Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament
Paul, and Silvanus, and Timotheus, unto the church of the Thessalonians in God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ:2 Thessalonians 1:3. Ὀφείλομεν, we are bound) Urged by exultation of mind on grounds so manifest. So also ch. 2 Thessalonians 2:13. [There is herein shown a generous sense of a debt of that kind.—V. g.]—ἄξιον, worthy, meet, befitting) On account of the magnitude of the fact. Comp. 1 Corinthians 16:4. [Are the proofs of thy Christianity ‘worthy’ of thanks being given to God on account of them by those?—V. g.]—ἡ πίστις· ἡ ἀγάπη, faith; love) Of hope, 2 Thessalonians 1:4-5. For these three graces are usually joined.
Grace unto you, and peace, from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.
We are bound to thank God always for you, brethren, as it is meet, because that your faith groweth exceedingly, and the charity of every one of you all toward each other aboundeth;
So that we ourselves glory in you in the churches of God for your patience and faith in all your persecutions and tribulations that ye endure:2 Thessalonians 1:4. Ἡμᾶς αὐτοὺς, we ourselves) Paul himself, with Silvanus and Timothy, gloried, as being a witness; he not merely heard of the fact from witnesses.—ὑπὲρ, for) construed with εὐχαριστεῖν, to render thanks, 2 Thessalonians 1:3. Hence at the end of 2 Thessalonians 1:3 we must put a comma; comp. Colossians 1:5, note. The parallelism [the clauses and words in 2 Thessalonians 1:3-4, standing parallel to one another] gives force.—καὶ πίστεως, and faith) Faith here denotes faithful constancy in confession of the truth.
Which is a manifest token of the righteous judgment of God, that ye may be counted worthy of the kingdom of God, for which ye also suffer:2 Thessalonians 1:5. Ἔνδειγμα) namely, ὄν [It being a token, etc.] The Accusative absolute; comp. Acts 26:3, note. The fact of your ἀνέχεσθαι, enduring, 2 Thessalonians 1:4, is a proof or token.—δικαίας, just, righteous) What is stated as a Proposition in this clause is discussed at 2 Thessalonians 1:6-7.—εἰς τὸ καταξιωθῆναι, that you may be counted worthy) This clause is connected (coheres) with ye endure.—ὑπὲρ ἧς) for which. The suffering (πάσχετε) makes them worthy of the kingdom.
Seeing it is a righteous thing with God to recompense tribulation to them that trouble you;2 Thessalonians 1:6. Παρὰ Θεῷ, with God) Although good and bad men do not estimate the injuries done by the latter, and the sufferings endured by the former, as of so great importance.—θλίβουσιν—θλίψιν, affliction [tribulation]—to them that afflict [trouble]) The lex talionis [compensation in kind]. To this refer 2 Thessalonians 1:8-9.
And to you who are troubled rest with us, when the Lord Jesus shall be revealed from heaven with his mighty angels,2 Thessalonians 1:7. Καὶ ὑμῖν, and to you) To this refer 2 Thessalonians 1:10-11.—τοῖς θλιβουμένοις, who are afflicted) In the middle voice, who endure affliction; comp. 2 Thessalonians 1:4, at the end.—ἄνεσιν, rest) θλίψις, affliction, and ἄνεσις, rest, are opposed to each other with great propriety, 2 Corinthians 7:5; 2 Corinthians 8:13. Moreover rest includes also abundance of good things, 2 Thessalonians 1:10.—μεθʼ ἡμῶν) with us, i.e. with the saints of Israel, 2 Thessalonians 1:10, note. Comp. 1 Thessalonians 2:14.—μετʼ ἀγγέλων δυνάμεως, with angels of might, mighty angels) The angels serve Christ in the putting forth of His power.
In flaming fire taking vengeance on them that know not God, and that obey not the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ:2 Thessalonians 1:8. Ἐν πυρὶ φλογὸς) Others read ἐν φλογὶ πυρὸς. The same variety occurs, Acts 7:30 : ἐν φλογὶ πυρὸς, LXX., Isaiah 66:15.—ΤΟῖς ΜῊ ΕἸΔΌΔΙ ΘΕῸΝ) to those who are living in heathen ignorance of God, 1 Thessalonians 4:5; Psalm 79:6. So Job 18:21, לא ידע אל, ΤῶΝ ΜῊ ΕἸΔΌΤΩΝ ΤῸΝ ΚΎΡΙΟΝ, of those who know not the Lord.—μὴ ὑπακούουσι, who do not obey) chiefly by the Jews, to whom the Gospel concerning Christ had been preached.
 Lachm. reads ἐν φλογὶ πυρὸς with BD(Δ)Gg Vulg., Iren. 273, 265. Tisch. reads ἐν πυρὶ φλογὸς with Af and Rec. Text.—ED.
