Homilies of Chrysostom
We then, as workers together with him, beseech you also that ye receive not the grace of God in vain.
And working together with Him we intreat also that ye receive not the grace of God in vain. For he saith, At an acceptable time I hearkened unto thee. And in a day of salvation did I succor thee.
For since he said, God beseeches, and we are ambassadors and suppliants unto you, that ye be "reconciled unto God:" lest they should become supine, he hereby again alarms and arouses them, saying: "We intreat that ye receive not the grace of God in vain." For let us not,' he says, therefore be at ease, because He beseeches and hath sent some to be ambassadors; nay, but for this very reason let us make haste to please God and to collect spiritual merchandise;' as also he said above, "The love of God constraineth us," (ch. v. 14.) that is presseth, driveth, urgeth us, that ye may not after so much affectionate care, by being supine and exhibiting no nobleness, miss of such great blessings. Do not therefore because He hath sent some to exhort you, deem that this will always be so. It will be so until His second coming; until then He beseeches, so long as we are here; but after that is judgment and punishment.' Therefore, he says, "we are constrained."
For not only from the greatness of the blessings and His loving kindness, but also from the shortness of the time he urgeth them continually. Wherefore he saith also elsewhere, "For now is our salvation nearer." (Romans 13:11.) And again; "The Lord is at hand." (Philip. iv. 5.) But here he does something yet more. For not from the fact that the remainder of the time is short and little, but also from its being the only season available, for salvation, he incited them.
For, "Behold," he saith, "now is the acceptable time; behold, now is the day of salvation." Let us therefore not let slip the favorable opportunity but display a zeal worthy of the grace. For therefore is it that we also press forward, knowing both the shortness and the suitableness of the time. Wherefore also he said; "And working together we intreat also. Working together" with you; for we work together with you, rather than with God for Whom we are ambassadors. For He is in need of nothing, but the salvation all passeth over to you.' But if it is even with God that he speaks of working together, he repudiates not even this [interpretation]; for he says in another place, "we are God's fellow-workers:" (1 Corinthians 3:9.) in this way, saith he, to save men. Again, "We entreat also." For he indeed, when beseeching, doth not barely beseech, but sets forth these His just claims; namely, that He gave His Son, the Righteous One that did not so much as know sin, and made Him to be sin for us sinners, that we might become righteous: which claims having, and being God, He displayed such goodness. But what we beseech is that ye would receive the benefit and not reject the gift. Be persuaded therefore by us, and "receive not the grace in vain." For lest they should think that this of itself is "reconciliation," believing on Him that calleth; he adds these words, requiting that earnestness which respects the life. For, for one who hath been freed from sins and made a friend to wallow in the former things, is to return again unto enmity, and to "receive the grace in vain," in respect of the life. For from "the grace" we reap no benefit towards salvation, if we live impurely; nay, we are even harmed, having this greater aggravation even of our sins, in that after such knowledge and such a gift we have gone back to our former vices. This however he does not mention as yet: that he may not make his work harsh, but says only that we reap no benefit. Then he also reminds of a prophecy, urging and compelling them to bestir themselves in order to lay hold of their own salvation.
"For," saith he, "He saith,
"At an acceptable time I hearkened unto thee,
"And in a day of salvation did I succor thee:
"behold, now is the acceptable time: behold, now is the day of salvation."
"The acceptable time." What is this? That of the Gift, that of the Grace, when it is appointed not that an account should be required of our sins nor penalty exacted; but besides being delivered, that we should also enjoy ten thousand goods, righteousness, sanctification, and all the rest. For how much toil would it have behoved us to undergo in order to obtain this "time!" But, behold, without our toiling at all it hath come, bringing remission of all that was before. Wherefore also He calls it "acceptable," because He both accepted those that had transgressed in ten thousand things, and not acceded merely, but advanced them to the highest honor; just as when a monarch arrives, it is a time not for judgment, but for grace and pardon. Wherefore also He calleth it acceptable. Whilst then we are yet in the lists  , whilst we are at work in the vineyard, whilst the eleventh hour is left [us], let us draw nigh and show forth life; for it is also easy. For he that striveth for the mastery  at such a time, when so great a gift hath been shed forth, when so great grace, will early obtain the prizes. For in the case of monarchs here below also, at the time of their festivals, and when they appear in the dress of Consuls, he who bringeth a small offering receiveth large gifts; but on the days in which they sit in judgment, much strictness, much sifting is requisite. Let us too therefore strive for the mastery in the time of this gift. It is a day of grace, of grace divine; wherefore with ease even we shall obtain the crown. For if when laden with so great evils He both received and delivered us: when delivered from all and contributing our part, shall He not rather accept us?
[2.] Then, as it is his constant wont, namely, to place himself before them and bid them hence to take their example, so he does in this place also. Wherefore also he addeth,
(For he saith, I have heard thee in a time accepted, and in the day of salvation have I succoured thee: behold, now is the accepted time; behold, now is the day of salvation.)
Giving no offence in any thing, that the ministry be not blamed:
Ver. 3. "Giving no occasion of stumbling, that our ministration  be not blamed," persuading them not from considering "the time" only, but also those that had successfully labored with them. And behold with what absence of pride  . For he said not, Look at us how we are such and such,' but, for the present, it is only to do away accusation that he relates his own conduct. And he mentions two chief points of a blameless life, "none" in "any" thing. And he said not accusation,' but, what was far less, "occasion of stumbling;" that is, giving ground against us to none for censure, for condemnation, "that our ministration be not blamed;" that is, that none may take hold of it. And again, he said not, that it be not accused,' but that it may not have the least fault, nor any one have it in his power to animadvert upon it in any particular.
