said, I am cast out of thy sight; yet I will look again toward thy holy temple." So in the first book of Esdras (Apocrypha), 4:58: "Now when this young man was gone forth, he lifted up his face to heaven, toward Jerusalem, and praised the King of heaven." Compare Intro. Section II. V. C. Daniel, therefore, in turning his face toward Jerusalem when he prayed, was acting in accordance with what Solomon had anticipated as proper in just such a supposed case, and with the prevailing habit of his people when abroad. This was not, indeed, particularly prescribed as a duty, but it was recognized as proper; and it was not only in accordance with the instinctive feelings of love to his country and the temple, but a foundation was laid for this in the fact that Jerusalem was regarded as the peculiar dwelling-place of God on earth.

In the Koran it is enjoined as a duty on all Mussulmen, in whatever part of the earth they may be, to turn their faces toward the Caaba at Mecca when they pray: "The foolish men will say, What hath turned them from their Keblah toward which they formerly prayed? Say, unto God belongeth the East and the West; he directeth whom he pleaseth in the right way. Thus have we placed you, O Arabians, an intermediate nation, that ye may be witnesses against the rest of mankind, and that the apostle may be a witness against you. We appointed the Keblah, toward which thou didst formerly pray, only that we might know him who followeth the apostle from him that turneth back on his heels: though this change seem a great matter, unless unto those whom God hath directed. But God will not render your faith of none effect, for God is gracious and merciful unto man. We have seen thee turn about thy face toward heaven with uncertainty, but we will cause thee to turn thyself toward a Keblah that will please thee.

Turn, therefore, thy face toward the holy temple of Mecca; and wherever ye be, turn your faces toward that place." - Sale's Koran, chapter ii. Wherever Mussulmen are, therefore, they turn their faces toward the temple at Mecca when they pray. Daniel complied with what was probably the general custom of his countrymen, and what was natural in his case, for there was, in the nature of the case, a reason why he should turn his face toward the place where God had been accustomed to manifest himself. It served to keep up in his mind the remembrance of his beloved country, and in his case could be attended with no evil. As all visible symbols of the Devine Being are now, however, withdrawn from any particular place on the earth, there is no propriety in imitating his example, and when we pray it is wholly immaterial in what direction the face is turned.

He kneeled upon his knees three times a day - In accordance, doubtless, with his usual custom. The amount of the statement is, that he did not vary his habit on account of the command. He evidently neither assumed a posture of ostentation, nor did he abstain from what he was accustomed to do. To have departed from his usual habit in any way would have been a yielding of principle in the case. It is not mentioned at what time in the day Daniel thus kneeled and prayed, but we may presume that it was evening, and morning, and noon. Thus the Psalmist says: "Evening, and morning, and at noon, will I pray, and cry aloud; and he shall hear my voice" Psalm 55:17. No one can doubt the propriety of thus praying to God; and it would be well for all thus to call upon their God.

As he did aforetime - Without making any change. He neither increased nor diminished the number of times each day in which he called upon God; nor did he make any change in the manner of doing it. He did not seek ostentatiously to show that he was a worshipper of God, nor was he deterred by the fear of punishment from doing as he had been accustomed to do. If it should be said that Daniel's habit of worship was ostentatious; that his praying with his windows open was contrary to the true spirit of retiring devotion, and especially contrary to the spirit required of worshippers in the New Testament, where the Saviour commands us when we pray to "enter into the closet, and to shut the door" Matthew 6:6, it may be replied,

(1) That there is no evidence that Daniel did this for the purpose of ostentation, and the supposition that he did it for that purpose is contrary to all that we know of his character;

(2) As we have seen, this was the customary place for prayer, and the manner of the prayer was what was usual;

(3) The chamber, or upper part of the house, was in fact the most retired part, and was a place where one would be least likely to be heard or seen; and

(4) There is no evidence that it would not have been quite private and unobserved if these men had not gone to his house and listened for the very purpose of detecting him at his devotions. No one could well guard against such a purpose.

