Judges 4:4
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New International Version
Now Deborah, a prophet, the wife of Lappidoth, was leading Israel at that time.

New Living Translation
Deborah, the wife of Lappidoth, was a prophet who was judging Israel at that time.

English Standard Version
Now Deborah, a prophetess, the wife of Lappidoth, was judging Israel at that time.

New American Standard Bible
Now Deborah, a prophetess, the wife of Lappidoth, was judging Israel at that time.

King James Bible
And Deborah, a prophetess, the wife of Lapidoth, she judged Israel at that time.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
Deborah, a woman who was a prophetess and the wife of Lappidoth, was judging Israel at that time.

International Standard Version
Deborah, a woman, prophet, and wife of Lappidoth, was herself judging Israel during that time.

NET Bible
Now Deborah, a prophetess, wife of Lappidoth, was leading Israel at that time.

New Heart English Bible
Now Deborah, a prophetess, the wife of Lappidoth, she judged Israel at that time.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
Deborah, wife of Lappidoth, was a prophet. She was the judge in Israel at that time.

JPS Tanakh 1917
Now Deborah, a prophetess, the wife of Lappidoth, she judged Israel at that time.

New American Standard 1977
Now Deborah, a prophetess, the wife of Lappidoth, was judging Israel at that time.

Jubilee Bible 2000
And a woman judged Israel at that time, Deborah, a prophetess, the wife of Lapidoth.

King James 2000 Bible
And Deborah, a prophetess, the wife of Lappidoth, judged Israel at that time.

American King James Version
And Deborah, a prophetess, the wife of Lapidoth, she judged Israel at that time.

American Standard Version
Now Deborah, a prophetess, the wife of Lappidoth, she judged Israel at that time.

Douay-Rheims Bible
And there was at that time Debbora a prophetess the wife of Lapidoth, who judged the people,

Darby Bible Translation
And Deborah, a prophetess, the wife of Lapidoth, judged Israel at that time.

English Revised Version
Now Deborah, a prophetess, the wife of Lappidoth, she judged Israel at that time.

Webster's Bible Translation
And Deborah, a prophetess, the wife of Lapidoth, she judged Israel at that time.

World English Bible
Now Deborah, a prophetess, the wife of Lappidoth, she judged Israel at that time.

Young's Literal Translation
And Deborah, a woman inspired, wife of Lapidoth, she is judging Israel at that time,
Study Bible
Deborah and Barak
3The sons of Israel cried to the LORD; for he had nine hundred iron chariots, and he oppressed the sons of Israel severely for twenty years. 4Now Deborah, a prophetess, the wife of Lappidoth, was judging Israel at that time. 5She used to sit under the palm tree of Deborah between Ramah and Bethel in the hill country of Ephraim; and the sons of Israel came up to her for judgment.…
Cross References
Judges 4:3
The sons of Israel cried to the LORD; for he had nine hundred iron chariots, and he oppressed the sons of Israel severely for twenty years.

Judges 4:5
She used to sit under the palm tree of Deborah between Ramah and Bethel in the hill country of Ephraim; and the sons of Israel came up to her for judgment.

Ezekiel 13:17
"Now you, son of man, set your face against the daughters of your people who are prophesying from their own inspiration. Prophesy against them
Treasury of Scripture

And Deborah, a prophetess, the wife of Lapidoth, she judged Israel at that time.

Exodus 15:20 And Miriam the prophetess, the sister of Aaron, took a tambourine in her hand…

2 Kings 22:14 So Hilkiah the priest, and Ahikam, and Achbor, and Shaphan, and Asahiah, …

Nehemiah 6:14 My God, think you on Tobiah and Sanballat according to these their …

Joel 2:28,29 And it shall come to pass afterward, that I will pour out my spirit …

Micah 6:4 For I brought you up out of the land of Egypt, and redeemed you out …

Luke 2:36 And there was one Anna, a prophetess, the daughter of Phanuel, of …

Acts 21:9 And the same man had four daughters, virgins, which did prophesy.

1 Corinthians 11:5 But every woman that prays or prophesies with her head uncovered …

Galatians 3:28 There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither bond nor free, there …

(4) Deborah.--The name means "bee," like the Greek Melissa. The names of Jewish women were often derived from natural objects, as Rachel, "a lamb," Tamar,"a palm," &c. It has been sometimes regarded as a title given to her as a prophetess, just as the priestesses of Delphi were called Bees (Pindar, Pyth. iv. 106); and priests were called by the title Malebee (Ess?n). But the fact that Rachel's nurse (Genesis 35:8) had the same name is against this supposition, though Josephus (Antt. v., 5) accepts it. She had, as Cornelius Lapide quaintly says, "a sting for foes, and honey for friends." The pronunciation Deb?rah is now so deeply-rooted in England (possibly from the Vulgate, Debbora) that it would, perhaps, be pedantic to alter it; but properly the "?" is long ?????; LXX., Deborra and Debb?ra).