Ver. 4. "But in every thing commending ourselves as ministers of God."
This is far greater. For it is not the same thing to be free from accusation; and to exhibit such a character as in everything to appear "ministers of God." For neither is it the same thing to be quit of accusation, and to be covered  with praises. And he said not appearing, but "commending," that is proving.' Then he mentions also whence they became such. Whence then was it? "In much patience," he says, laying the foundation of those good things. Wherefore he said not barely "patience," but "much," and he shows also how great it was. For to bear some one or two things is no great matter. But he addeth even snow storms of trials in the words, "In afflictions, in necessities." This is a heightening of affliction, when the evils are unavoidable, and there lies upon one as it were a necessity hardly extricable  of misfortune. "In distresses." Either he means those of hunger and of other necessaries, or else simply those of their trials.
Ver. 5. "In stripes, in imprisonments, in tossings to and fro  ."
Yet every one of these by itself was intolerable, the being scourged only, and being bound only, and being unable through persecution to remain fixed  any where, (for this is in tossings to and fro,') but when both all, and all at once, assail, consider what a soul they need. Then along with the things from without, he mentions those imposed by himself.
Ver. 5, 6. "In labors, in watchings, in fastings; in pureness."
But by "pureness" here, he means either chasteness again, or general purity, or incorruptness, or even his preaching the Gospel freely.
"In knowledge." What is "in knowledge?" In wisdom such as is given from God; that which is truly knowledge; not as those that seem to be wise and boast of their acquaintance with the heathen discipline, but are deficient in this.
"In long-suffering, in kindness." For this also is a great note of a noble soul, though exasperated and goaded on every side, to bear all with long-suffering. Then to show whence he became such, he added;
"In the Holy Ghost." For in Him,' he saith, we do all these good works.' But observe when it is that he has mentioned the aid of the Holy Ghost. After he had set forth what was from himself. Moreover, he seems to me to say another thing herein. What then is this? Namely, we have both been filled with abundance of the Spirit and hereby also give a proof of our Apostleship in that we have been counted worthy of spiritual gifts.' For if this be grace also, yet still he himself was the cause who by his good works and his toils  attracted that grace. And if any should assert that besides what has been said, he shows that in his use of the gifts of the Spirit also he gave none offence; he would not miss of his meaning. For they who received the [gift of] tongues amongst them and were lifted up, were blamed. For it is possible for one even in receiving a gift of the Spirit, not to use it aright. But not so we,' he saith, but in the Spirit also, that is, in the gifts also, we have been blameless.'
"In love unfeigned." This was the cause of all those good things; this made him what he was; this caused the Spirit also to abide with him, by Whose aid also all things were rightly done of him.
Ver. 7. "In the word of truth."
A thing he says in many places, that we continued neither to handle the word of God deceitfully nor to adulterate it.'
"In the power of God." That which he always does ascribing nothing to himself but the whole to God, and imputing whatsoever he hath done aright to Him, this he hath done here also. For since he uttered great things, and affirmed that he had manifested in all things an irreproachable life and exalted wisdom, he ascribes this to the Spirit and to God. For neither were those commonplace things which he had said. For if it be a difficult thing even for one who lives in quiet to do aright and be irreproachable, consider him who was harassed by so great temptations, and yet shone forth through all, what a spirit he was of! And yet he underwent not these alone, but even far more than these, as he mentions next. And what is indeed marvelous is, not that he was irreproachable though sailing in such mighty waves, nor that he endured all nobly, but all with pleasure even. Which things, all, he makes clear to us by the next words, saying,
"By the armor of righteousness on the right and the left."
[3.] Seest thou his self-possession of soul and well-strung spirit? For he shows that afflictions are arms not only which strike not down, but do even fortify and make stronger. And he calls those things left,' which seem to be painful; for such those are which bring with them the reward. Wherefore then doth he call them thus? Either in conformity with the conception of the generality, or because God commanded us to pray that we enter not into temptation.
Ver. 8. "By glory and dishonor, by evil report and good report."
What saying thou? That thou enjoyest honor, and setting down this as a great thing? Yes,' he saith. Why, forsooth? For to bear dishonor indeed is a great thing, but to partake of honor requires not a vigorous  soul. Nay, it needs a vigorous and exceeding great soul, that he who enjoys it may not be thrown and break his neck  . Wherefore he glories in this as well as in that, for he shone equally in both. But how is it a weapon of righteousness? Because that the teachers are held in honor induceth many unto godliness. And besides, this is a proof of good works, and this glorifieth God. And this is, further, an instance of the wise contrivance of God, that by things which are opposite He brings in the Preaching. For consider. Was Paul bound? This too was on behalf of the Gospel. For, saith he, "the things which happened unto me have fallen out unto the progress of the Gospel; so that most of the brethren, being confident through my bonds, are more abundantly bold to speak the word without fear." (Philip. i. 12, 14.) Again, did he enjoy honor? This too again rendered them more forward. "By evil report and good report." For not only did he bear those things nobly which happen to the body, the afflictions,' and whatever he enumerated, but those also which touch the soul; for neither are these wont to disturb slightly. Jeremiah at least having borne many temptations, gave in  upon these, and when he was reproached, said, "I will not prophesy, neither will I name the Name of the Lord.  " (Jeremiah 20:9.) And David too many places complains of reproach. Isaiah also, after many things, exhorteth concerning this, saying, "Fear ye not the reproach of men, neither be ye overcome by their reviling." (Isaiah 51:7. LXX.) And again, Christ also to His disciples; "When they shall speak all manner of evil against you falsely, rejoice and be exceeding glad," (Matthew 5:11, 12.) He saith, "for great is your reward in heaven." Elsewhere too He says," And leap for joy." (Luke 6:23.) But He would not have made the reward so great, had not the contest been a great one. For in tortures the body also shareth the anguish with the soul; for the pain is both of the body and of the soul; but here it is of the soul alone. Many at any rate have fallen by these alone, and have lost their own souls. And to Job also the reproaches of his friends appeared more grievous than the worms and the sores. For there is nothing, there is nothing more intolerable to those in affliction than a word capable of stinging the soul. Wherefore along with the perils and the toils he names these also, saying, "By glory and dishonor." At any rate, many of the Jews also on account of glory derived from the many would not believe. For they feared, not lest they should be punished, but lest they should be put out of the synagogue. Wherefore He saith, "How can ye believe which receive glory one of another?" (John 5:44.) And we may see numbers who have indeed despised all dangers, but have been worsted by glory.