10. when Daniel knew … writing … signed—and that, therefore, the power of advising the king against it was taken from him.

went into his house—withdrawing from the God-dishonoring court.

windows … open—not in vainglory, but that there might be no obstruction to his view of the direction in which Jerusalem, the earthly seat of Jehovah under the Old Testament, lay; and that the sight of heaven might draw his mind off from earthly thoughts. To Christ in the heavenly temple let us turn our eyes in prayer, from this land of our captivity (1Ki 8:44, 48; 2Ch 6:29, 34, 38; Ps 5:7).

chamber—the upper room, where prayer was generally offered by the Jews (Ac 1:13). Not on the housetop (Ac 10:9), where he would be conspicuous.

upon his knees—Humble attitudes in prayer become humble suppliants.

three times a day—(Ps 55:17). The third, sixth, and ninth hour; our nine, twelve, and three o'clock (Ac 2:15; 10:9; 3:1; 10:30; compare Da 9:21).

as … aforetime—not from contempt of the king's command.

His windows being open in his chamber toward Jerusalem: this was, 1 Kings 8:47-49, according to Solomon’s prayer, which doubtless all the devout Jews in their captivity did observe.

Toward Jerusalem; not towards the east, which was the manner of the Gentiles; nor towards the king’s palace, lest that, in compliance with the king’s edict, he should seem to worship him; but towards the west and the temple in Jerusalem, where the holy of holies stood in the west end, and because the temple was the place where the Lord placed his name and worship, and promised to appear, and accept his people and their sacrifices, all being a type of Christ, through whom only the saints are accepted; which doubtless Daniel by faith had an eye to; believing also that God in his own time would deliver them out of this captivity, and bring them back again, and that he faithfully minded these things in the midst of his honours, and riches, and employments.

Kneeled upon his knees: this posture was always used in times of mourning and danger; not that we are tied to this gesture, but it is a comely posture before the great God; noting of guilt at the bar of God’s tribunal, and begging for our lives, by humble confession and humiliation, and craving pardon, and blessing God for his mercies.

Three times a day: thus David, Psalm 55:17. These three times were, one at nine in the morning, which was their third hour of the day, Acts 2:15; the sixth hour was at twelve o’clock, then Peter prayed, Acts 10:9; the ninth hour was our three in the afternoon, which was the time of the evening sacrifice, 1 Kings 18:36 Acts 3:1; it is called

the hour of prayer, and at that our Saviour Christ offered up himself a sacrifice for us, Matthew 27:46,50. Now Daniel ordered his affairs so, that, though great, they should not hinder his solemn devotions to God.

As he did aforetime; by which we see he was a holy man, also that he did not abate his prayers for the king’s command, nor did he rashly break the law, by doing it purposely, because he did no more than he was wont to do in serving his God. Daniel did not imprudently, much less sinfully, in this action.

1. Because he would have declared by it that he preferred man before God.

2. It was against the law of nature, which commands God to be worshipped.

3. Against the dictates and peace of his own conscience.

4. Against the people of God, whom he would grieve and stumble by this forbearance.

5. Against his enemies, by hardening them in their evil way, and giving them occasion of triumphing and blaspheming.

Now when Daniel knew that the writing was signed,.... This he knew, either by the relation of others, or by the public proclamation of it through the city; however, he did not know of it till it was signed, or otherwise he might have prevented it by applying to the king, in whom he had great interest; but, now the thing was done, he did not solicit the abrogation of it, knowing it was in vain; nor did he go to the king with complaints against his enemies, showing the design they had in it; but let things take their own course, he being determined to be found in his duty, be it as it would:

he went into his house: he left the court at the proper time of prayer, and went to his own house to perform it; he did not, in defiance of this law, go to prayer in the court, or in the streets, but retired home, as he was used to do:

