5920. al
Strong's Concordance
al: height
Original Word: עָל
Part of Speech: substantive; preposition; feminine; conjunction
Transliteration: al
Phonetic Spelling: (al)
Short Definition: high
NAS Exhaustive Concordance
Word Origin
from alah
Definition
height
NASB Translation
high (2), upward (1).

Brown-Driver-Briggs
עַל, עָ֑ל (compare Köii. 261 f.)

I. substantive height (poetry) Hosea 7:16 יָשׁוּבוּ לֹא עָֹל they return (but) not upwards (i.e. not God-wards), Hosea 11:7 וְאֶלעַֿל יִקְרָאֻהוּ they (the prophets) call it (the people) upwards, (but) none striveth to rise; as adverb accusative, 2 Samuel 23:1 the man הֻ֣קַּם עָ֔ל (that) is raised up on high. With מִן, מֵעָ֑ל, (ה)שׁמים מֵעָ֑ל (the) heavens above Genesis 27:39; Genesis 49:25; Psalm 50:4 (opposed to מִתַּחַת Exodus 20:4. In prose מִמַּעַל).

II. As preposition upon, and hence on the ground of, according to, on account of, on behalf of, concerning, beside, in addition to, together with, beyond, above, over, by, on to, towards, to, against (SI4.6; Moabite, Aramaic id.; Phoenician על, and עלת; Palmyrene, Nabataean על; Sabean עלי, Arabic ); — abbreviated from עֲלֵי (compare אֱלֵי, עֲדֵי), which is preserved in poetry, Genesis 49:17 (twice in verse); Genesis 49:22 (twice in verse); Numbers 24:6 (twice in verse); Deuteronomy 32:2 (twice in verse); Isaiah 18:4; Jeremiah 8:18; Micah 5:6; Lamentations 4:5; 1 Kings 20:41 Qr, Job 7:1 Qr + 10 t. Psalms, 3t. Proverbs, 15 t. Job; with suffix עָלַי; עָלֶיךָ, עָלַיִךְ ( Psalm 116:7 the Aramaizing form עָלָ֑יְכִי); עָלָיו, Psalm 1 Samuel 2:10 עָלָו, עָלֶיהָ; 1 plural עָלֵינוּ; 2 masculine plural עֲלֵיכֶם, Exodus 12:13 עֲלֵכֶם, 2 feminine plural עֲלֵיכֶן Ezekiel 23:49; 3masculine plural עֲלֵיהֶם, 13 t. in Pentateuch עֲלֵהֶם Genesis 45:15, etc. (Köii. 305), in poetry עָלֵ֫ימוֺ Deuteronomy 22:23 11t. Psalms, Job (perhaps sometimes, Ges§ 103i, N.); 3 feminine plural עֲלֵיהֶן, Leviticus 3:4,10,15 עֲלֵהֶן (on the apparently plur. form of עֲלֵי, עָלַי etc., see Köii. 309 ff., and compare below עַד).

1 Upon, of the substratum upon which an object in any way rests, or on which an action is performed; as עלהֿארץ upon the earth Genesis 1:11,26; Genesis 7:6, etc., Psalm 110:6 על ארץ רבה over a wide country; על האדמה upon the ground Ezekiel 20:12 + often, Amos 7:12 עַל אֲדָמָה טְמֵאָה, Isaiah 14:2 ׳על אדמת י, Psalm 137:4 עַל אַדְמַת נֵכָר (אֲרָמָה being properly ground, soil, is construed regularly with על, באדמה being very rare), more definitely על פני האדמה Genesis 6:1; Numbers 12:3 + often; על מקום Leviticus 14:28; Jeremiah 45:5 (uncommon: usually בְּ); Deuteronomy 17:20; Isaiah 9:6 על מַמְלַכְתּוֺ upon his realm, 2 Chronicles 1:1; על בָּֽתִּים very strangely Hosea 11:11 (read וַהֲשִׁבֹתִים with ᵐ5 : see 7 c α β); constantly after such verbs as נוח, ישׁב, רכב, etc., Genesis 8:4; Exodus 11:5; כתב על to write (idiomatic) on a book or other surface, Joshua 10:13, etc.; יצא על go forth over Genesis 41:45; Zechariah 5:3; Psalm 81:6; with נִשְׁעַן, נִסְמַךְ, בָּטַח (figurative), to lean or trust upon: Genesis 3:14 to go עַל גְּחֹנְךָ upon thy belly, Genesis 32:32 to limp עַל יְרֵכוֺ upon his thigh, 1 Samuel 14:13; Ezekiel 37:10; Judges 15:8 to smite שׁוֺק עַל יָרֵךְ leg upon thigh, i.e. so that the scattered limbs fall one upon another, Amos 3:15. And with reference not a horizontal surface but to a side, Leviticus 1:5 + זָרַק עַל to pour against the altar, 1 Kings 6:5,18 to build against the temple, Joshua 10:27, etc. Figurative Exodus 23:13 let it not be heard עַל מִּיךָ upon thy mouth (in our idiom, upon thy lips, as Proverbs 22:18), Psalm 15:3 לֹא רָגַל עַל לְשֹׁנוֺ he slandereth not (i.e. prepares not slander) upon his tongue, 2 Samuel 23:2 וּמִלָּתוֺ עַל לְשׁוֺנִי, Proverbs 16:23,27; Proverbs 31:26; Ecclesiastes 5:1; compare עַל שְׂפָתַיִם נָשָׂא or עַל מֶּה Psalm 16:4; Psalm 50:16; Ezekiel 36:3b.

Specially a. — (a) of clothing, etc., which any one wears, Genesis 37:23 the tunic אשׁר עליו which was upon him, Joshua 9:5; 1 Kings 11:30; Ruth 3:15 +; Genesis 24:30; Genesis 38:30; 2 Samuel 13:18, of a sword 2 Samuel 20:8; Songs 3:8; so הָיָה עַל Leviticus 16:4; Deuteronomy 22:5; Ezekiel 44:18; 1 Chronicles 15:27; 1 Chronicles 18:7 ("" 2 Samuel 8:7 אֶל); compare לֹא יַעֲלֶה עָלֶיךָ Leviticus 19:19; Ezekiel 44:17, and with הֶעֱלָה, below, 7b.

(b) With verbs of covering or protecting, even though the cover or veil be not over or above the thing covered, but around or before it ('upon' referred to a side) : see גָּנַן, כָּסָה, סָכַךְ, עָטָה Nehemiah 2:8 יד אלהי הטובה עלי, compare Nehemiah 2:18; Ezra 7:6,9; Ezra 8:18,22,31; Exodus 27:21 the veil that is over (i.e. before) the testimony, 1 Samuel 25:16 חוֺמָה הָיוּ עָלֵינוּ they were a wall about us; סָגַר עַל to shut in (or down) upon Exodus 14:13; Job 12:14; Ezekiel 13:5; Job 13:27; Job 26:9; Job 36:30 he spreadeth his light עָלָיו about him.

b. Of what rests heavily upon a person, or is a burden to him, Isaiah 1:14 הָיוּ עָלַי לָטֹרַח they are a cumbrance upon me, Job 7:20 I am a burden עָלַי upon myself, 2 Samuel 15:33 (compare with אֶל 2 Samuel 19:36); כָּבַד עֶל to be heavy upon Exodus 5:9 and elsewhere (see כָּבַד); of sin, calamity, etc. Isaiah 53:5; Ezekiel 33:10; Psalm 88:8; Job 21:9; 2Chronicles 15:5; 28:13; Ecclesiastes 6:1; Ecclesiastes 8:6 (compare 5a β); Leviticus 7:20 וְטֻמְאָתוֺ עָלָיו Leviticus 22:3: idiomatically, Genesis 48:7 מֵתָה עָלַי רָחֵל Rachel died upon me (i.e. to my sorrow), Genesis 33:13 וְהַבָּקָר עָלוֺת עָלַי are giving suck upon me (i.e. as a. care to me), Numbers 11:13 יִבְכּוּ עָלַי they weep upon me (vexing me), Judges 14:16,17; Judges 19:2 (see Be), 1 Samuel 21:6 to play the mad man upon me, Jeremiah 12:11.

