And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,
Command the children of Israel, and say unto them, My offering, and my bread for my sacrifices made by fire, for a sweet savour unto me, shall ye observe to offer unto me in their due season.Numbers 28:2. Command the children of Israel — God here repeats some of the former laws about sacrifices, not without great reason; 1st, Because they had been generally discontinued for thirty-eight years together. 2d, Because the generation to which the former laws had been given about these things was wholly dead, and it was fit the new generation should be instructed about them, as their parents were. 3d, To renew the testimonies of God’s grace and mercy, notwithstanding their frequent forfeitures thereof by their rebellion. And, 4th, and principally, Because they were now ready to enter into that land, in which they were obliged to put these things in practice. It is observable that God commands Moses to repeat them in the following order of daily, weekly, monthly, and anniversary sacrifices.
And thou shalt say unto them, This is the offering made by fire which ye shall offer unto the LORD; two lambs of the first year without spot day by day, for a continual burnt offering.Numbers 28:3. Two lambs day by day — This first national sacrifice was to be offered every day, morning and evening, throughout the whole year, Exodus 12:5; Exodus 29:38.
The one lamb shalt thou offer in the morning, and the other lamb shalt thou offer at even;
And a tenth part of an ephah of flour for a meat offering, mingled with the fourth part of an hin of beaten oil.
It is a continual burnt offering, which was ordained in mount Sinai for a sweet savour, a sacrifice made by fire unto the LORD.Numbers 28:6. Which was ordained on mount Sinai — This shows that he speaks to those who were so young at the first institution of these laws, that they gave little heed to them, or had forgotten them.
And the drink offering thereof shall be the fourth part of an hin for the one lamb: in the holy place shalt thou cause the strong wine to be poured unto the LORD for a drink offering.Numbers 28:7. In the holy place — Upon the altar of burnt-offerings, which was in the court of the priests, nigh to the entrance into the sanctuary, (Exodus 29:42,) and was, with respect to those places of the camp, which were more remote from the tabernacle, the holy place. Strong wine to be poured unto the Lord — The original word signifies any strong drink: it was not necessary it should be wine of grapes; it might be made of dates, or other fruits. But it behooved that it should be the best of the kind; it being but reasonable that the best should be offered to God.
And the other lamb shalt thou offer at even: as the meat offering of the morning, and as the drink offering thereof, thou shalt offer it, a sacrifice made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the LORD.
And on the sabbath day two lambs of the first year without spot, and two tenth deals of flour for a meat offering, mingled with oil, and the drink offering thereof:Numbers 28:9. On the sabbath two lambs — The second stated and national sacrifice was weekly. On this day the burnt-offerings and meat-offerings are ordered to be double.
This is the burnt offering of every sabbath, beside the continual burnt offering, and his drink offering.
And in the beginnings of your months ye shall offer a burnt offering unto the LORD; two young bullocks, and one ram, seven lambs of the first year without spot;Numbers 28:11. In the beginning of your months — The third stated sacrifice was monthly, to be offered on the first day of every month. This sacrifice to God is thought to have been ordained in opposition to the idolatry of the Gentiles, who were wont to worship the new moon with great rejoicings. Besides the celebration of the new moon by sacrifices, and sound of trumpet, (Numbers 10:10,) the Jews were wont upon those days to assemble for receiving instruction from their prophets, (2 Kings 4:23,) and to feast together, 1 Samuel 20:5; 1 Samuel 20:18. And it was customary on those days to shut up their shops, and abstain from ordinary and servile labour, as is hinted Amos 8:5.
And three tenth deals of flour for a meat offering, mingled with oil, for one bullock; and two tenth deals of flour for a meat offering, mingled with oil, for one ram;
And a several tenth deal of flour mingled with oil for a meat offering unto one lamb; for a burnt offering of a sweet savour, a sacrifice made by fire unto the LORD.
And their drink offerings shall be half an hin of wine unto a bullock, and the third part of an hin unto a ram, and a fourth part of an hin unto a lamb: this is the burnt offering of every month throughout the months of the year.
And one kid of the goats for a sin offering unto the LORD shall be offered, beside the continual burnt offering, and his drink offering.
And in the fourteenth day of the first month is the passover of the LORD.Numbers 28:16-17. The fourteenth day of the first month — The fourth stated and national sacrifice was annual, namely, the great passover festival, with the feast of unleavened bread annexed to it. In the fifteenth day — On the fourteenth day at even the passover was kept; and the next day began the feast of unleavened bread, Leviticus 23:6.
And in the fifteenth day of this month is the feast: seven days shall unleavened bread be eaten.
In the first day shall be an holy convocation; ye shall do no manner of servile work therein:
But ye shall offer a sacrifice made by fire for a burnt offering unto the LORD; two young bullocks, and one ram, and seven lambs of the first year: they shall be unto you without blemish:
And their meat offering shall be of flour mingled with oil: three tenth deals shall ye offer for a bullock, and two tenth deals for a ram;
A several tenth deal shalt thou offer for every lamb, throughout the seven lambs:
And one goat for a sin offering, to make an atonement for you.
Ye shall offer these beside the burnt offering in the morning, which is for a continual burnt offering.Numbers 28:23. In the morning — And that in the evening too, as is evident from other passages of Scripture. But the morning sacrifice alone is mentioned, both because the celebration of the feast began with it, and because this alone was doubtful whether this might not be omitted, when so many other sacrifices were offered in that morning: whereas, there was no question but the evening sacrifice should be offered, when there were none other to be offered. This solemn festival was designed as an acknowledgment of God’s goodness in bringing them out of Egypt, and making them a free people; which was the foundation of all their future blessings.
After this manner ye shall offer daily, throughout the seven days, the meat of the sacrifice made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the LORD: it shall be offered beside the continual burnt offering, and his drink offering.
And on the seventh day ye shall have an holy convocation; ye shall do no servile work.
Also in the day of the firstfruits, when ye bring a new meat offering unto the LORD, after your weeks be out, ye shall have an holy convocation; ye shall do no servile work:Numbers 28:26. Also in the day of the first-fruits — In the feast of pentecost, Acts 2:1. The weeks — The seven weeks which you are to number from the passover. This fifth stated and national sacrifice was also annual, namely, at the harvest festival, when the first-fruits of corn were to be offered up, Exodus 23:16. This festival was two-fold; first, the barley- harvest first-fruits, beginning at the passover; and then, at seven weeks’ end, the wheat-harvest festival, called the feast of weeks, which is here intended. When ye bring a new meat or bread-offering — That is, two loaves made of the first wheat flour, as the first-fruits of the said wheat- harvest.
But ye shall offer the burnt offering for a sweet savour unto the LORD; two young bullocks, one ram, seven lambs of the first year;Numbers 28:27. Ye shall offer the burnt-offering — The same as in the new moon, Numbers 28:11. To reconcile this verse with Leviticus 23:18, see the note on that verse.
And their meat offering of flour mingled with oil, three tenth deals unto one bullock, two tenth deals unto one ram,
A several tenth deal unto one lamb, throughout the seven lambs;
And one kid of the goats, to make an atonement for you.
Ye shall offer them beside the continual burnt offering, and his meat offering, (they shall be unto you without blemish) and their drink offerings.