and his windows being opened; not to be seen of men, but that he might have a clear view of the heavens, where his God dwelt, to whom he prayed, and be the more affected with the consideration of his greatness and glory:

in his chamber toward Jerusalem; it was not in the lower part of the house, nor on the top of the house, in either of which he might be more easily seen; but in his chamber, where he was wont to retire, the windows of which were opened "towards Jerusalem"; not towards the king's palace, as if he prayed to him, and so eluded the decree; nor towards the east, as the Heathens did; but towards Jerusalem, which lay to the south of Babylon; and that, either because of his remembrance of that city, his affection to it, and concern for its re-edification; or having some respect to the words of Solomon, 1 Kings 8:33, &c.; and so, according to the Jewish writers, it was the custom of their people. Ben Gersom, on the above place, says, that though they did not pray within the temple, yet they prayed, turning themselves towards it, as much as possibly they could; and even when it was destroyed, as now, yet they in praying turned to the place where it had stood, as Saadiah, Aben Ezra, and Jarchi observe: and chiefly Daniel did this, because the temple was a type of Christ, through whom the persons and prayers of the saints are acceptable unto God:

he kneeled upon his knees three times a day, and prayed; kneeling is a prayer gesture, a token of reverence and humility; this was done three times a day, morning, noon, and evening; see Psalm 55:17, in the morning, before he went out about the king's business; at noon, when he returned home to dinner; and at evening, when all his work was done, and he was about to retire to bed; the hours of prayer with the Jews seem to have been the third, sixth, and ninth; that is, at nine in the morning, twelve at noon, and three in the afternoon; see Acts 2:1,

and gave thanks before his God; for the benefits he daily received from him; or he "confessed before him" (d); the sins he had been guilty of, and owned the favours he partook of:

as he aforetime did; as it had been his custom from his youth upward, and therefore would not omit it now, on account of this edict.

(d) "confitebatur", V. L. Junius & Tremellius, Piscator, Calvin, Cocceius.

Now when Daniel knew that the writing was signed, he went into his house; and his {e} windows being open in his chamber toward Jerusalem, he kneeled upon his knees three times a day, and prayed, and gave thanks before his God, as he did aforetime.

(e) Because he would not by his silence show that he consented to this wicked decree, he set open his windows toward Jerusalem when he prayed: both to stir up himself with the remembrance of God's promises to his people, when they should pray toward that temple, and also that others might see that he would neither consent in heart nor deed for these few days to anything that was contrary to God's glory.

10. and his windows, &c.] more exactly, and also more clearly, now he had in his roof-chamber open windows fronting Jerusalem. The clause is parenthetical, and describes the constant and habitual arrangement of Daniel’s windows.

roof-chamber] usually rendered upper chamber, which however does not at all suggest to an English reader what is intended. The ‘roof-chamber’ was (and still is) an apartment ‘raised above the flat roof of a house at one corner, or upon a tower like annex to the building, with latticed windows giving free circulation to the air’ (Moore on Jdg 3:20). It was thus cool in summer (Judg. l. c.), and a part of the house to which anyone would naturally retire if he wished to be undisturbed (cf. 1 Kings 17:19; 2 Kings 1:2; 2 Kings 4:10-11). In the N.T. the roof-chamber is mentioned as a place of meeting for prayer (Acts 1:13; Acts 20:8; cf. Acts 10:9 : see also Acts 9:37; Acts 9:39). Comp. Thomson’s The Land and the Book, ed. 2, ii. 634, 636 (with an illustration).

open] i.e., either without lattices at all, or without fixed lattices (cf. 2 Kings 1:2; 2 Kings 13:17) opp. to ‘closed windows’ (Ezekiel 40:16; Ezekiel 41:16; Ezekiel 41:26), or ‘windows with closed wood-work’ (1 Kings 6:4), the lattices of which did not admit of being opened.