c. Of a duty, payment, care, etc., imposed upon a person, or devolving on him, as שָׂם עַל to lay upon, Exodus 5:8; Exodus 21:22,30 (שָׁת), Exodus 22:4, compare Genesis 47:26; 2Chronicles 35:25; with other verbs, Job 38:10; Deuteronomy 24:5; Deuteronomy 26:6; 2 Kings 15:20; 2 Kings 18:14; 2 Kings 23:33; Nehemiah 10:33 (twice in verse); Esther 1:8; Esther 9:21,27,31; with צִוָּה enjoin upon Genesis 2:16 + often, כתב prescribe to 2 Kings 22:13; Psalm 40:8, נטשׁ cast upon 1 Samuel 17:20 (1 Samuel 17:22 על יד), נתן על יד (figurative) Genesis 42:37; 2 Kings 12:12; 2 Kings 22:5, compare 1 Kings 14:27, עזב Psalm 10:14, גלל Psalm 37:5, השׁליך Psalm 55:23, פקד Job 34:13 and elsewhere; Genesis 30:28 נָקְבָה שְׂכָֽרְךָ עָלַי fix thy wages upon me (name thy wages to me), Genesis 34:12 הַרְבּוּ עָלַי מְאֹד מֹהַר וּמַתָּן multiply upon me, etc., 2 Samuel 19:39 (pregnantly) whatsoever thou choosest (and layest) upon me; without a verb, Judges 19:20 רַק כָּלמַֿחְסֹערךָ עָלָ֑י only let all thy wants be upon me, Ezra 10:4; Psalm 56:13 עָלַי נְדָרֶיךָ thy vows are upon me (i.e. I owe them: compare Numbers 30:7; Numbers 30:9; Numbers 30:15), Proverbs 7:14 זִבְחֵי שְׁלָמִים עָלָ֑י peace-offerings were upon me (= were due from me); perhaps Psalm 62:1; Psalm 77:1 (to the charge of); with an infinitive 2 Samuel 18:11 וְעָלַי לָתֵת and it would have been incumbent on me to give, etc., 1 Kings 4:7; Ezra 10:12 (accents [Baer], RVm), Nehemiah 13:3, compare Zechariah 12:2 (Ew RVm); Numbers 7:9 (P) the service of ... was upon them, Ezekiel 45:17, so especially late 1 Chronicles 9:27,33; 1 Chronicles 23:31; 2Chron 2:3 לעולם זאת על ישׂראל2Chronicles 8:15; 24:9; Ezra 7:11; Nehemiah 11:23; Isaiah 9:5 and the government is upon, his shoulder (compare Isaiah 22:22), 2Chronicles 25:3; Psalm 7:11 ׳מָֽגִנִּי עַלאֿ my shield rests upon God (he has undertaken my defence), Psalm 62:8 עלאֿלהים יִשְׁעִי וּכְבֹדִי.

d. על is used idiomatically to give pathos to the expression of an emotion, by emphasizing the person who is its subject, and who, as it were, feels it acting upon him: Psalm 42:6 why art thou cast down, O my soul, וַתֶּהֱמִי עָלַי and disquieted upon me? Psalm 42:7 my soul upon me is cast down, Psalm 42:12; Psalm 43:5; Lamentations 3:20; Psalm 131:2 כְּגָמֻל עֲלֵי אִמּוֺ כַּגָּמוּל עָלַי נַפְשִׁי is my soul upon me; Psalm 142:4 בְּהִתְעַטֵף עָלַי רוּחִי when my spirit faints upon me, Psalm 143:4; Jonah 2:8; Jeremiah 8:18 עָלַי לִבִּי דַרוָָּֽי ׃ my heart upon me is sick, Job 14:22 (twice in verse) (compare Di), Hosea 11:8 נהפך עלי לבי my heart is turned (altered) upon me, 1 Samuel 17:32; 1 Samuel 25:36; Nehemiah 5:7 וַיִמָּלֵךְ לִבִּי עָלַי and my heart took counsel upon me: compare Psalm 42:5 I will pour out my soul upon me, Job 30:16; Job 10:1 אעזבה עלי שׂיחי I will let loose my complaint upon me. (Thes apud me, mecum. The rend. 'within me alters entirely the point of view of the Hebrew expression, and is incorrect.) Denoting with some emphasis the subject of an experience, Job 30:2 עלימו אבד כָּ֑לַךְ, Daniel 2:1 his sleep נִהְיְתָה עָלָיו was done with upon him (compare Aramaic Daniel 6:19 נַדַּת עֲלוֺהִי), Daniel 10:8 וְהוֺדִי נֶהְמַּךְ עָלַי (compare Daniel 5:9; Daniel 7:28): also, rather differently, Leviticus 18:18b Jeremiah 49:20 אִם לֹא יַשִׁים עֲלֵיהֶם נְוֵהֶם, Micah 7:13; Psalm 90:17b; Psalm 7:9 according to my perfectness upon me, Ezekiel 18:20; Ezekiel 22:3; 2Chronicles 36:8.

e. חָיָה עַל to live upon (as upon a foundation or support; compare Isaiah 3:1, and Ζῆν ἐπί τινος), Deuteronomy 8:3 עַלהַֿלֶּחֶם, Isaiah 38:16 (compare Hi), Genesis 27:40 על חרבך תחיה upon ( = by) thy sword thou shalt live (compare Kazwiniii. 17 ap. Tu), Ezekiel 33:19, compare Ezekiel 33:26.

f. Of the ground, or basis, on which a thing is done, as Genesis 24:9 על הדבר הזה, Leviticus 17:12 if he offers it עַל תּוֺדָה on the ground of a thanks-giving, Numbers 6:21 עַל נִזְרוֺ, vb Ezekiel 16:15; Ezekiel 28:17; Daniel 8:25 עַל שִׂכְלוֺ, Daniel 9:18 עַל צדקותינו, (with this use is extended so as to denote explicitly on condition of). Hence (a) the basis being conceived as regulative, על comes to denote the norm or standard (compare German 'auf die Art' WAG ii. § 59 i): the transition may be seen in a passage like Exodus 24:8 the covenant which ׳י made with you on the basis of (על), or in agreement with, all these words (compare על פי Exodus 34:27), Numbers 35:24 האלה על המשׁפטים, Deuteronomy 17:11; Jeremiah 30:18 the palace shall sit (i.e. be inhabited: see ישׁב) עַל מִשְׁמָּטוֺ in accordance with its manner, Psalm 94:20 who frames mischief עֲלֵיחֹֿק in accordance with a law, ... על פי according to the mouth (i.e. command, Genesis 45:21 #NAME? Deuteronomy 17:6; Deuteronomy 19:15, sentence Deuteronomy 21:5) of . . .; עַל שֵׁם ֗֗֗֗ according to the name of . . . (mostly with call, be called) Genesis 48:6; Exodus 28:21; 2 Samuel 18:18 +, compare 1 Chronicles 23:14; Exodus 6:26; Exodus 12:51 על צִבְאֹתָם according to their hosts (usually לְ), Numbers 1:18 על משׁפחתם (usually לְ) Numbers 1:52; Numbers 2:2,34; Numbers 7:3 ("" ל), Deuteronomy 18:8 (probably); עַל יְדֵי according to the hands (direction) of Jeremiah 5:31; Jeremiah 33:13 al.; Psalm 110:4 ׳עַל דִּבְרָתִי מ after the manner of M.; Proverbs 25:11 (probably) a word spoken עַל אָעפנָיו in accordance with its circumstances = appositely; of the tune according to which a song is to be sung (RV. set to) Psalm 6:1 (1 Chronicles 15:21), Psalm 8:1; Psalm 9:1; Psalm 12:1; Psalm 45:1; Psalm 46:1 (1 Chronicles 15:20) עַלעֲֿלָמוֺת (perhaps, however, in the manner of maidens = for 'sopranos'), Psalm 53:1; Psalm 56:1; Psalm 60:1; Psalm 69:1; Psalm 81:1; Psalm 84:1; Psalm 88:1 (compare in Syriac ).