 The Hebrew is sing., of him that knoweth not God.—TR.
 It is considered, however, by the margin of the 2d ED., that the name of Christ should rather be omitted in this verse, and therefore the Germ. Vers. has rejected it.—E. B.
BD(Δ) omit Χριστοῦ, and so Tisch. But AGfg Vulg., Iren. 265, and Rec. Text, support it. Lachm. therefore retains it, but in brackets.—ED.
Who shall be punished with everlasting destruction from the presence of the Lord, and from the glory of his power;2 Thessalonians 1:9. Ἀπὸ, from) It is a judicial procedure from the Divine presence itself, that will inflict punishment upon them. מפני, from the face. Devils will not be the tormentors; for even in this life bad men are not punished by devils, but rather by good angels: and in Psalm 78:49, the phrase, angels of (bringing) evil, may even denote good angels. Exodus 12:23; 2 Samuel 24:16.—ΠΡΟΣΏΠΟΥ, the face) This face will be intolerable to them; they shall not see it, but they shall be made to feel it. Face and glory are generally parallel.—ἰσχύος, of His might) Lay aside your fierceness (haughty confidence of ‘might’) ye wicked men!
 “He cast upon them the fierceness of His anger—by sending evil angels among them.” LXX. διʼ ἀγγέλων πονηρῶν.—ED.
When he shall come to be glorified in his saints, and to be admired in all them that believe (because our testimony among you was believed) in that day.2 Thessalonians 1:10. Ἐν, in) Saints and believers shall not only behold Him, but by them the admirable glory of Christ will put itself forth in its fulness. See the following verses.—ἁγίοις, the saints) The mention of glory, and the saints, is sweetly joined, as is also the mention of admiration (Christ coming “to be admired”), and, believers (“them that believe”).—πᾶσι, all) This word, not added to, the saints, but to them that believe, intimates, that the term believers [“them that believe”] has a somewhat wider signification than saints. See Acts 20:32, note. So all, Php 1:9, note. ‘Saints’ are those of the circumcision; ‘believers’ are they of the Gentiles, among whom were also the Thessalonians [who, when the testimony of the Apostles had reached also them, received it with praise-worthy firmness of mind.—V. g.]. Comp. the two expressions standing in antithesis to these, 2 Thessalonians 1:8, note.—ὅτι, because) The motive of ‘admiration’ [which shall prompt them to “admire Christ”] will be, that the testimony of the Apostles concerning Christ, having obtained faith among the Thessalonians, proves to be what it professed [stands forth unshaken] in that day, on which truth alone stands firm. Comp. Php 2:16; 1 Thessalonians 2:19.—ἐπιστεύθη) נאמן, ΠΙΣΤῸΝ, stood forth as faithful [was proved to be trustworthy and stedfast], and as such was received [credited] by you, upon whom it (the testimony) had come.—ἐφʼ ὑμᾶς [among you, i.e.] even to you) coming as far as to you, in the west.—ἘΝ Τῇ) construe with ἜΛΘῌ, When He shall come [not with ἐπιστεύθη, was believed or accounted faithful].
 “I pray that your love may abound—in knowledge and in all judgment;” where the all is prefixed before ‘judgment’ as being the more general term; but not before knowledge as being more special and limited. So here, all before “them that believe,” but not before the more restricted term, “the saints.”—ED.
 Viz. τοῖς μὴ εἰδόσι Θεὸν, “them that know not God,” namely, Gentiles; and τοῖς μὴ ὑπακούουσιν, “them that obey not, namely, the Jews who refused to believe, though the Gospel was preached to them.—ED.
Wherefore also we pray always for you, that our God would count you worthy of this calling, and fulfil all the good pleasure of his goodness, and the work of faith with power:2 Thessalonians 1:11. Εἰς ὃ, for which object) We strive for this in prayer.—ἀξιώσῃ, would make you worthy) There is no dignity in us before we are called, 2 Timothy 1:9. It is not until afterwards conferred upon us in that way, which is presently described.—ὁ Θεὸς ἡμῶν) our God, whom we serve.—εὐδοκίαν, good pleasure) on the part of God.—πίστεως, of faith) on your part.
That the name of our Lord Jesus Christ may be glorified in you, and ye in him, according to the grace of our God and the Lord Jesus Christ.2 Thessalonians 1:12. Τὸ ὄνομα, the name) We confer nothing on the Lord, whereas the Lord really confers upon us salvation; and hence His name is glorified in us; and we ourselves moreover in Him.—χάριν, grace) with this grace in view, he mentioned ἀγαθωσύνης, of goodness, 2 Thessalonians 1:11.