[4.] "As deceivers, and yet true."
This is, "by evil report and good report."
Ver. 9. "As unknown, and yet well known." This is, "by glory and dishonor." For by some they were well known and much sought after, whilst others designed not to know them at all.
"As dying, and behold, we live."
As under sentence of death and condemned; which was itself also matter of dishonor. But this he said, to show both the unspeakable power of God and their own patience. For so far as those who plotted against us were concerned, we died; and this is what all suppose; but by God's aid we escaped the dangers. Then to manifest also on what account God permits these things, he added, "As chastened, and not killed."
Showing that the gain accruing to them from their temptations, even before the rewards, was great, and that their enemies against their will did them service.
Ver. 10. "As sorrowful, yet alway rejoicing."
For by those that are without, indeed, we are suspected of being in despair; but we give no heed to them; yea, we have our pleasure at the full  . And he said not "rejoicing" only, but added also its perpetuity, for he says "alway rejoicing." What then can come up to this life? wherein, although dangers so great assault, the joy becometh greater.
"As poor, yet making many rich."
Some indeed affirm that the spiritual riches are spoken of here; but I would say that the carnal are so too; for they were rich in these also, having, after a new kind of manner, the houses of all opened to them. And this too he signified by what follows, saying,
"As having nothing, and yet possessing all things."
And how can this be? Yea rather, how can the opposite be? For he that possesseth many things hath nothing; and he that hath nothing possesseth the goods of all  . And not here only, but also in the other points, contraries were produced by their contraries. But if thou marvellest how it is possible for one that hath nothing to have all things, let us bring forth this man himself into the midst, who commanded the world and was lord not only of their substance, but of their very eyes even. "If possible," he says, "ye would have plucked out your eyes, and have given them to me." (Galatians 4:15.)
Now these things he says, to instruct us not to be disturbed at the opinions of the many, though they call us deceivers, though they know us not, though they count us condemned  , and appointed unto death, to be in sorrow, to be in poverty, to have nothing, to be (us, who are in cheerfulness) desponding: because that the sun even is not clear to the blind, nor the pleasure of the sane intelligible  to the mad. For the faithful only are right judges of these matters, and are not pleased and pained at the same things as other people. For if any one who knew nothing of the games were to see a boxer, having wounds upon him and wearing a crown; he would think him in pain on account of the wounds, not understanding the pleasure the crown would give him. And these therefore, because they know what we suffer but do not know for what we suffer them, naturally suspect that there is nought besides these; for they see indeed the wrestling and the dangers, but not the prizes and the crowns and the subject  of the contest. What then were the "all things" which Paul possessed, when he said, "As having nothing, and yet possessing all things?" Things temporal  , things spiritual. For he whom the cities received as an angel, for whom they would have plucked out their own eyes and have given them to him, (Galatians 4:14, 15.) he for whom they laid down their own necks, how had he not all things that were theirs? (Romans 16:4.) But if thou desirest to see the spiritual also, thou wilt find him in these things also especially rich. For he that was so dear to the King of all as even to share in unspeakable things with the Lord of the angels, (ch. xii. 4.) how was not he more opulent than all men, and had all things? Devils had not else been so subject to him, suffering and disease had not so fled away  .
[5.] And let us therefore, when we suffer aught for Christ's sake, not merely bear it nobly but also rejoice. If we fast, let us leap for joy as if enjoying luxury; if we be insulted, let us dance as if praised; if we spend, let us feel as if gaining; if we bestow on the poor, let us count ourselves to receive: for he that gives not thus will not give readily. When then thou hast a mind to scatter abroad, look not at this only in almsgiving, but also in every kind of virtue, compute not alone the severity of the toils, but also the sweetness of the prizes; and before all the subjects of this wrestling, our Lord Jesus; and thou wilt readily enter upon the contest, and wilt live the whole time in pleasure. For nothing is wont so to cause pleasure as a good conscience.