(b) The basis being conceived as involving the ground, על denotes the cause or reason, on account of, because of, Genesis 20:3 lo thou shalt die עַל הָאִשָּׁה on account of the woman, Genesis 21:12; Genesis 26:7,9; Genesis 27:41; Genesis 42:21; Leviticus 4:3,28; Leviticus 5:18; Leviticus 19:17; Leviticus 26:18,24,28; Deuteronomy 9:18; Deuteronomy 24:16 fathers shall not be put to death עלבֿנים on account of children, Deuteronomy 31:18; Joshua 9:20; Jeremiah 1:16; Jeremiah 5:9; Ezekiel 18:26 עליהם ("" Ezekiel 33:18 בָּהֶם), Proverbs 28:21; Psalm 39:12; Psalm 50:8 + often; Psalm 44:23 עָלֶיךָ הֹרַגְנוּ on thy account are we slain all the day, Psalm 69:8; Jeremiah 15:15; in the phrases דְּבַר עַ֗֗֗ל, עַל אוֺדוֺת, עַל זֹאת and עַל זֶה on this account, עַל מָה on what account ? עַלכֵּֿן = therefore (see דָּבָר, אוֺדָה, etc.); before an infinitive, as Exodus 17:7 ׳וְעַל נַסּוֺתָם אֶתיֿ and on, account of their trying ׳י, Amos 1:3 עַל דּוּשָׁם on account of their threshing = because they threshed, vAmos 1:6; vAmos 1:9; vAmos 1:11; vAmos 1:13, etc., Jeremiah 2:35 עַל אָמְרֵךְ because of thy saying, Jeremiah 9:12; Jeremiah 16:18 +; and as a conjunction both with and without אֲשֶׁר or כִּי (see below

III). And so often of the ground or cause of fear, grief, delight, or other emotions, e.g. Exodus 18:9; Exodus 32:14 (נִחַם repent: so often), 1 Samuel 4:13; 1 Samuel 30:6; 2 Samuel 1:26; 2 Samuel 3:8; 1 Kings 21:4; 2 Kings 6:11; Jeremiah 10:19; Amos 6:6.

(c) Somewhat more strongly, on behalf of, for the sake of, Genesis 19:17 escape על נפשׁך forthy life; Judges 9:17; 2 Kings 10:3 נִלְחֵם עַל (usually ל); 1 Kings 2:18 I will speak on thy behalf to the king, 1 Kings 2:19 (2 Kings 4:13 לְ); Esther 4:16,8; Esther 7:7; Esther 8:11; Esther 9:16; Daniel 12:1 על עמד stand up (in late Hebrew) on behalf of; התפלל על intercede for (usually בעד) Job 42:8; Nehemiah 1:6; 2Chronicles 30:18; 29:21; Ezra 8:35; and very often with כִּמֶּר (q. v.) make atonement for. (Not very common with other verbs.)

(d) Sometimes it acquires almost a final force, for; Exodus 12:4; Exodus 29:36; Exodus 30:16; Deuteronomy 27:13 there shall stand עַלהַֿקְּלָלָה ("" Deuteronomy 27:12 לְבָרֵךְ), Psalm 89:4 עַלמַֿהשָּֿׁוְא בָּרָאתָ כָלעֿבּנֵיאָֿדָם unto what vanity hast thou created, etc.! Proverbs 29:5b 2Chronicles 23:18; Ecclesiastes 3:17.

(e) Of a condition, or attendant circumstances (rare; so , WAG ii § 59 e): Psalm 50:5 זָ֑בַח׃ עֲלֵי upon, with sacrifice, Psalm 92:4 ׳עֲלי עָשׂוֺר וגו with a ten-stringed instrument, with a harp, with sounding music on a lyre; עַל רִיב upon occasion of a law-suit Exodus 23:2; Ezekiel 44:24, עַל יוֺם טוֺב 1 Samuel 25:8 (compare at a time of. . . Qor 28:14), Nehemiah 12:22 (? read עַד BeRy), Isaiah 18:4 כְּחֹם צַח עֲלֵי אוֺר at time of sunshine, Isaiah 64:11 עַל אֵלֶּה, Jeremiah 8:18; עֲלֵי יָגוֺן at time of sorrow, Jeremiah 16:7 (but Gie עַל אָבֵל to): with abstract substantives to form a periphrase for adverbs, Leviticus 5:22 and swear עַל שֶׁקֶר upon falseness = falsely, Jeremiah 6:14 = Jeremiah 8:11 to heal a wound עַל נְקַלָּה lightly, easily, Psalm 31:24 עַל יֶתֶר = abundantly, Isaiah 60:7 עַל רָצוֺן = acceptably (compare = with delight).

(f) It hence acquires the force of in spite of, notwithstanding (so , WAG ii. § 59 h), Job 10:7 עַל דַּעְתְּךָ in spite of thy knowing, Job 34:6 משׁפטי על notwithstanding my right I am to be a liar (Di De Da RV: otherwise Hi RVm). compare below,

III c b.

(g) Upon, concerning, with verbs of speaking, as דִּבֶּר Judges 9:3; 1 Kings 5:13, אָמַר, Jeremiah 16:3; Jeremiah 27:19 ("" אל) Jeremiah 33:4, hearing Genesis 41:15 שָׁמַעְתִּי עָלֶיךָ I have heard concerning thee, saying, etc., 1 Kings 10:6; Isaiah 37:9 ("" 2 Kings 19:9 אל), disputing Genesis 26:11, telling 1 Samuel 27:11; Joel 1:3, commanding 2 Samuel 14:8; 1 Kings 11:10, being vexed 1 Kings 21:4; 2 Kings 6:11, crying 2 Kings 8:5, confessing Psalm 32:5; Nehemiah 1:6; of the object of a prophecy or vision 1 Kings 22:8; Isaiah 1:1; Isaiah 2:1; and often with similar verbs.

(h) In a somewhat weaker sense, in the matter of, as regards, Genesis 41:32 וְעַל הִשָּׁנוֺת הַחֲלוֺם, Exodus 22:8; Ruth 4:7; Leviticus 5:22; Leviticus 5:26; Daniel 9:14b Nehemiah 9:33; חָטָא עַל Leviticus 4:14 ("" בָּהּ Leviticus 4:23, cognate accusative Leviticus 4:28), Leviticus 5:5; Numbers 6:11; Nehemiah 13:26; עַלדְּֿבַר ֗֗֗ in the matter of, Numbers 25:18; Numbers 31:16.

2 It expresses excess (synonym מִן q. v.); Genesis 48:22 I give thee שְׁכֶם אַחַר עַל אַחֶיךָ one shoulder (ridge) above thy brethren, Exodus 16:5 מִשְׁנֶה על double above or beyond, Numbers 3:46; Deuteronomy 25:3 stripes עַלאֵֿלֶּה beyond these, Joshua 3:15 Jordan מָלֵא עַל was full over all its banks (compare Joshua 4:18; Isaiah 8:7b הלך על, עלה) Psalm 138:2; Ecclesiastes 1:16; Daniel 1:20 עֶשֶׂר יָדוֺת עַל ten times above (compare in Aramaic Daniel 3:19, and Qor 37:153), Ezra 1:6 לְבַר עַל = beside (see בַּד); Psalm 16:2 (si vera lectio) טוֺבָתִי בַל עָלֶיךָ my welfare is not beyond thee, i.e. does not lie outside thee. — Of time, Leviticus 15:25 if she has an issue עַל נִדָּתָהּ beyond her time of impurity (compare Isaiah 32:10, 4b).

3 It denotes elevation or pre-eminence, as עליון על high (figurative) above, Deuteronomy 26:19 al., Deuteronomy 28:43 יעלה עליך will go up above thee, compare Proverbs 31:29; Psalm 57:6; Psalm 57:12 be thou exalted above the heavens, Psalm 89:8; Psalm 95:3; Psalm 96:4, etc., Nehemiah 9:5; with words (q. v.) such as גכר, גדל, חזק, נשׂא (Ni. Pi`el Hithpa`el), עזז, and especially those denoting rule or superintendence, as מלך, הפקיד; so with שָׁת, היה, נתן, Genesis 41:33,40,43 שׂם; 1 Samuel 18:5; with מָּקִיד, שַׂר, מֶלֶךְ, etc., Genesis 41:34; Exodus 1:11; Exodus 18:21, etc.; absolute 2 Samuel 8:16 Joab was עלהֿצבא over the host, 2 Samuel 20:23 b. 2 Samuel 20:24 1 Kings 4:4-6; 1 Kings 5:30; Numbers 10:14ff.; 1 Chronicles 9:23,26ff. 1 Chronicles 27:25ff.; 2Chronicles 30:17; 31:12; אֲשֶׁר עַל בֵּיתוֺ of Joseph's steward Genesis 43:16,19; Genesis 44:1,4; and in the official titles אֲשֶׁר עַלהַֿבַּיִת = the Governor of the Palace Isaiah 22:15 and elsewhere (see כַּיִת 6); אֲשֶׁר עַלהַֿמַּם the overseer of the forced labour 1 Kings 12:18; אשׁר עלהֿעיר the governor of the city 2 Kings 10:5, אשׁר על המלתחה 2 Kings 10:22.