toward Jerusalem] To pray, turning towards Jerusalem—or, if in Jerusalem, towards the Temple—became in later times a standing Jewish custom: we do not know how early it began; but it was based doubtless upon 1 Kings 8:35; 1 Kings 8:38; 1 Kings 8:44; 1 Kings 8:48 (in this verse with reference to exiles in a foreign land), cf. Psalm 5:7; Psalm 28:2. The custom is alluded to in the Mishna (Běrâchôth, iv. 5, 6); and in Sifrê 71b it is said that those in foreign lands turn in prayer towards the land of Israel, those in the land of Israel towards Jerusalem, and those in Jerusalem towards the Temple. Mohammed at first commanded his disciples to pray towards Jerusalem; but afterwards he altered the ḳibla (‘facing-point’) to Mecca.

and he continued kneeling.… and praying, and giving thanks before his God, forasmuch as he had been wont to do (it) aforetime] inasmuch as it had been his regular custom, he still adhered to it.

three times a day] Cf. Psalm 55:17 (‘at evening, and at morning, and at noonday will I complain and moan’). In later times, the three hours of prayer were—not as is often supposed, the third, sixth and ninth hours, but—the time when the morning burnt-offering was offered (תפלת שחר), in the afternoon at the ninth hour (our three o’clock; cf. Acts 3:1; Acts 10:30), when the evening meal-offering was offered (תפלת מנחה), and sunset (תפלת הערב) see Schürer, ii. 237. The custom may well have arisen before the 2nd cent. b.c. On the prayers which, at least in later days, were used at the three times, see Hamburger, Real-Encyclop. vol. vii., arts. Morgen-, Mincha-, and Abendgebet.

before his God] a usage of the later Jews (as in the Targum constantly), who, from a feeling of greater reverence, said ‘to speak, pray, confess, &c. before God,’ rather than ‘to Him.’ Cf. Daniel 6:22, end; also Daniel 2:9, with the note. The later Jews even extended the same usage to cases in which God was really the agent: cf. Matthew 11:26 (οὔτως ἐγένετο εὐδοκία ἔηπροσθέν σου) Matthew 18:14 (see R.V. marg.); Luke 12:6 (ἐπιλελησμένον ἐνώπιον τοῦ Θεοῦ); Numbers 14:8 Onk. (‘if there is good pleasure in us before Jehovah’); and see Dalman, Die Worte Jesu, pp. 172–174.

Verse 10. - Now when Daniel knew that the writing was signed, he went into his house; and his windows being open in his chamber toward Jerusalem, he kneeled upon his knees three times a day, and prayed, and gave thanks before his God, as he did aforetime. The Septuagint rendering differs only slightly from the Massoretic. "And when Daniel knew the decree which was passed (ἔστησε) against him, he opened the windows of his upper chamber, and fell on his face three times a day, according as he did aforctimc, and prayed." The Septuagint translator read עלה, "against him," instead of על, "went." It seems to us that the Massoretic reading, "went to his house," is an addition due to misreading עלה. That the variations of the Septuagint arc not due to paraphrase is proved by the tact that the next clause is literally translated. It would seem that the text before the LXX. had been altered, so that we have "fell upon his face," instead of "knelt upon his knees." The former phrase is an echo from Daniel 2:46. It is to be observed that "prayed and gave thanks" is omitted from the Septuagint. As the omission can have no purpose, and we can understand the reason of the words being added, we prefer the LXX. reading here. Theodotion and the Peshitta are at one with the Massoretic. The action of Daniel is here that of a man of true conscientiousness; he does not obtrude his religion now that the practice of it implies danger, as did some Christian fanatics in the persecution of the three first centuries; nor, on the other hand, does he hide his acts of worship - he simply continued his previous habits. Had a Jewish fanatic of the time of the Maccabees written this, the action attributed to Daniel would have been much more uncompromising, as the story in the Midrash Rabba of Moses in regard to the crown of Pharaoh. Or Daniel would be represented as doing, as the Jews arc said in Third Maccabees to have done to Ptolemy, bowing himself down in humble abasement before the king, to get him to reverse his decree, or, if not, to devise some means of its effect being averted. Daniel does none of these things. His windows being open toward Jerusalem. The windows were lattices, and as the room was an upper one on the roof of the house, the opening of the windows enabled everything done in the apartment to be seen. The practice of prayer "toward Jerusalem" is acknowledged to have arisen in Babylon during the Captivity. Solomon, in his prayer at the dedication of the temple, refers to the contingency of captivity (1 Kings 8:48), and prays that if the captives "pray unto thee toward their land, the city which thou hast chosen, and the house which I have built for thy Name, then hear thou their prayer" (see also Psalm 5:8 [7]). The practice of praying towards a particular point has been maintained by the Mohammedans, who pray towards Mecca. Mohammed originally made Jerusalem the qiblah, or point of prayer; but the Jews would not receive him as their Messiah, and so from Jerusalem it was changed to Mecca. The objection of Bertholdt hardly needs to be mentioned, that "the temple was in ruins" - the place was holy ground. "Three times a day" is referred to Psalm 55:18 (17), "Evening and morning and at noonday will I complain." Daniel 6:10(Daniel 6:10-24)