Therefore Paul indeed, though wounded every day, rejoiced and exulted; but the men of this day, although they endure not a shadow even  of what he did, grieve and make lamentations from no other cause than that they have not a mind full of heavenly philosophy. For, tell me, wherefore the lamentation? Because thou art poor, and in want of necessaries? Surely for this thou oughtest rather to make lamentation, [not]  because thou weepest, not because thou art poor, but because thou art mean-spirited; not because thou hast not money, but because thou prizest money so highly. Paul died daily, yet wept not but even rejoiced; he fought with continual hunger, yet grieved not but even gloried in it. And dost thou, because thou hast not all the year's provisions stored up, grieve and beat thyself? Yes,' he replies, for he had to care only for his own needs, whilst I have besides to care for servants, and children, and wife.' Rather, he alone had not to care for his own needs, but for the whole world's. And thou indeed [hast to care] for one household, but he for those so many poor at Jerusalem, for those in Macedonia, for those everywhere in poverty, for those who give to them no less than for those who receive. For his care for the world was of a twofold nature, both that they might not be destitute of necessaries, and that they might be rich in spiritual things. And thy famishing children distress not thee so much as all the concerns of the faithful did him. Why do I say, of the faithful? For neither was he free from care for the unfaithful, but was so eaten up with it that he wished even to become accursed for their sakes; but thou, were a famine to rage ten thousand times over, wouldest never choose to die for any whomsoever. And thou indeed carest for one woman, but he for the Churches throughout the world. For he saith, "My anxiety for all the Churches." (ch. xi. 28.) How long then, O man, dost thou trifle, comparing thyself with Paul; and wilt not cease from this thy much meanness of spirit? For it behoveth to weep, not when we are in poverty but when we sin; for this is worthy of lamentations, as all the other things are of ridicule even. But,' he saith, this is not all that grieves me; but that also such an one is in power, whilst I am unhonored and outcast.' And what is this? for the blessed Paul too appeared to the many to be unhonored and an outcast. But,' saith he, he was Paul.' Plainly then not the nature of the things, but thy feebleness of spirit causeth thy desponding. Lament not therefore thy poverty, but thyself who art so minded, yea rather, lament not thyself, but reform thee; and seek not for money, but pursue that which maketh men of more cheerful countenance than thousands of money, philosophy and virtue. For where indeed these are, there is no harm in poverty; and where these are not there is no good in money. For tell me, what good is it when men are rich indeed, but have beggarly souls? Thou dost not bewail thyself, so much as that rich man himself, because he hath not the wealth of all. And if he doth not weep as thou dost, yet lay open his conscience, and thou wilt see his wailings and lamentations.
Wilt thou that I show thee thine own riches, that thou mayest cease to count them happy that are rich in money? Seest thou this heaven here, the sun, this bright and far shining star, and that gladdeneth our eyes, is not this too set out  common to all? and do not all enjoy it equally, both poor and rich? And the wreath of the stars and the orb of the moon, are they not left equally to all? Yea, rather, if I must speak somewhat marvellous, we poor enjoy these more than they. For they indeed being for the most part steeped in drunkenness, and passing their time in revellings and deep sleep, do not even perceive these things, being always under cover  and reared in the shade  : but the poor do more than any enjoy the luxury of these elements. And further, if thou wilt look into the air which is every where diffused, thou wilt see the poor man enjoying it in greater both freshness and abundance. For wayfarers and husbandmen enjoy these luxuries more than the inhabitants of the city; and again, of those same inhabitants of the city, the handicraftsmen more than those who are drunken all the day. What too of the earth, is not this left common to all? No,' he saith. How sayest thou so? tell me. Because the rich man, even in the city, having gotten himself several plethra, raises up long fences round them; and in the country cuts off for himself many portions.' What then? When he cuts them off, does he alone enjoy them? By no means, though he should contend for it ever so earnestly. For the produce he is compelled to distribute amongst all, and for thee he cultivates grain, and wine, and oil, and every where ministers unto thee. And those long fences and buildings, after his untold expense and his toils and drudgery he is preparing for thy use, receiving from thee only a small piece of silver for so great a service. And in baths and every where, one may see the same thing obtaining; the rich of it all with perfect ease. And his enjoyment of the earth is no more than thine; for sure he filleth not ten stomachs, and thou only one. But he partaketh of costlier meats?' Truly, this is no mighty superiority; howbeit, even here, we shall find thee to have the advantage. For this costliness is therefore thought by thee a matter of envy because the pleasure with it is greater. Yet this is greater in the poor man's case; yet not pleasure only, but health also; and in this alone is the advantage with the rich, that he maketh his constitution feebler and collects more abundant fountains of disease. For the poor man's diet is all ordered according to nature, but his through its excess resulteth in corruption and disease.
[6.] But if ye will, let us also look at this same thing in an example. For if it were requisite to light a furnace, and then one man were to throw in silken garments and fine linens, many and numberless, and so kindle it; and another logs of oak and pine, what advantage would this man have over that? None, but even disadvantage. But what? (for there is nothing to prevent our turning the same illustration round after another manner,) if one were to throw in logs, and another were to light his fire under bodies, by which furnace wouldest thou like to stand, that with the logs, or that with the bodies? Very plainly that with the logs. For that burns naturally and is a pleasant spectacle to the beholders: whilst this with the steam, and juices, and smoke, and the stench of the bones would drive every one away. Didst thou shudder at the hearing, and loathe that furnace? Like it are the bellies of the rich. For in them one would find more rottenness than in that furnace, and stinking vapors, and filthy humors, because that, all over in every part, indigestion abounds in consequence of their surfeiting. For the natural heat not sufficing for the digestion of the whole but being smothered under them, they lie smoking above, and the unpleasantness produced is great. To what then should one compare those stomachs of theirs? Yet do not be offended at what I say, but if I do not say true things, refute me. To what then should one compare them? for even what has been said is not enough to show their wretched plight. I have found another resemblance yet. What then is it? As in the sewers where there is accumulation of refuse, of dung, hay, stubble, stones, clay, frequent stoppages occur; and then the stream of filth overflows at top: so also it happeneth with the stomachs of those people. For these being stopped up below, the greater part of these villainous streams spurts up above. But not so with the poor, but like those fountains which well forth pure streams, and water gardens and pleasure grounds  , so also are their stomachs pure from such-like superfluities. But not such are the stomachs of the rich, or rather of the luxurious; but they are filled with humors, phlegm, bile, corrupted blood, putrid rheums, and other suchlike matters. Wherefore no one, if he lives always in luxury, can bear it even for a short time; but his life will be spent in continual sicknesses. Wherefore I would gladly ask them, for what end are meats given? that we may be destroyed, or be nourished? that we may be diseased, or be strong? that we may be healthful, or be sickly? Very plainly, for nourishment, creating unto the body disease and sickness? But not so the poor man; on the contrary, by his plain diet he purchases to himself health, and vigor, and strength. Weep not then on account of poverty, the mother of health, but even exult in it; and if thou wouldest be rich, despise riches. For this, not the having money but the not wanting to have it, is truly affluence. If we can achieve this, we shall both be here more affluent than all that are rich, and there shall obtain the good things to come, whereunto may all we attain, through the grace and love towards men of our Lord Jesus Christ, with Whom to the Father, with the Holy Ghost, be glory, might, honor, now and ever, and world without end. Amen.