4 It expresses addition (compare ἐπὶ in Greek, e.g.ἐπὶ τούτοις); namely

a. introducing the complement of a verb, as with יָסַף to add upon or to, Psalm 61:7 + often (see יָסַף), שָׁת to put to Genesis 30:40, נִלְוָה to be joined to Numbers 18:24; Isaiah 14:1 (also with אֶל), נָפַל: to fall to, i.e. desert to, Jeremiah 21:9 +, עכר to pass over to Exodus 30:13,14; Isaiah 45:14 (compare Isaiah 60:5); also Habakkuk 2:16 תִּסֹּב כּוֺם עַל Lamentations 4:21; Esther 4:7; נֶחְשַׁב to be reckoned to Leviticus 25:31; 2 Samuel 4:2, היה על Numbers 36:12; Psalm 69:28 תְּנָה עָוֺן עַל עֲוֺנָם, Isaiah 56:8 עוֺר אֲקַבֵּץ עָלָיו I will yet gather (others) unto him.

b. Used absolutely, as Genesis 28:9 he took Mahalath עַל נָשָׁיו in addition to his (other) wives, Genesis 31:50 (compare אל Leviticus 18:18), Numbers 31:8 עַל חַלְלֵיהֶם in addition to their slain ("" Joshua 13:22 אֶל), Deuteronomy 23:14; Ezekiel 16:37,43; Ezekiel 25:10; Isaiah 32:10 יָמִים עַל שָׁנָה days upon, in addition to, a year, 2 Chronicles 31:15 יָמִים עַל יָמִים, Ezekiel 7:26 הֹוָה עַל הֹוָה תָבוֺא ("" אל), Jeremiah 4:20 (if נִקְרָא = be proclaimed), Job 16:14 יִפְרְצֵנִי פֶרֶץ עַלמְּֿנֵיפָֿ֑רֶץ (compare LagM iii. 112; also Iliad 14:130 ἕλκος ἐφ’ ἕλκει, Odyssey 7:120f; Qoran 31:13). So often in laws of P (compare

c), Leviticus 7:12 he shall offer עַלזֶֿבַת הַתּוֺרָה in addition to the sacrifice of thanksgiving, etc., Leviticus 7:13 b Numbers 6:20; Numbers 15:9; Numbers 28:10,15,24 (compare מִלְּבַר Numbers 28:31; Numbers 29:6), Numbers 35:6; Ezekiel 16:43 (Hi Sm RV: compare Ezekiel 44:7 אל).

c. Hence by an easy transition it denotes together with, with, Exodus 35:22 men together with (עַל) women, Job 38:32 וְעַיִשׁ עַלבָּֿנֶיהָ תַנְחֵם and the Bear with her children, wilt thou lead them? 1 Kings 15:20; Jeremiah 3:18 the house of Israel with the house of Judah, Micah 5:2 (Ca Ke Kue; but al. as

7c a), Genesis 32:12 lest he come and smite me, אֵם עַל בָּנִים the mother with the children (compare Hosea 10:14; Deuteronomy 22:6); and as a techn. term in the regulations for sacrifice, especially with אכל, Exodus 12:8, יאֹכְלֻהוּ עַלמְֿדֹרִים together with bitter herbs they shall eat it, Exodus 12:9 his head with (על) his legs, etc., Numbers 9:11; Deuteronomy 16:3 לֹאתֿאֹכַל עָלָיו חָמֵץ (compare Exodus 23:18; Exodus 34:25), Exodus 34:3; in the phrase אכל על הדם to eat with the blood 1 Samuel 14:32,33 (1 Samuel 14:34 אל), Leviticus 19:26; Ezekiel 33:25 (compare in Greek e.g. ἐπὶ τῷ σίτῳ πίνειν ὕδωρ); see also Leviticus 2:2,16; Leviticus 3:4 (so Leviticus 3:10; Leviticus 3:15; Leviticus 4:9; Leviticus 7:4), Leviticus 4:11; Leviticus 7:13a, Leviticus 7:30; Leviticus 10:15; Leviticus 14:31; Leviticus 23:18; Leviticus 23:20; Numbers 6:17; Numbers 19:5; 1 Chronicles 7:4.

5 It expresses the idea of being suspended, or extended, over anything, without however being in contact with it, above, over: Genesis 1:20 let fowl fly over the earth, Genesis 19:23 השׁמשׁ יצא על had come forth upon the earth (compare זרח על Exodus 22:2 +; בא על go down [set] upon Deuteronomy 24:15; Micah 3:6; Job 25:3), Numbers 10:34; Numbers 14:14 and thy cloud stood עליהם over them, Deuteronomy 28:23 the heavens עלרֿאשׁך above overthy head, Isaiah 4:5; Isaiah 60:1,2; Zephaniah 2:11; Zechariah 9:14; Psalm 7:8 over it return thou on high, Job 29:3 בְּהִלּוֺ נֵרוֺ עֲלֵי ראֹשִׁי (compare דעך לְ be extinguished over, Job 18:6), Songs 2:4 his banner over me: figurative of protection Deuteronomy 32:38; Psalm 68:35: with verbs of motion (expressed or implied), נשׁקף על to incline over 1 Samuel 13:18 +, ידו על נטה) Exodus 14:16; Isaiah 23:11 + (compare Psalm 21:12), הניף על to swing over Isaiah 11:15; Isaiah 19:16; השׁמיע על to proclaim over Jeremiah 4:16; Amos 3:9, compare Numbers 10:10; 2Chronicles 13:12, שׁם על נקרא a name to be called over 2 Samuel 12:28 + (see קרא).

6 From the sense of inclining or impending over, על comes to denote contiguity or proximity, English by (or sometimes on): —

a. in designating localities, especially those beside water, Genesis 14:16 עַלהַֿמִּדְבָּר by the wilderness, Genesis 16:17 עַל עֵין הַמַּיִם by the spring of water, Genesis 24:13,30; Genesis 29:2 three flocks lying עָלֶיהָ by it (the well), Genesis 41:1; Numbers 3:26; Numbers 13:29 עלהֿים by the sea, Numbers 22:5; Numbers 24:6 gardens עֲלֵי נָהָר. Deuteronomy 3:12; Deuteronomy 33:8; Judges 5:19; 1 Samuel 1:9 ׳על מזוזת היכל י (Ezekiel 46:2), 1 Samuel 4:1; 2 Kings 2:7 and they stood עלהֿירדן by the Jordan, 2 Kings 25:4; Isaiah 19:7; Isaiah 38:20; Psalm 1:3 planted by water-courses, Jeremiah 17:2,8; Job 30:4; Job 31:9 על פתח by the entrance, Proverbs 14:19, + often; על הדרך by the way Genesis 38:21; 1 Samuel 24:4; Ezekiel 48:24ff. על גבולו adjoining his border; עבר על to pass by a place 1 Kings 9:18; Jeremiah 18:16 +, figurative עבר על פשׁע to pass by transgression, i.e. to overlook it, Micah 7:18 and elsewhere: על יְמִין ֗֗֗ on the right of ... Psalm 110:5 +, עַליַד ֗֗֗ , עַל יֶרֶךְ ֗֗֗ , עַל כֶּתֶף ֗֗֗ on the side of ... (see these words): less frequently (except as

c) with reference to persons, Numbers 2:5 וְהַחֹנִים עָלָיו and those encamping next him, Numbers 2:12; Numbers 2:20; Numbers 2:27; Numbers 6:9 וכי ימות מת עליו, 2 Kings 11:11 by the king round about (compare Numbers 3:26 above), ׳עבר על פ Genesis 18:5; 2 Kings 4:9 +.

b. 2 Samuel 9:7,10 to eat bread ׳עַל שֻׁלְחַן מּ at any one's table, Exodus 16:3 when we sat עַלסִֿיר הַבָּשָׂר, 1 Samuel 20:24 Kt to sit עַלהַֿלֶּחֶם at meat; 1 Samuel 25:13; 1 Samuel 30:24 to remain עַלהַֿכֵּלִים; Proverbs 23:30 to tarry long עלהֿיין at (or over) the wine, Job 39:9 עַלאֲֿבוֶּ˜סךָ ׃ at thy crib: compare הַיּוֺשֵׁב עַל הַמִּשְׁמָּט Isaiah 28:6.

