1 Peter 5:6
Humble yourselves therefore under the mighty hand of God, that he may exalt you in due time:
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(6) Humble yourselves therefore.—This, too, looks an amplification of a proverb, when we compare it with James 4:10. The humility here recommended is not merely a submissive bearing of the strokes which it pleased God to let fall upon them, but it was to be shown, as we see in the former verse, in their bearing toward one another. And “the mighty hand of God” is not to be regarded as that which is chastising them, but as the protecting shelter which they are humbly to seek.

In due time.—St. Peter probably means, in the day of judgment, which seemed so instant.

5:5-9 Humility preserves peace and order in all Christian churches and societies; pride disturbs them. Where God gives grace to be humble, he will give wisdom, faith, and holiness. To be humble, and subject to our reconciled God, will bring greater comfort to the soul than the gratification of pride and ambition. But it is to be in due time; not in thy fancied time, but God's own wisely appointed time. Does he wait, and wilt not thou? What difficulties will not the firm belief of his wisdom, power, and goodness get over! Then be humble under his hand. Cast all you care; personal cares, family cares, cares for the present, and cares for the future, for yourselves, for others, for the church, on God. These are burdensome, and often very sinful, when they arise from unbelief and distrust, when they torture and distract the mind, unfit us for duties, and hinder our delight in the service of God. The remedy is, to cast our care upon God, and leave every event to his wise and gracious disposal. Firm belief that the Divine will and counsels are right, calms the spirit of a man. Truly the godly too often forget this, and fret themselves to no purpose. Refer all to God's disposal. The golden mines of all spiritual comfort and good are wholly his, and the Spirit itself. Then, will he not furnish what is fit for us, if we humbly attend on him, and lay the care of providing for us, upon his wisdom and love? The whole design of Satan is to devour and destroy souls. He always is contriving whom he may insnare to eternal ruin. Our duty plainly is, to be sober; to govern both the outward and the inward man by the rules of temperance. To be vigilant; suspicious of constant danger from this spiritual enemy, watchful and diligent to prevent his designs. Be stedfast, or solid, by faith. A man cannot fight upon a quagmire, there is no standing without firm ground to tread upon; this faith alone furnishes. It lifts the soul to the firm advanced ground of the promises, and fixes it there. The consideration of what others suffer, is proper to encourage us to bear our share in any affliction; and in whatever form Satan assaults us, or by whatever means, we may know that our brethren experience the same.Humble yourselves therefore - Be willing to take a low place - a place such as becomes you. Do not arrogate to yourselves what does not belong to you; do not evince pride and haughtiness in your manner; do not exalt yourselves above others. See the notes at Luke 14:7-11. Compare Proverbs 15:33; Proverbs 18:12; Proverbs 22:4; Micah 6:8; Philippians 2:8.

Under the mighty hand of God - This refers probably to the calamities which he had brought upon them, or was about to bring upon them; represented here, as often elsewhere, as the infliction of his hand - the hand being that by which we accomplish anything. When that hand was upon them they were not to be lifted up with pride and with a spirit of rebellion, but were to take a lowly place before him, and submit to him wish a calm mind, believing that he would exalt them in due time. There is no situation in which one will be more likely to feel humility than in scenes of affliction.

That he may exalt you in due time - When he shall see it to be a proper time:

(1) They might be assured that this would be done at some time. He would not always leave them in this low and depressed condition. He would take off his heavy hand, and raise them up from their state of sadness and suffering.

(2) this would be in due time; that is, in the proper time, in the best time:

(a) It might be in the present life.

(b) It would certainly be in the world to come. There they would be exalted to honors which will be more than an equivalent for all the persecution, poverty, and contempt which are suffered in this world. He may well afford to be humble here who is to be exalted to a throne in heaven.

6. under the mighty hand—afflicting you (1Pe 3:15): "accept" His chastisements, and turn to Him that smiteth you. He depresses the proud and exalts the humble.

in due time—Wait humbly and patiently for His own fit time. One oldest manuscript and Vulgate read, "In the season of visitation," namely, His visitation in mercy.

The mighty hand of God; by this he means God’s omnipotence, which sometimes is called a strong hand, Exodus 3:19, a mighty hand, Exodus 32:11 Deu 3:24, the right hand of power, Matthew 26:64; by which he is able to beat down those that are proud and high, and to defend or exalt those that are humble and lowly.

In due time; Greek, in season, viz. that which God sees most fit and conducing to his own glory and your real welfare.