 en to skammati.
 agonizomenos, as 1 Corinthians 9:25.
 The ministry.
 brueiu, blossom.'
 akatastasiais, so translated in the margin of the Author. Version, which, it will be seen, agrees best with the comment of St. Chrysostom.
 Literally sweats.'
 So Chrys. not exactly agreeing either with the English Version or the LXX.
 ta panton Ben. ta panta.
 upothesin, see below.
 oude onar.
 All the mss. have the word "not," but the sense seems to require its omission.
But in all things approving ourselves as the ministers of God, in much patience, in afflictions, in necessities, in distresses,
In stripes, in imprisonments, in tumults, in labours, in watchings, in fastings;
By pureness, by knowledge, by longsuffering, by kindness, by the Holy Ghost, by love unfeigned,
By the word of truth, by the power of God, by the armour of righteousness on the right hand and on the left,
By honour and dishonour, by evil report and good report: as deceivers, and yet true;
As unknown, and yet well known; as dying, and, behold, we live; as chastened, and not killed;
As sorrowful, yet alway rejoicing; as poor, yet making many rich; as having nothing, and yet possessing all things.
O ye Corinthians, our mouth is open unto you, our heart is enlarged.
Our mouth is open unto you, O ye Corinthians, our heart is enlarged, ye are not straitened in us, but ye are straitened in your own affections.
Having detailed his own trials and afflictions, for "in patience," saith he, "in afflictions, in necessities, in distresses, (v. 4, 5.) in stripes, in imprisonments, in tumult, in labors, in watchings;" and having shown that the thing was a great good, for "as sorrowful," saith he, "yet always rejoicing; as poor, yet making many rich; as having nothing, and yet possessing all things;" (v. 10.) and having called those things "armor," for "as chastened," saith he, "and not killed:" and having hereby represented God's abundant care and power, for he saith, "that the exceeding greatness of the power may be of God, and not of us;" (c. iv. 7.) and having recounted his labors, for he saith, "we always bear about His dying;" and that this is a clear demonstration of the Resurrection, for he says, "that the life also of Jesus may be manifested in our mortal flesh;" (c. iv. 10.) and of what things he was made partaker, and with what he had been entrusted, for "we are ambassadors on behalf of Christ," (c. iii. 20.) saith he, "as though God were entreating by us;" and of what things he is a minister, namely, "not of the letter, but of the Spirit;" (c. iii. 6.) and that he was entitled to reverence not only on this account, but also for his trials, for, "Thanks be to God," saith he, "which always causeth us to triumph:" he purposeth now also to rebuke them as not being too well minded towards himself. But though purposing he does not immediately come upon this, but having his discussion of these things. For if even from his own good deeds he that rebuketh be entitled to reverence; yet still, when he also displayeth the love, which he bears towards those who are censured, he maketh his speech less offensive. Therefore the Apostle also having stepped out of the subject of his own trials and toils and contests, passes on into speaking of his love, and in this way toucheth them to the quick. What then are the indications of his love? "Our mouth is open unto you, O ye Corinthians." And what kind of sign of love is this? or what meaning even have the words at all? We cannot endure,' he says, to be silent towards you, but are always desiring and longing to speak to and converse with you;' which is the wont of those who love. For what grasping of the hands is to the body, that is interchange of language to the soul. And along with this he implies another thing also. Of what kind then is this? That we discourse unto nothing.' For since afterwards he proposes to rebuke, he asks forgiveness, using the rebuking them with freedom as itself a proof of his loving them exceedingly. Moreover the addition of their name is a mark of great love and warmth and affection; for we are accustomed to be repeating continually the bare names of those we love.