A prophetess.--Literally, a woman, a prophetess; like Miriam (Exodus 15:20), Huldah (2Kings 22:14), Noadiah (Nehemiah 6:14), Anna (Luke 2:36), &c. She is the only female judge, or, indeed, female ruler of any kind in Jewish history, except the Phoenician murderess, Athaliah. She is also the only judge to whom the title "prophet" is expressly given. "Prophetess" (like the Latin Vates) implies the possession of poetic as well as of prophetic gifts (Exodus 15:20); and we see her right to such a title, both in her predictions (Judges 4:9), her lofty courage (Judges 5:7), and the splendour of her inspired song (Judges 5). She has modern parallels in the Teutonic prophetesses, Veleda and Alaurinia (Tac., Germ. 8), and Joan of Arc, the "Inspired Maid of Domremi." Among the Jews prophetesses were the exception; among the ancient Germans they were the rule.

The wife of Lapidoth.--This is probably the meaning of the phrase, although some ancient commentators make it mean "a woman of Lapidoth;" as does Tennyson (Princess), "Like that great dame of Lapidoth." The phrase closely resembles "Miriam the prophetess, the sister of Aaron," "Huldah the prophetess, wife of Shallum." The name Lapidoth, which occurs nowhere else, means "flames," "lamps," or "splendours;" and Rashi says that she was called "a woman of lamps," from making the wicks for the lamps of the sanctuary; while others, with equal improbability, interpret it of her shining gifts and of her fiery spirit. The parallels which are adduced to support this view (Isaiah 62:1; Job 41:2; Nahum 2:5) are inadequate; as also is Ecclus. xlviii. 1, "The word of Elias burnt like a torch;" and the Midrash, which says of Phinehas, that "when the Holy Ghost filled him, his countenance glowed like torches" (Cassel). Perhaps there was a fancy that such a prophetess could only be a virgin. The name Lapidoth has a feminine termination, but this does not prove that it may not have been, like Naboth, Shelomith, Koheleth, &c., the name of a man. It is uncertain whether Deborah was of the tribe of Ephraim or Issachar (Judges 5:15; Ewald, ii. 489).

She judged Israel.--We see from the next verse that up to this time her functions had mainly consisted of peaceful arbitration and legal decision (Deuteronomy 17:8).

And Deborah, a prophetess, the wife of Lapidoth,.... Deborah was a name common to women with the eastern people, see Genesis 35:8; as Melissa, which is of the same signification with the Greeks, and both signify a "bee"; and to which Deborah answered in her industry, sagacity, and sweetness of temper to her friends, and sharpness to her enemies: she was a "prophetess", and foretold things to come, as the drawing of Sisera and his army to a certain place named by her, the victory that should be gained over him, and the delivery of him into the hands of a woman. Who Lapidoth was, or what is meant by the name, is not certain; most take it to be the name of her husband, which seems best, but who he was is not known; the Jews will have him to be the same with Barak, there being, as they think, some agreement in the names, Barak signifying lightning, and Lapidoth, lamps; but the whole context shows the contrary, that he was not her husband. Some render the words, "a woman of Lapidoth", taking it for the name of her native place on habitation; but where there was a place of this name no account can be given: some say she was so called from her employment before she was a prophetess and judge, making wicks for the lamps in the sanctuary, as Jarchi relates; and others take it to be expressive of her excellencies and virtues, which shone in her as lamps; the first sense is best:

she judged Israel at that time; toward the close of the twenty years' oppression under Jabin, being raised up of God as other judges were, and eminently endowed with gifts and grace; she endeavoured to convince the people of their sins, exhorted them to repentance, and was a means of reforming them, and administering justice and judgment in all cases brought before her; and which Jabin might admit of, connive at, or take no notice of, she being a woman, of whose growing power and interest he had no jealousy. 4. And Deborah, a prophetess—A woman of extraordinary knowledge, wisdom, and piety, instructed in divine knowledge by the Spirit and accustomed to interpret His will; who acquired an extensive influence, and was held in universal respect, insomuch that she became the animating spirit of the government and discharged all the special duties of a judge, except that of military leader.

the wife of Lapidoth—rendered by some, "a woman of splendors."4:4-9 Deborah was a prophetess; one instructed in Divine knowledge by the inspiration of the Spirit of God. She judged Israel as God's mouth to them; correcting abuses, and redressing grievances. By God's direction, she ordered Barak to raise an army, and engage Jabin's forces. Barak insisted much upon her presence. Deborah promised to go with him. She would not send him where she would not go herself. Those who in God's name call others to their duty, should be ready to assist them in it. Barak values the satisfaction of his mind, and the good success of his enterprise, more than mere honour.
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