c. Idiomatically, with עָמַד and נִצַּב to stand by (literally over, — originally no doubt with reference to one supposed to be seated), Genesis 18:2 three men נִצָּבִים עָלָיו standing by him, Genesis 18:8 and he עֹמֵד עליו standing by him under the tree, Genesis 24:30 by the camels, Genesis 28:13; 1 Samuel 4:20; 2 Samuel 1:9; 2 Samuel 12:17; 2 Samuel 20:11,12; Amos 7:7; especially of persons standing about a superior, as servants or courtiers, Genesis 45:1; Judges 3:19; 1 Samuel 22:6,7,17, of persons surrounding a judge Exodus 18:13,14, of ׳יs heavenly ministers, 1 Kings 22:19 (compare Isaiah 6:2 ממעל לו), Zechariah 4:16, and with התיצב Zechariah 6:5; Job 1:6; Job 2:1; also of one standing by (properly leaning over) an altar or sacrifice Numbers 23:3,6; 1 Kings 13:1 (compare

7b) Amos 9:1; of an Ashérah by an altar Judges 6:25,28 (compare אֵצֶל Deuteronomy 16:21).

7 In connection with verbs of motion (actual or figurative): —

a. of motion from a higher place downwards, down upon: thus (a) המטיר על to rain upon Genesis 2:5; Genesis 19:24, ירד על Genesis 15:11, יצק על to pour upon Genesis 28:18, ׳נפל על צוארי פ Genesis 33:4, נפל על פניו to fall on his (own) face Genesis 17:3,17, שׂם על to put upon, Genesis 21:14; Genesis 22:6,9; Genesis 24:47 (Genesis 24:22 Sam Di), נתן על כף to place on the hand of ... Genesis 40:11,21, השׁליך על 2 Samuel 20:12, etc.; compare Job 29:22 וְעָלֵימוֺ תִּטֹּף מִלָּתִי, Micah 3:5; Nahum 3:12.

(b) In different figurative connections, as of sleep falling upon one, Genesis 2:21; Genesis 15:12; of fear Genesis 9:2; 1 Samuel 11:7 (see מַּחַד, חֲרָרָה, אֵימָה); of good or bad fortune, especially the latter, coming upon one, as with בוא and הביא, Genesis 27:12; Deuteronomy 28:2 (in good sense), Deuteronomy 28:15, Jeremiah 5:12; Jeremiah 19:3 (רעה, as often); of retribution, reproach, the Divine wrath, etc., with different verbs (הביא, נתן, ירד, חול, היה, etc.), as Genesis 20:9; Numbers 12:11 חטאה; Genesis 42:36 עַלַי הָיוּ כֻלָּנָה upon me are they all; Numbers 18:5 + (היה קֶצֶף על); Deuteronomy 19:10 דם (compare אל 2 Samuel 21:2 ᵐ5 We Dr), Judges 9:24; 1 Kings 2:32; 2 Samuel 16:8; Hosea 12:15; 2 Samuel 3:29; 2 Samuel 15:14; 1 Samuel 11:2 חרפה; Jeremiah 14:16; Jeremiah 26:15 דם נקי ("" אל), Jonah 1:14; Ezekiel 7:3,4,8; Ezekiel 23:40; Ezekiel 36:29; Psalm 7:17; Psalm 94:2; Psalm 94:23; Psalm 109:5 וישׂימו עלי רעה תחת טובה (lay upon me: but Hu וישיבו, Proverbs 17:13), Prov 140:11; שָׁפַךְ חֵמָה על Ezekiel 7:8 + often; without a verb, Genesis 16:5 חֲמָסִי עָלֶיךָ my wrong be upon thee, Jeremiah 51:35 ("" אל); Genesis 27:13 עלי קללתך; Genesis 38:29 (accents, RVm); 2 Samuel 1:16 דמיך על ראשׁך; 2 Samuel 14:9 עָלַי הֶעָוֺן; Isaiah 24:17; Jeremiah 48:43; Jeremiah 50:27; Ezekiel 13:3 הוֺי על ֗֗֗ ; Psalm 55:16 Kt.; of a blessing, Exodus 32:29; Psalm 3:9, a curse Deuteronomy 30:7, mercies (probably conceived specifically as descending from heaven) Psalm 33:22; Psalm 86:13; Psalm 90:17; Psalm 103:17 (with גבר be mighty over or upon, Psalm 33:11; Psalm 117:2), Psalm 116:12; Psalm 145:9; Ezra 3:11, שׁלום Psalm 125:6; Psalm 128:6; 1 Chronicles 22:9.

(c) Introducing the object upon which an action, or emotion, especially if accompanied by a gesture, is conceived as being directed (but with some of these words, especially when they refer to an event, rather than a person, as Exodus 18:9, על is to be explained from

1f b). Thus with verbs denoting the manifestation of joy or grief, as שׂושׂ to rejoice over, גיל, שׂמח, התענג, התפאר, שׂחק, אבל, ספד, שׁמם, בכה Judges 11:37 +, נשׂא (משׁל) קינה to take up a lament, or proverb, over (see these words); probably also in הִנָּבֵא על prophecy over Ezekiel 11:4; Ezekiel 13:17 +; with חוּס, חָמַל, רִחַם to shew compassion on (compare 1 Kings 3:26; [Genesis 43:30 אל], Songs 5:4; [Jeremiah 31:20 ל]); with שׁמר, שׁקד, הֵעִיר (Job 8:6) to guard or watch over; with יעץ to counsel upon Isaiah 14:26 +, חשׁב to devise (usually in bad sense, Jeremiah 29:11 in good), דִּבֶּר (רעה Jeremiah 11:17 +, טובה Jeremiah 18:20; Jeremiah 32:42), הֵקִים דָּבָר Jeremiah 29:10. Of more distinctly phys. acts, with בכה to weep on Genesis 45:14,15 +, שׁרק to hiss, ספק or תקע כף to clap the hand, הִכָּה כף Ezekiel 22:13 ("" אל); Isaiah 5:30 to growl over, Isaiah 31:4; Ezekiel 36:2; Job 30:5; הִתְוַדָּה to confess over (the goat), Leviticus 16:21; Exodus 30:10a (probably); Deuteronomy 21:6; Job 6:27; Job 40:30.

b. From a lower place upwards, up upon, up to, as עלה על to go up upon: Exodus 20:26; 1 Samuel 2:28; 1 Kings 12:33b 2 Kings 16:12b 2Chronicles 1:6 (an altar, i.e. to a ledge beside it; compare 2 Kings 23:9, and ירד Leviticus 9:22; 1 Kings 1:53); Judges 9:51; Isaiah 14:14; Isaiah 40:9, etc.; to come up upon (in different connections) Exodus 10:12; Leviticus 16:9 (figurative), Leviticus 19:19; 1 Samuel 1:11; 1 Samuel 6:7; 1 Kings 10:16,17; figurative עלה על לב Isaiah 65:17 + (see לב, לבב, 3d); in Hiph`il 1 Kings 20:33 וַיַּעֲלֵהוּ עַל הַמֶּרְכָּבָה, Amos 8:10 (compare

1a a), 2 Samuel 1:24; Ezekiel 37:6; Psalm 137:6 (figurative), 2 Chronicles 3:5,14 (= ornamented with); Deuteronomy 28:61 (compare Exodus 15:26 b); 2 Chronicles 20:34 the history of Jehu which הֹעֲלָח עַל was brought up upon (i.e. inserted in) the book of, etc. (compare 2 Chronicles 32:32; and כתב על above

1); compare נטה יד עלהֿשׁמים up to heaven Exodus 9:22; Exodus 10:21; Exodus 17:16.