"Our heart is enlarged." For as that which warmeth is wont to dilate; so also to enlarge is the work of love. For virtue is warm and fervent. This both opened the mouth of Paul and enlarged his heart. For, neither do I love with the mouth only,' saith he, but I have also a heart in union. Therefore I speak with openness, with my whole mouth, with my whole mind.' For nothing is wider than was Paul's heart which loved all the faithful with all the vehemence that one might bear towards the object of his affection; this his love not being divided and therefore weakened, but abiding in full entireness with each. And what marvel that this was so in the case of the faithful, seeing that even in that of the unfaithful, the heart of Paul embraced the whole world? Therefore he said not I love you,' but with more emphasis, "Our mouth is open, our heart is enlarged," we have you all within it, and not this merely, but with much largeness of room  . For he that is beloved walketh with great unrestraint within the heart of him that loveth. Wherefore he saith, "Ye are not straitened in us, but ye are straightened in your own affections." And this reproof, see it administered with forbearance, as is the wont of such as love exceedingly. He did not say, ye do not love us,' but, not in the same measure,' for he does not wish to touch them too sensibly. And indeed every where one may see how he is inflamed toward the faithful, by selecting words out of every Epistle. For to the Romans he saith, "I long to see you;" and, "oftentimes I purposed to come unto you;" and, "If by any means now at length I may be prospered to come unto you." (Romans 1:11, 13, 10.) And to the Galatians, he says, "My little children of whom I am again in travail." (Galatians 4:19.) To the Ephesians again, "For this cause I bow my knees" for you. (Ephesians 3:14.) And to the Philippians,  "For what is my hope, or joy, or crown of rejoicing? are not even ye?" and he said that he bare them about in his heart, and  in his bonds. (Philip. i. 7.) And to the Colossians, "But I would that ye knew greatly I strive for you, and for as many as have not seen my face in the flesh; that your hearts might be comforted." (Colossians 2:1, 2.) And to the Thessalonians, "As when a nurse cherisheth her children, even so being affectionately desirous of you, we were well pleased to impart unto you, not the Gospel only, but also our own souls." (1 Thess. ii. 7, 8.) And to Timothy, "Remembering thy tears, that I may be filled with joy." (2 Timothy 1:4.) And to Titus, "To my beloved  son; (Titus 1:4.) and to Philemon, in like manner. (Philem. 1..) And to the Hebrews too, he writes many other such-like things, and ceaseth not to beseech them, and say, "A very little while, and he that cometh shall come, and shall not tarry:" (Hebrews 10:37.) just like a mother to her pettish  children. And to themselves  he says, "Ye are not straitened in us." But he does not say only that he loves, but also that he is beloved by them, in order that hereby also he may the rather win them. And indeed testifying to this in them, he says, Titus came and "told us your longing, your mourning, your zeal." (2 Corinthians 7:7.) And to the Galatians, "If possible, ye would have plucked out your eyes and given them to me," (Galatians 4:15.) And to the Thessalonians, "What manner of entering in we had unto you." (1 Thess. i. 9.) And to Timothy also, "Remembering thy tears, that I may be filled with joy." (2 Timothy 1:4.) And also throughout his Epistles one may find him bearing this testimony to the disciples, both that he loved and that he is loved, not however equally. And here he saith, "Though the more abundantly I love you, the less I be loved." (2 Corinthians 12:15.) This, however, is near the end; but at present more vehemently, "Ye are not straitened in us, but ye are straitened in your own affections," You receive one,' he says, but I a whole city, and so great a population.' And he said not, ye do not receive us,' but, ye are straitened;' implying indeed the same thing but with forbearance and without touching them too deeply.
Ye are not straitened in us, but ye are straitened in your own bowels.
Now for a recompence in the same, (I speak as unto my children,) be ye also enlarged.
Ver. 13. "Now for a recompense in like kind (I speak as unto my children,) be ye also enlarged."
And yet it is not an equal return, first to be loved, afterwards to love. For even if one were to contribute that which is equal in amount, he is inferior in that he comes to it second. But nevertheless I am not going to reckon strictly,  ' saith he, and if ye after having received the first advances  from me do but show forth the same amount, I am well-pleased and contented.' Then to show that to do this was even a debt, and that what he said was void of flattery, he saith, "I speak as unto my children." What meaneth, "as unto my children?" I ask no great thing, if being your father I wish to be loved by you.' And see wisdom and moderation of mind. He mentions not here his dangers on their behalf, and his labors, and his deaths, although he had many to tell of: (so free from pride is he!) but his love: and on this account he claims to be loved; because,' saith he, I was your father, because I exceedingly burn for you,' [for] it is often especially offensive to the person beloved when a man sets forth his benefits to him; for he seems to reproach. Wherefore Paul doth not this; but, like children, love your father,' saith he, which rather proceeds from instinct  ; and is the due of every father. Then that he may not seem to speak these things for his own sake, he shows that it is for their advantage even that he invites this love from them. And therefore he added,
Be ye not unequally yoked together with unbelievers: for what fellowship hath righteousness with unrighteousness? and what communion hath light with darkness?
Ver. 14. "Be ye not unequally yoked together with unbelievers."
He said not, Intermix not with unbelievers,' but rather dealing sharply with  them, as transgressing what was right, Suffer not yourselves to turn aside,' saith he, "For what fellowship have righteousness and iniquity?" Here in what follows he institutes a comparison, not between his own love and theirs who corrupt them, but between their nobleness and the others' dishonor. For thus his discourse became more dignified and more beseeming himself, and would the rather win them. Just as if one should say to a son that despised his parents, and gave himself up to vicious persons, What art thou doing, child? Dost thou despise thy father and prefer impure men filled with ten thousand vices? Knowest thou not how much better and more respectable thou art than they?' For so he detaches him more [readily] from their society than if he should express admiration of his father. For were he to say indeed, Knowest thou not how much thy father is better than they?' he will not produce so much effect; but if, leaving mention of his father, he bring himself before them, saying, Knowest thou not who thou art and what they are? Dost thou not bear in mind thine own high birth and gentle  blood, and their infamy? For what communion hast thou with them, those thieves, those adulterers, those impostors?' by elevating him with these praises of himself, he will quickly prepare him to break off from them. For the former address indeed, he will not entertain with overmuch acceptance, because the exalting of his father is an accusation of himself, when he is shown to be not only grieving a father, but such a father; but in this case he will have no such feeling. For none would choose not to be praised, and therefore, along with these praises of him that hears, the rebuke becometh easy of digestion. For the listener is softened, and is filled with high thoughts, and disdains  the society of those persons.