Humble yourselves therefore,.... Or be ye humbled before God, and in his sight; quietly submit to his will; patiently bear every affliction without murmuring, repining, or replying against him; be still under the rod, and despise not the chastening of the Lord; mourn over sin as the cause, acknowledge your vileness and unworthiness, and stand in awe of his majesty, considering yourselves as

under the mighty hand of God a phrase expressive of his omnipotence which cannot be stayed, and it would be madness to oppose it; and which is able to cast down the proud, and dash them to pieces, as well as to exalt the humble. His hand, upon men, in a way of chastisement, presses sore, and, in a way of punishment, presses down, and crushes to pieces; but to be under it in an humble manner is safe and profitable; such are hid as in the hollow of his hand, and are safe as in a pavilion, and comfortable under the shadow of his wings; and such humiliation and submission to him, and putting themselves under his mighty hand and care, is the way to exaltation:

that he may exalt you in due time: the Arabic version reads, "in the time of exaltation": when his time to exalt is come, either in this world, or more especially at the appearance of Christ and his kingdom. The Vulgate Latin version, and two copies of Beza's, one of Stephens's, and the Alexandrian, read, "in the time of visitation"; and so the Ethiopic version, "when he shall have visited you"; which seems to be taken out of 1 Peter 2:12 sooner or later such who are humbled shall be exalted; it is the usual way and method which God takes to abase the proud, and exalt the humble; for humble souls honour him, and therefore such as honour him he will honour; and this he does in his own time, in a time that makes most for his glory, and their good; oftentimes he does it in this life, and always in that which is to come.

Humble yourselves therefore {10} under the mighty hand of God, that he may exalt you in due time:

(10) Because those proud and lofty spirits threaten the modest and humble, the apostle warns us to set the power of God against the vanity of proud men, and to rely completely on his providence.

1 Peter 5:6. Conclusion drawn from the Old Testament passage, ταπεινώθητε οὖν ὑπὸ κ.τ.λ.] see Jam 4:6; not: “become humble,” as Wiesinger interprets, on account of the passive (for if the meaning must be passive, in accordance with the form, it ought to be: “be made humble”), but in a middle sense: “humble yourselves.” 1 Peter 5:7 shows that this self-humbling here refers to the lowly and submissive bearing of afflictions (otherwise in Luke 14:11).

τὴν κραταιὰν χεῖρα] Old Testament expression denoting the power of God which rules and judges all; cf. Deuteronomy 3:24, LXX.; it does not refer here to the laying on of afflictions only (de Wette), but to the being exalted out of them (so, too, Brückner); cf. Luke 1:51 : ἐποίησε κράτος ἐν βραχίονι αὐτοῦ· διεσκόρπισεν ὑπερηφάνουςκαὶ ὕψωσε ταπεινούς. The purpose of this subordination: ἵνα ὑμᾶς ὕψωσῃ, is the glory which follows upon the sufferings; ἵνα is not put ἐκβατικῶς (Pott), but τελικῶς.

ἐν καιρῷ] Matthew 24:45 : “tempore statuto;” Erasmus: ut vos extollat, cum erit opportunum, cum judicabit id vobis expedire vel in hoc saeculo, vel in die judicii; this last is here the principal point of view.

1 Peter 5:6. ταπεινώθητε οὖν echoes the exhortation and its accompanied scripture in 1 Peter 5:5—obey in order that the promise (Luke 14:11) may be fulfilled for you, he that humbleth himself shall be exalted (sc. by God). So too St. James, subject yourselves therefore to God (1 Peter 4:7).—τὴν κραταιὰν χεῖρα. God’s mighty hand is a common O.T. expression; see Exodus 3:19, etc. for connexion with deliverance and especially Ezekiel 20:33 f., ἐν χειρὶ κραταιᾷ καὶἐν θυμῷ κεχυμένῳ βασιλεύσω ἐφʼ ὑμᾶς.

6. Humble yourselves therefore under the mighty hand of God] The parallelism with St James (James 4:10) will again be noticed, but the thought is one which occurs in many forms elsewhere (Job 22:29; Proverbs 29:23; Matthew 23:12; Luke 1:52; Luke 14:11; Luke 18:14). The plural “the mighty hand of God,” reproduces the LXX. version of Deuteronomy 3:24.

in due time] The promise is purposely left in this vague indeterminate form. St Peter does not say that the exaltation of victory will come in this life. He does not say either, that it will not come till the Resurrection. He is certain, with the full assurance of faith, that this is God’s law of retribution, and he is content to leave “the times and the seasons” in the Father’s hands, certain that the season chosen will be the right one.

1 Peter 5:6. Κραταιὰν χεῖρα, the powerful hand) The hand of God establishes different ranks; He depresses the proud, and exalts the humble. He who is subject to the ordinances of man for the Lord’s sake, ch. 1 Peter 2:13, submits himself also to the Lord Himself. Comp. Romans 13:2.—ἐν καιρῷ, in due time) at the befitting time. Comp. ὀλίγον, 1 Peter 5:10. Peter often looks to the day of judgment.

Verse 6. - Humble yourselves therefore under the mighty hand of God, that he may exalt you in due time. The Alexandrine Manuscript and some ancient versions add ἐπισκοπῆς, "in the time of visitation," probably from Luke 19:44. For "the mighty hand of God," comp. Deuteronomy 3:24; Luke 1:51. St. Peter was doubtless thinking of the well-remembered words of the Lord, "He that humbleth himself shall be exalted." 1 Peter 5:6Mighty hand (κραταιὰν χεῖρα)

A phrase found nowhere else in the New Testament, but occurring in the Septuagint, Exodus 3:19; Deuteronomy 3:24; Job 30:21. The adjective κραταιὰν, mighty, is, moreover, used only here. Compare Luke 1:51, Luke 1:52.

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