c. Expressing direction towards (not common, except in sense against: see below) — (a) with verbs of motion, properly of a person (or thing) moving to another so as either to stand above, or rest upon, it (compare PuseyMin. Pr. 333), Exodus 34:12 הארץ אשׁר אתה בא עליה (simile, of a land, or place, Exodus 18:23; Numbers 11:12; 1 Kings 2:26 עֲנָתֹת לֵךָ עַלשָֿׂדֶיךָ, Ezekiel 32:9; Jeremiah 3:18; b Jeremiah 16:13; Jeremiah 22:26, and after שׁוּב or הֵשִׁיב Jeremiah 16:15; Jeremiah 22:27; Jeremiah 23:3; Jeremiah 24:6 [but אֶל Jeremiah 27:22; Jeremiah 30:3 al.], Ezekiel 29:14; Genesis 40:13 וֶהֱשִׁיבְךָ עלכַּֿנָּ֑ךָ, Genesis 41:13; Genesis 30:33 כִּי תָבאֹ עַל שְׂכָרִי to view my hire; בא על נפשׁ מֵת to enter in upon or beside a corpse; בא על אשׁה Genesis 19:31; Deuteronomy 25:5 (usually אל); Joshua 3:16 מַיִם יֹרְדִים עַל יָם, Ezekiel 47:8; 1 Kings 18:12 יִשָּֽׂאֲךָ עַלאֲֿשֶׁר לֹאאֵֿדָ֑ע, Psalm 19:7; 2 Kings 16:12; 2Chronicles 20:24; Isaiah 53:1 upon whom (coming from above) was ׳יs arm revealed? Isaiah 62:10 העמים הרימו נֵס על over towards (but Isaiah 49:22 אל): but often it is dubious if this force is perceptible; and in General על in such cases seems to be used merely as a synonym — perhaps as a slightly more graphic synonym — of אֶל (compare p. 41); in the later language, also, it may be due partly to the influence of Aramaic, which does not use אֶל; thus (a) with a personal object, with assemble or be assembled, Exodus 32:1; 2 Samuel 17:11; 1 Kings 8:5; 1 Kings 11:24; 2 Kings 22:20 (2 Chronicles 34:28 and usually אל), 2 Chronicles 13:7, עלה Genesis 38:12; Joshua 2:8; 1 Samuel 14:10 (1 Samuel 14:9; 1 Samuel 14:12 אל), עבר 1 Samuel 14:4 (1 Samuel 14:1 אל), בא 2 Samuel 15:4 (see Dr) 1 Chronicles 12:23f., יצא 2 Kings 24:12, הוליך 2 Kings 25:20, נגע Judges 20:34,41 (compare Isaiah 6:7; Jeremiah 1:9), נס Isaiah 10:3, הלך Isaiah 22:15 (אל ֗֗֗ על), נשׂא Isaiah 30:6, שׁלח 2 Kings 18:27 (על ֗֗֗ אל ֗֗֗ על: "" Isaiah 36:12 אל ֗֗֗ אל ֗֗֗ על), Jeremiah 26:15; Jeremiah 29:31; 1 Chronicles 13:2; 2Chronicles 28:16; 30:1; 32:9,31; 36:15; Nehemiah 6:3, נגשׁ Ezekiel 9:6, שׁב, השׁיב Nehemiah 4:6; Malachi 3:24 (see c), followed by ׳על י2Chronicles 15:4; 30:9, התיצּב2Chronicles 11:13; letters going ׳על פ Nehemiah 2:7; Nehemiah 6:17 a (v:b אל). (β) of places, Genesis 24:49; 2 Samuel 2:19 + על ימין to the right; with הלך 1 Samuel 2:11; 1 Kings 20:43 עלבֿיתו (1 Kings 21:4 אל), 2 Samuel 15:20 ואני הולך על אשׁר אני הולך, Jeremiah 1:7; Ezekiel 1:20 (Ezekiel 1:12 אל), הוליך 1 Kings 1:38 (1 Kings 1:33 אל), נהר Micah 4:1 ("" Isaiah 2:2 אל), Jeremiah 31:12 (אל ֗֗֗ על), נגשׁ Ezekiel 44:13 ("" אל), עלה 1 Samuel 24:23; 2 Samuel 19:1; 1 Kings 6:8 ("" אל), Ezekiel 41:7, בא Jeremiah 14:3; Jeremiah 51:51, (על הר) הביא Isaiah 66:20 (Isaiah 56:7 אל), ירד Jeremiah 36:12, הִטָּה Proverbs 21:1, הסיר 2 Samuel 6:10 ("" 1 Chronicles 13:13 אל), נתן Isaiah 29:12 (Isaiah 29:11 אל) Micah 1:14; Micah 3:5; Genesis 42:37, השׁיב, שׁב, Numbers 33:7; Jeremiah 11:10 (figurative, עַל עֲוֺנוֺת), Psalm 35:13; Job 34:15 (Genesis 3:19 אל), Proverbs 26:11; Ecclesiastes 1:6; 1 Kings 17:21,22 (compare 1 Samuel 30:12 אל), השׁתחוה Leviticus 26:11 (probably), Isaiah 60:14; pregnantly Isaiah 24:22 אֻסְּפוּ עַל בּוֺר be collected (and delivered) into a dungeon: compare חוּשׁ עַל Job 31:5 (figurative), also to requite עַלחֵֿיק Isaiah 65:6,7 Kt. (Jeremiah 32:18; Psalm 79:12 אל). After נראה appear, Psalm 90:16 (אל ֗֗֗ על). And as far as, unto (nearly = יַד) Genesis 49:13 וְיַרְכָתוֺעַל צִידוֺן, Joshua 2:7; Joshua 18:13; Joshua 19:12; Jeremiah 31:39; Ezekiel 47:18; Ezekiel 48:21,28; Psalm 48:11; 1 Chronicles 5:16.

(b) With אמר say to, 2 Kings 22:8; Jeremiah 18:11 (אל ֗֗֗ על), Jeremiah 22:6; Jeremiah 23:2,35 (על ֗֗֗ אל), Jeremiah 36:29; Jeremiah 44:20 (אל ֗֗֗ על), דבר 1 Samuel 1:13 (Genesis 24:45 אל), 1 Kings 9:5; Hosea 12:11; Jeremiah 6:10; Jeremiah 10:1; Jeremiah 11:2 (אל ֗֗֗ על), speak to Jeremiah 25:2 (על ֗֗֗ אל), Jeremiah 26:2, compare Esther 1:17, ׳היה דבר י Jeremiah 25:1; 1 Chronicles 22:8; compare 1 Chronicles 11:10, ענה 2 Samuel 19:43, קרא Isaiah 34:14; 2Chronicles 32:18, שִׁוַּע Psalm 18:42, הֵרַע 1 Kings 17:20, שֹׁרֵר, שָׁר sing Proverbs 25:20; Job 33:27, החליק Proverbs 29:5 ( Psalm 36:3 אל), התפלל 1 Samuel 1:10, כתב2Chronicles 30:1; Ezra 4:7; Esther 8:8, שׁמע 2 Kings 20:13 ( = Isaiah 39:2), Isaiah 22:13; Jeremiah 23:16; Jeremiah 26:5; Jeremiah 35:18; Haggai 1:12; see also הקשׁיב, האזין, הבין, התבונן, השׂכיל.

(c) Expressing (or implying) the direction of the mind, 2 Samuel 14:1 לב המלך על אבשׁלם; Malachi 3:24; Ezra 6:22; Songs 7:11 וְעָלַי תְּשׁוּקָתוֺ (Genesis 3:16; 4:7 אל); שָׂם לִבּוֺ על Job 1:8 (Job 2:3 אל), 1 Samuel 25:25 (אל ֗֗֗ על); Jeremiah 22:17 thy eyes and thy heart are only (set) upon (על) ..., 1 Chronicles 12:17; 1 Kings 1:20; 2Chronicles 20:12 עֵינֵינוּ כִּי עָלֶיךָ (elsewhere אל), 1 Kings 2:15 עָלַי שָׂמוּ פניהם, Psalm 146:5 ׳שִׂבְרוֺ על י; Isaiah 10:25 וְאַמִּי עלתַּֿבְלִיתָם be (directed) towards their destruction, Jeremiah 32:31 (Gf Ew compare RV); compare שׁעה על look to (trustfully) Isaiah 17:7; Isaiah 31:1. (The uses a, b, c are all exceptional: אל would be regularly employed.)