But not this only is the point to be admired in him that thus he prosecuted his comparison, but that he imagined another thing also still greater and more astounding; in the first place, prosecuting his speech in the form of interrogation, which is proper to things that are clear and admitted, and then dilating it by the quick succession and multitude of his terms. For he employs not one or two or three only, but several. Add to this that instead of the persons he employs the names of the things, and he delineates here high virtue and there extreme vice; and shows the difference between them to be great and infinite so as not even to need demonstration. "For what fellowship," saith he, "have righteousness and iniquity?"
"And what communion hath light with darkness?" (v. 15, 16.) "And what concord hath Christ with Beliar  ? Or what portion  hath a believer with an unbeliever? Or what agreement hath a temple of God with idols?"
Seest thou how he uses the bare names, and how adequately to his purpose of dissuasion. For he did not say, neglect of righteousness  ,' [but] what was stronger [iniquity  ]; nor did he say those who are of the light, and those who are of the darkness; but he uses opposites themselves which can not admit of their opposites, light and darkness.' Nor said he those who are of Christ, with those who are of the devil; but, which was far wider apart, Christ and Beliar, so calling that apostate one, in the Hebrew tongue. "Or what portion hath a believer with an unbeliever?" Here, at length, that he may not seem simply to be going through a censure of vice and an encomium of virtue, he mentions persons also without particularizing. And he said not, communion,' but spoke of the rewards, using the term "portion. What agreement hath a temple of God with idols?"
"For ye  are a temple of the living God." Now what he says is this. Neither hath your King aught in common with him, "for what concord hath Christ with Beliar?" nor have the things [aught in common], "for what communion hath light with darkness?" Therefore neither should ye. And first he mentions their king and then themselves; by this separating them most effectually. Then having said, "a temple of God with idols," and having declared, "For ye are a temple of the living God," he is necessitated to subjoin also the testimony of this to show that the thing is no flattery. For he that praises except he also exhibit proof, even appears to flatter. What then is his testimony? For,
"I will dwell in them," saith he, "and walk in them. I will dwell in," as in temples, "and walk in them," signifying the more abundant attachment  to them.
"And they shall be my people and I will be their God  ." What?' saith he, Dost thou bear God within thee, and runnest unto them? God That hath nothing in common with them? And in what can this deserve forgiveness? Bear in mind Who walketh, Who dwelleth in thee.'
Ver. 17. "Wherefore come ye out from among them, and be ye separate, and touch no unclean thing; and I will receive you, saith the Lord.
And He said not, Do not unclean things;' but, requiring greater strictness, do not even touch,' saith he, nor go near them.' But what is filthiness of the flesh? Adultery, fornication, lasciviousness of every kind. And what of the soul? Unclean thoughts, as gazing with unchaste eyes, malice, deceits, and whatsoever such things there be. He wishes then that they should be clean in both. Seest thou how great the prize? To be delivered from what is evil, to be made one with God. Hear also what follows.
Ver. 18. "And I will be to you a Father, and ye shall be to me sons and daughters, saith the Lord."
Seest thou how from the beginning the Prophet fore-announceth our present high birth, the Regeneration by grace?
Chap. vii. ver. 1. "Having therefore these promises, beloved."
What promises? That we should be temples of God, sons and daughters, have Him indwelling, and walking in us, be His people, have Him for our God and Father.
"Let us cleanse ourselves from all defilement of flesh and spirit."
Let us neither touch unclean things, for this is cleansing of the flesh; nor things which defile the soul, for this is cleansing of the spirit. Yet he is not content with this only, but adds also,
"Perfecting holiness in the fear of God." For not to touch the unclean thing doth not make clean, but there needeth something else besides to our becoming holy; earnestness, heedfulness, piety. And he well said, "In the fear of God." For it is possible to perfect chasteness, not in the fear of God but for vainglory. And along with this he implies yet another thing, by saying, "In the fear of God;" the manner, namely, whereafter holiness may be perfected. For if lust be even an imperious thing, still if thou occupy its territory with  the fear of God, thou hast stayed its frenzy.
[4.] Now by holiness here he means not chastity alone, but the freedom from every kind of sin, for he is holy that is pure. Now one will become pure, not if he be free from fornication only, but if from covetousness also, and envy, and pride  , and vainglory, yea especially from vainglory which in every thing indeed it behoveth to avoid, but much more in almsgiving; since neither will it be almsgiving, if it have this distemper, but display and cruelty. For when thou dost it not out of mercy, but from parade  , such deed is not only no alms but even an insult; for thou hast put thy brother to open shame  . Not then the giving money, but the giving it out of mercy, is almsgiving. For people too at the theatres give, both to prostitute boys and to others who are on the stage; but such a deed is not almsgiving. And they too give that abuse the persons of prostitute women; but this is not lovingkindness, but insolent treatment  . Like this is the vainglorious also. For just as he that abuseth the person of the harlot, pays her a price for that abuse; so too dost thou demand a price of him that receiveth of thee, thine insult of him and thine investing him as well as thyself with an evil notoriety. And besides this, the loss is unspeakable. For just as a wild beast and a mad dog springing upon us might, so doth this ill disease and this inhumanity make prey of our good things. For inhumanity and cruelty such a course is; yea, rather more grievous even than this. For the cruel indeed would not give to him that asked; but thou dost more than this; thou hinderest those that wish to give. For when thou paradest thy giving, thou hast both lowered the reputation of the receiver, and hast pulled back  him that was about to give, if he be of a careless mind. For he will not give to him thenceforth, on the ground of his having already received, and so not being in want; yea he will often accuse him even, if after having received he should draw near to beg, and will think him impudent. What sort of almsgiving then is this when thou both shamest thyself and him that receiveth; and also in two ways Him that enjoined it: both because while having Him for a spectator of thine alms, thou seekest the eyes of thy fellow-servants besides Him, and because thou transgressest the law laid down by Him forbidding these things.