Daniel's offence against the law; his accusation, condemnation, and miraculous deliverance from the den of lions; and the punishment of his accusers.

The satraps did not wait long for Daniel's expected disregard of the king's prohibition. It was Daniel's custom, on bended knees, three times a day to offer prayer to his God in the upper chamber of his house, the window thereof being open towards Jerusalem. He continued this custom even after the issuing of the edict; for a discontinuance of it on account of that law would have been a denying of the faith and a sinning against God. On this his enemies had reckoned. They secretly watched him, and immediately reported his disregard of the king's command. In Daniel 6:10 the place where he was wont to pray is more particularly described, in order that it might be shown how they could observe him. In the upper chamber of his house (עלּית, Hebr. עליּה, 1 Kings 17:19; 2 Samuel 19:1), which was wont to be resorted to when one wished to be undisturbed, e.g., wished to engage in prayer (cf. Acts 1:13; Acts 10:9), the windows were open, i.e., not closed with lattice-work (cf. Ezekiel 40:16), opposite to, i.e., in the direction of, Jerusalem. להּ does not refer to Daniel: he had opened windows, but to לביתהּ: his house had open windows. If להּ referred to Daniel, then the הוּא following would be superfluous. The custom of turning in prayer toward Jerusalem originated after the building of the temple at Jerusalem as the dwelling-place of Jehovah; cf. 1 Kings 8:33, 1 Kings 8:35; Psalm 5:8; Psalm 28:2. The offering of prayer three times a day, - namely, at the third, sixth, and ninth hour, i.e., at the time of the morning and the evening sacrifices and at mid-day, - was not first introduced by the men of the Great Synagogue, to whom the uncritical rabbinical tradition refers all ancient customs respecting the worship of God, nor is the opinion of v. Leng., Hitz., and others, that it is not of later origin than the time of the Median Darius, correct; but its origin is to be traced back to the times of David, for we find the first notice of it in Psalm 55:18. If Daniel thus continued to offer prayer daily (מודא equals מהודא, Daniel 2:23) at the open window, directing his face toward Jerusalem, after the promulgation of the law, just as he had been in the habit of doing before it, then there was neither ostentation nor pharisaic hypocrisy, nor scorn and a tempting of God, as Kirmiss imagines; but his conduct was the natural result of his fear of God and of his religion, under the influence of which he offered prayers not to make an outward show, for only secret spies could observe him when so engaged. דּי כּל־קבל does not mean altogether so as (Rosenmller, v. Leng., Maur., Hitzig), but, as always, on this account because, because. Because he always did thus, so now he continues to do it.

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