(d) With the force of over and towards (compare

5 and

7a b, end): Psalm 65:5 נוֺרָא עֲלִילָה עַל; to shine, etc. on, Psalm 31:17 הָאִירָה פָנֶיךָ עַל (Numbers 6:25; אל); רָאָה עַל Exodus 5:21; הוֺפִיעַ עַל Job 10:3; וְשַׂמְתִּי עֵינִי עַל Amos 9:4 + (compare Job 14:3; Job 24:3; Job 34:21); הִשְׁקִיף עַל look out over Psalm 14:3 +.

d. In a hostile sense, upon, against: so very often, after every kind of verb expressing or implying attack, as בא Genesis 34:25,27, נֶאֱסַף Genesis 34:30, קצף to be angry Genesis 40:2, לון to murmur Exodus 15:24 עמד stand up Leviticus 19:16 +, קָם rise up Deuteronomy 19:11; Amos 7:9, נלחם Deuteronomy 20:10, חנה 1 Samuel 11:1; Psalm 27:3, עלה 2 Kings 17:3, חרה אף Zechariah 10:3 (usually בְּ), שׁפך סללה Isaiah 37:33, צוּר besiege Deuteronomy 20:12, חשׁב to devise Genesis 50:20; Jeremiah 11:19, דִּבֶּר Deuteronomy 13:6 +, etc.: add Job 16:4 (twice in verse); Job 16:9,10,13; Job 19:12; Job 21:27; Job 30:12, etc.; היה על 2 Samuel 11:23; Numbers 31:3: הִנְנִי לַיִךְ (see אֶל4); note also Judges 9:31; Judges 20:5: without a verb Isaiah 9:20; Judges 16:12 פלשׁתים עליך the Philistines are upon thee, Judges 20:9 עָלֶיהָ בְּגוֺרָל Against it by lot !

8 By writers of the silver age, על is sometimes used with the force of a dative, 1 Chronicles 13:2 אִם עֲלֵיבֶם טוֺב (in classical Hebrew בְּעֵינֵיכֶם) if it seems good to you, אִם עַל הַמֶּלֶךְ טוֺב Nehemiah 2:5,7; Esther 1:19; Esther 3:9; Esther 5:4,8; Esther 7:3; Esther 8:5; Esther 9:13 (compare in Aramaic Ezra 5:17; Ezra 7:18); עַל שָׁפַר Psalm 16:6 (compare in Aramaic Daniel 4:24); עָרַב עַל Psalm 104:34 (elsewhere לְ); רַע לְ Ecclesiastes 2:17 (see De; compare בְּאֵשׁ עַל Daniel 6:15): compare Job 22:2 סָכַן על be profitable to, Job 33:23; also גָּמַל עַל (in both good and bad sense: see גמל), Nehemiah 5:19 עשׂה על, Nehemiah 9:30 משׁך על prolong (mercy) to; הִטָּה חֶסֶד עַל Ezra 7:28; Ezra 9:9 (Genesis 39:21 אל): 1 Samuel 20:8 read probably עם for על. compare Mishna חביב על, dear to; סני על hateful to; Syriac , , pleasant, acceptable to. — compare in General the uses of , WAG ii. § 59.

9 With other particles: — עַל אַחֲרֵי Ezekiel 41:15; עַל בֵּין Ezekiel 19:11 (compare אל Ezekiel 31:10,14); עַל לִפְנֵי Ezekiel 40:15; עַל מֵעַל Ezekiel 41:17 (text dubious), Ezekiel 41:20; עַל עֵבֶר Exodus 25:37 (compare אל Ezekiel 1:9,12); עַלבָּֿ֫כָה Esther 9:26. — On עַליַֿד, עַליְֿדֵי, עַל מִּי, עַלמְּֿנֵי, see יָד, מֶּה, מָּנִים.

III. As

conjunction: a. עַל אֲשֶׁר because that . . . (compare above,

II 1 f b), Exodus 32:35 and ׳י plagued the people על אשׁר עשׂו because they had made, etc., Numbers 20:24; Deuteronomy 29:24 (in answer to על מה: so 1 Kings 9:9; Jeremiah 16:11; Jeremiah 22:9), Jeremiah 32:51 (twice in verse); 1 Samuel 24:6; 2 Samuel 3:30; 2 Samuel 6:8; 2 Samuel 8:10; 2 Samuel 12:6; Psalm 119:49 +.

b. עַל כִּי similar in meaning, but less frequent: Deuteronomy 31:17; Judges 3:12; Jeremiah 4:28; Malachi 2:14; Psalm 139:14.

c. עַל alone: (a) because, Genesis 31:20 (E) עַל בְּלִי הִגִּיד, Psalm 119:136 עַל לֹא. (b) notwithstanding that (above,

1f f), although, Isaiah 53:9 חָמָס עָשָׂה עַל לֹא although he did no violence, Job 16:7 עַל לֹא חָמָס בְּכַמָּ֑י.

IV. Compounds:

1 with כְּ (rare and late),

a. as concerning, as upon Psalm 119:14 כְּעַל כָּלהֿוֺן, 2 Chronicles 32:19.

b. (pleon. for כְּ), Isaiah 59:18 כְּעַל גְּמֻלוֺת כְּעַל יְשַׁלֵּם the like of their deeds is the like of (that which) he will repay (כְּעַל repeated on the analogue of כְּ Numbers 15:15; Hosea 4:9: see כְּ) = according to their deeds is (that which) he will repay, Isaiah 63:7 according to.

2 מֵעַל304 from upon, from over, from by — used with much delicacy of application in many different connections, corresponding mostly with the different senses of על. Thus

a. from upon idiomatically, when removal, motion, etc., from a surface is involved, as מעל האדמה, מעל פני האדמה from upon (the face of) the ground, usually with expel, destroy, perish, etc. Genesis 4:14; Genesis 6:7; Genesis 7:4; Exodus 32:12; Deuteronomy 6:15; Deuteronomy 28:21,63 #NAME? Jeremiah and compiler of Kings; to be lifted up הארץ מעל Genesis 7:17; Ezekiel 1:19,21 +, to return or be dried (of water) מעל הארץ Genesis 8:3,7,11,13; to roll a stone מֵעַל מִּי הַבְּאֵד Genesis 29:3; of the cloud departing האהל מעל Numbers 9:17; Numbers 12:10, compare Nehemiah 9:19; to rise up הַכִּסֵּא מֵעַל Judges 3:20; 1 Kings 2:4, מֵעַל מִשְׁכָּבוֺ 2 Samuel 11:2; to alight מֵעַל הַגָּמָל (נָפַלׅ Genesis 24:64 (compare Joshua 15:18 צנח, 1 Samuel 25:23 ירד), ירד מֵעַל הַמֶּרְכָּבָה Judges 4:15; 2 Kings 5:21 (נפל); to take מֵעַל ראֹשׁ Genesis 40:19; 2 Samuel 12:30, מֵעַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ Leviticus 16:12; Numbers 17:11; Isaiah 6:6; to see מֵעַל הַגָּנ 2 Samuel 11:2; to shoot מֵעַל הַחוֺמָה 2 Samuel 11:20; 2 Samuel 11:24; to speak מֵעַל הַכַּמֹּרֶת Exodus 25:22; Numbers 7:89; to cast down מֵעַל יָדַיִם Deuteronomy 9:17; Leviticus 8:28 (כַּמַּיִם); to break, remove, etc., a yoke (צוארך) מעל שׁכמך Genesis 27:40; Isaiah 10:27; Jeremiah 28:10,11; to wipe tears מֵעַל כָּלמָּֿנִים Isaiah 25:8; to take a bandage מעל עיניו 1 Kings 20:41 (compare על 1 Kings 20:38); often of putting off a garment or ornament., as Genesis 38:14,19 וַתָּסַר צְעִיפָהּ מֵעָלֶיהָ, Exodus 33:5 הוֺרֵד עֶדְיְךָ מֵעָלֶיךָ, a sandal Exodus 3:5; Joshua 5:15, a ring מֵעַל יָדוֺ Genesis 41:42; to seek (דרשׁ), or hear, words מֵעַל הַסֵּפֶר Isaiah 34:16; Jeremiah 36:11 (compare כתב על ספד above); pregnantly with בָּלָה to wear away (and fall) from off, Deuteronomy 8:4; Deuteronomy 29:4, compare of the bones or skin in disease Job 30:17 עֲצָמַי נִקַּר מֵעָלָ֑י are pierced (and drop) from off me, Job 30:30 עוֺרִי שָׁחַר מעלי is black (and falls) from off me; figurative 1 Samuel 1:11 הָסִירִי יֵינֵךְ מֵעָלַיִךְ remove thy wine from off thee; Numbers 14:9 סָר צִלָּם מֵעֲלֵיהֶם; Judges 16:19,20 סר מעליו ׳י (with allusion to the hair, as the seat of Samson's strength), 1 Samuel 16:23 (compare על in 1 Samuel 16:16).