I could have wished to carry this out into those other subjects as well, both fasting and prayer, and to show in how many respects vainglory is injurious there also; but I remember that in the discourse before this I left unfinished a certain necessary point. What was the point? I was saying, that the poor have the advantage of the rich in the things of this life, when I discoursed concerning health and pleasure; and this was shown indistinctly. Come then, to-day let us show this, that not in the things of this life only, but also in those that are higher, the advantage is with them. For what leadeth unto a kingdom, riches or poverty? Let us hear the Lord Himself of the heavens saying of those, that "it is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than for a rich man to enter into the kingdom of heaven:" (Matthew 19:24.) but of the poor the contrary, "If thou wilt be perfect, sell that thou hast, and give to the poor; and come, follow Me; and thou shalt have treasure in heaven." (Matthew 19:21.) But if ye will, let us see what is said on either side. "Narrow and straitened is the way," He saith, "that leadeth unto life." (Matthew 7:14.) Who then treadeth the narrow way, he that is in luxury, or that is in poverty; that is independent, or that carrieth ten thousand burdens; the lax  and dissolute, or the thoughtful and anxious? But what need of these arguments, when it is best to betake one's self to the persons themselves. Lazarus was poor, yea very poor; and he that passed him by as he lay at his gateway was rich. Which then entered into the kingdom, and was in delights in Abraham's bosom? and which of them was scorched, with not even a drop at his command? But, saith one, both many poor will be lost, and [many] rich will enjoy those unspeakable goods.' Nay rather, one may see the contrary, few rich saved, but of the poor far more. For, consider, making accurate measure of the hindrances of riches and the defects of poverty, (or rather, neither of riches nor of poverty are they, but each of those who have riches or poverty; howbeit,) let us at least see which is the more available weapon. What defect then doth poverty seem to possess? Lying. And what, wealth? Pride, the mother of evils; which also made the devil a devil, who was not such before. Again, "the love of money is a root of all kinds of evil." (1 Timothy 6:10.) Which then stands near this root, the rich man, or the poor? Is it not very plainly the rich? For the more things anyone surrounds himself with, he desires so much the more. Vainglory again damages tens of thousands of good deeds, and near this too again the rich man hath his dwelling  . "But," saith one, "thou mentionest not the [evils] of the poor man, his affliction, his straits." Nay, but this is both common to the rich, and is his more than the poor man's; so that those indeed which appear to be evils of poverty are common to either: whilst those of riches are riches' only. But what,' saith one, when for want of necessaries the poor man committeth many horrible things?' But no poor man, no, not one, committeth as many horrible things from want, as do the rich for the sake of surrounding themselves with more, and of not losing what stores they have  . For the poor man doth not so eagerly desire necessaries as the rich doth superfluities; nor again has he as much strength to put wickedness in practice as the other hath power. If then the rich man is both more willing and able, it is quite plain that he will rather commit such, and more of them. Nor is the poor man so much afraid in respect of hunger, as the rich trembleth and is anxious in respect of the loss of what he has, and because he has not yet gotten all men's possessions. Since then he is near both vainglory and arrogance, and the love of money, the root of all evils, what hope of salvation shall he have except he display much wisdom? And how shall he walk the narrow way? Let us not therefore carry about the notions of the many, but examine into the facts. For how is it not absurd that in respect to money, indeed, we do not trust to others, but refer this to figures and calculation; but in calculating upon facts we are lightly drawn aside by the notions of others; and that too, though we possess an exact balance  , and square  and rule  for all things, the declaration of the divine laws? Wherefore I exhort and entreat you all, disregard what this man and that man thinks about these things, and inquire from the Scriptures all these things; and having learnt what are the true riches, let us pursue after them that we may obtain also the eternal good things; which may we all obtain, through the grace and love towards men of our Lord Jesus Christ, with Whom, to the Father and the Holy Spirit, be glory, might, and honor, now and ever, and world without end. Amen.
 This passage is not in the Epistle to the Philippians, but in the first Epistle to the Thessalonians (ii. 19) but the same expressions occur in Philippians 4:1.
 Or even.'
 So Chrys.: Rec. text, "own son." [Rev. Vers. "my true child."]
 The Corinthians.
 houden akribologoumai.
 tas archas.
 [This reading, given in the margin of the Rev. Vers. is adopted by all the editors instead of "Belial," for which, as Westcott and Hort say, there is only Latin authority. C.]
 A.V. part.
 paranomia [anomia].
 The two words in brackets are not found in the text, but seem required by the context.
 [The testimony preponderates in favor of the first person, "we," adopted by the Rev. Vers. C.]
 The Received Text inverts the order of the two clauses.
 ta endon.
And what concord hath Christ with Belial? or what part hath he that believeth with an infidel?
And what agreement hath the temple of God with idols? for ye are the temple of the living God; as God hath said, I will dwell in them, and walk in them; and I will be their God, and they shall be my people.
Wherefore come out from among them, and be ye separate, saith the Lord, and touch not the unclean thing; and I will receive you,
And will be a Father unto you, and ye shall be my sons and daughters, saith the Lord Almighty.