b. Of relief from a burden or trouble: as of a plague, stroke, rod, etc., removed from (resting) on one, Exodus 10:17 וְיָסֵר מֵעָלַי אֶתהַֿמָּוֶת הַזֶּה, Numbers 21:7; Numbers 25:8 ׳וַתֵּעָצַר הַמַּגֵּפָה מֵעַל ישׂר 2 Samuel 24:21,25), Psalm 39:11 הָסֵר מֵעָלַי נִגְעֶ֑ךָ, Job 9:34; Job 13:21; Joel 2:20; of reproach Joshua 5:9; Isaiah 25:8; Psalm 119:22, iniquity Ezekiel 18:31; Zechariah 3:4, bloodguiltiness, 1 Kings 2:31, wrath Judges 8:3; Numbers 25:11; Proverbs 24:18, murmurings Numbers 17:21; Numbers 17:25; הֵקֵל מֵעַל to lighten from upon one Exodus 18:22 +; Amos 5:23 הָסֵר מֵעָלַיהֲמוֺן שִׁירֶיךָ; pregnantly Jonah 1:11,12 that the sea יִשְׁתֹּק מֵעָלֵינוּ may be calm from off us; to remove, etc., מֵעַל מָּנַי (see מָּנִים); 1 Samuel 6:20 to whom shall he go up מֵעָלֵינוּ — not merely 'from us,' but — from upon us (relieving us of his presence), so often of an army retiring from a country or raising a siege, 2 Samuel 10:14 ויָּשָׁב יוֺאָב מֵעַל בְּנֵי עַמּוֺן, 2 Samuel 20:21 וְאֵעלכָה מֵעַל הָעִיר, 2 Samuel 20:22; Ki 2 Samuel 3:27; 2 Samuel 18:14, especially with עָלָה, נַעֲלָה 1 Kings 15:19; Jeremiah 21:2; Jeremiah 37:5,11 +; 2 Samuel 19:10 David fled מעל אבשׁלום from Absalom (whom his presence had encumbered), Nehemiah 13:28 וָאַבְרִיחֵהוּ מֵעָלַי, compare Genesis 13:11; Genesis 25:6; Numbers 20:21 מֵעָלָיו ׳וַיֵּט ישׂר, 2 Chronicles 20:10; Exodus 10:28 לֵךְ מֵעָלַי (contemptuously; be no more obnoxious to me), similarly 2 Samuel 13:17 שׁלחונֿא אתזֿאת מעלי (Amnon of Tamar).

c. From beside (compare על

6c), in different nuances: Genesis 17:22 God went up מעל אברהם from beside A., Genesis 35:13; Genesis 18:3 אל נא תעבר מעל עבדך (compare על Genesis 18:5), Genesis 42:24; Numbers 16:25,27; 1 Kings 1:53 to come down מֵעַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ (compare על 1 Kings 13:1; 6c and

7b); from attendance on Genesis 45:1 (compare על ib.), Judges 3:19 וְיֵּצְאוּ מֵעָלָיו כָּלהָֿעֹמְדִים עָלָיו 1 Samuel 17:15 (see Dr), 2 Samuel 13:9, compare1 Sam 2 Samuel 13:8,11; 2 Kings 25:5 (Jeremiah 36:21 read עַל, מ being dittograph), compare 2 Chronicles 35:15; from attachment to, ׳רָחַק מֵעַל י Jeremiah 2:5; Ezekiel 11:15; Ezekiel 44:10, compare Ezekiel 8:6, ׳סָר מֵעַל י Jeremiah 32:40; Ezekiel 6:9, ׳תָּעָה מֵעַל י Ezekiel 44:10,15, compare Ezekiel 14:5; Deuteronomy 13:11; also סָר מֵעַל חַטּאֹות 2 Kings 10:31; 2 Kings 15:18 (usually מֵחטאות), compare Ezekiel 14:6; Ezekiel 23:18; from companionship with, Job 19:13 אַחַי מֵעַלַי הִרְחִיק; from accompanying protectingly 1 Samuel 28:15 וֵאלֹהִים סָר מֵעַלַי, 1 Samuel 28:16 (compare על Psalm 110:5; and see Dr); from adhesion to 2 Kings 17:21 קָרַע ישׂראל מֵעַל בֵּית תָּוִד, Isaiah 7:17; Isaiah 56:6 יַבְדִּילַנִי מֵעַל עַמּוֺ ׳י, Hosea 9:1 זָנִיתָ מֵעַל אֱלֹהֶיךָ.

d. In late Hebrew, = עַל above: 2 Kings 25:28 נָתַן ׳כִּסְאוֺ מֵעַל כִּסֵּא וגו ("" Jeremiah 52:32 more class. מִמַּעַל לְ), Esther 3:1; Psalm 108:5 גדול מעל שׁמים ("" Psalm 57:11 עַד), Psalm 148:4; Ecclesiastes 5:7 גָּבֹהַּ מֵעַל גָּבֹהַּ שֹׁמֵר, Nehemiah 3:28; Nehemiah 8:5; 2Chronicles 34:4 לְמַעְלָה מֵעֲלֵיהֶם on high above them; Ezekiel 41:17,20. — Proverbs 14:14 read with De Now Str וּמִמַּעֲלָלָיו.

e. מֵעַל לְ (chiefly late, and pleonastic for עַל, or else = the more class. synonym מִמַּעַל לְ): (a) Genesis 1:7 מֵעַל לָרָקִיעַ (Ezekiel 1:26 ׳מִמַּעַל לְ), Ezekiel 1:25 (text dubious; see Commentaries), 1 Samuel 17:39; Jonah 4:6; Malachi 1:5 upon, over the border (territory) of Israel (so Köhl Ke: but Hi Ew We beyond, 2 Chronicles 13:4 upon, mount Zemaraim, 2Chronicles 24:20. (b) beside2Chronicles 26:19 מֵעַל לְמִזְבַּח הַקְּטֹרֶת; Nehemiah 12:31 (twice in verse); Nehemiah 12:37,38 (twice in verse); Nehemiah 12:39 dubious: BeRy (in all) off the side of (מִן

6) = at a little distance from; Ke in Nehemiah 12:31; Nehemiah 12:38a upon, in Nehemiah 12:37; Nehemiah 12:38b; Nehemiah 12:39 by the side of (an ... vorüber).

Strong's Exhaustive Concordance
above, high, most High

From alah; properly, the top; specifically, the highest (i.e. God); also (adverb) aloft, to Jehovah -- above, high, most High.

see HEBREW alah

Forms and Transliterations
מֵעָ֑ל מעל עַל֙ עָ֔ל עָ֗ל על ‘al ‘āl Al mê‘āl mê·‘āl meAl
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Englishman's Concordance
Strong's Hebrew 5920
4 Occurrences


‘āl — 3 Occ.
mê·‘āl — 1 Occ.

2 Samuel 23:1
HEB: הַגֶּ֙בֶר֙ הֻ֣קַם עָ֔ל מְשִׁ֙יחַ֙ אֱלֹהֵ֣י
NAS: who was raised on high declares,
KJV: [who was] raised up on high, the anointed
INT: the man was raised high the anointed of the God

Psalm 50:4
HEB: אֶל־ הַשָּׁמַ֣יִם מֵעָ֑ל וְאֶל־ הָ֝אָ֗רֶץ
KJV: to the heavens from above, and to the earth,
INT: about the heavens above and to the earth

Hosea 7:16
HEB: יָשׁ֣וּבוּ ׀ לֹ֣א עָ֗ל הָיוּ֙ כְּקֶ֣שֶׁת
NAS: They turn, [but] not upward, They are like a deceitful
KJV: They return, [but] not to the most High: they are like a deceitful
INT: turn not upward become bow

Hosea 11:7
HEB: לִמְשֽׁוּבָתִ֑י וְאֶל־ עַל֙ יִקְרָאֻ֔הוּ יַ֖חַד
NAS: from Me. Though they call them to [the One] on high, None
KJV: from me: though they called them to the most High, none at all
INT: turning about high call all

4 Occurrences

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