Exodus 25:17
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New International Version
"Make an atonement cover of pure gold--two and a half cubits long and a cubit and a half wide.

New Living Translation
"Then make the Ark's cover--the place of atonement--from pure gold. It must be 45 inches long and 27 inches wide.

English Standard Version
“You shall make a mercy seat of pure gold. Two cubits and a half shall be its length, and a cubit and a half its breadth.

New American Standard Bible
"You shall make a mercy seat of pure gold, two and a half cubits long and one and a half cubits wide.

King James Bible
And thou shalt make a mercy seat of pure gold: two cubits and a half shall be the length thereof, and a cubit and a half the breadth thereof.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
Make a mercy seat of pure gold, 45 inches long and 27 inches wide.

International Standard Version
"You are to make a Mercy Seat of pure gold, two and a half cubits long and one and a half cubits wide.

NET Bible
"You are to make an atonement lid of pure gold; its length is to be three feet nine inches, and its width is to be two feet three inches.

New Heart English Bible
You shall make a mercy seat of pure gold. Two and a half cubits shall be its length, and a cubit and a half its breadth.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
"Make a throne of mercy to cover the ark out of pure gold 45 inches long and 27 inches wide.

JPS Tanakh 1917
And thou shalt make an ark-cover of pure gold: two cubits and a half shall be the length thereof, and a cubit and a half the breadth thereof.

New American Standard 1977
“And you shall make a mercy seat of pure gold, two and a half cubits long and one and a half cubits wide.

Jubilee Bible 2000
And thou shalt make a seat of reconciliation of pure gold; two cubits and a half shall be its length and a cubit and a half its breadth.

King James 2000 Bible
And you shall make a mercy seat of pure gold: two cubits and a half shall be the length of it, and a cubit and a half the breadth of it.

American King James Version
And you shall make a mercy seat of pure gold: two cubits and a half shall be the length thereof, and a cubit and a half the breadth thereof.

American Standard Version
And thou shalt make a mercy-seat of pure gold: two cubits and a half'shall be the length thereof, and a cubit and a half the breadth thereof.

Douay-Rheims Bible
Thou shalt make also a propitiatory of the purest gold: the length thereof shall be two cubits and a half, and the breadth a cubit and a half.

Darby Bible Translation
And thou shalt make a mercy-seat of pure gold: two cubits and a half the length thereof, and a cubit and a half the breadth thereof.

English Revised Version
And thou shalt make a mercy-seat of pure gold: two cubits and a half shall be the length thereof, and a cubit and a half the breadth thereof.

Webster's Bible Translation
And thou shalt make a mercy-seat of pure gold: two cubits and a half shall be its length, and a cubit and a half its breadth.

World English Bible
You shall make a mercy seat of pure gold. Two and a half cubits shall be its length, and a cubit and a half its breadth.

Young's Literal Translation
'And thou hast made a mercy-seat of pure gold, two cubits and a half its length, and a cubit and a half its breadth;
Study Bible
The Mercy Seat
16"You shall put into the ark the testimony which I shall give you. 17"You shall make a mercy seat of pure gold, two and a half cubits long and one and a half cubits wide. 18"You shall make two cherubim of gold, make them of hammered work at the two ends of the mercy seat.…
Cross References
Hebrews 9:5
Above the ark were the cherubim of glory, overshadowing the mercy seat. But we cannot discuss these things in detail now.

Exodus 25:18
"You shall make two cherubim of gold, make them of hammered work at the two ends of the mercy seat.

Exodus 37:6
He made a mercy seat of pure gold, two and a half cubits long and one and a half cubits wide.

1 Chronicles 28:11
Then David gave to his son Solomon the plan of the porch of the temple, its buildings, its storehouses, its upper rooms, its inner rooms and the room for the mercy seat;

Ezekiel 28:14
"You were the anointed cherub who covers, And I placed you there. You were on the holy mountain of God; You walked in the midst of the stones of fire.
Treasury of Scripture

And you shall make a mercy seat of pure gold: two cubits and a half shall be the length thereof, and a cubit and a half the breadth thereof.

mercy seat

Exodus 26:34 And you shall put the mercy seat on the ark of the testimony in the …

Exodus 37:6 And he made the mercy seat of pure gold: two cubits and a half was …

Exodus 40:20 And he took and put the testimony into the ark, and set the staves …

Leviticus 16:12-15 And he shall take a censer full of burning coals of fire from off …

1 Chronicles 28:11 Then David gave to Solomon his son the pattern of the porch, and …

Romans 3:25 Whom God has set forth to be a propitiation through faith in his blood…

Hebrews 4:16 Let us therefore come boldly to the throne of grace, that we may …

Hebrews 9:5 And over it the cherubim of glory shadowing the mercy seat; of which …

1 John 2:2 And he is the propitiation for our sins: and not for ours only, but …

THE MERCY SEAT.

(17) A mercy seat.--Those critics to whom the idea of expiation is unsatisfactory, as Knobel and Gesenius, render kapporeth, the word here used, by "lid" or "cover." Kaphar, it may be Admitted, has the physical meaning of "to cover" (Genesis 6:14); but kipper, the Piel form of the same verb, has never any other meaning than that of "covering," or "expiating sins." And kapporeth is not formed from kaphar, but from kipper. Hence the ?????????? of the LXX., the propitiatorium of the Vulg., and the "mercy seat" of the Authorised Version are correct translations. (Comp. 1Chronicles 28:11, where the Holy of Holies is called beyth-hak-kapporeth, which is certainly not" the house of the cover,' but "the house of expiation.")

Of pure gold.--Not of shittim wood, overlaid with a plating of gold, but a solid mass of the pure metal. It has been calculated that the weight would be 750 lbs. Troy, and the value above 25,000 of our money. It was intended to show by this lavish outlay, that the "mercy seat" was that object in which the accessories of worship culminated, the crowning glory of the material tabernacle.

Verse 17. - Thou shalt make a mercy seat. Modern exegesis has endeavoured to empty the word kapporeth of its true meaning, witnessed to by the Septuagint, as well as by the Epistle to the Hebrews (Hebrews 9:5). It tells us that a kapporeth is simply a cover, "being derived from kaphar, to cover," - used in Genesis 5:14, with respect to covering the ark with pitch. But the truth is that kapporeth is not derived from kaphar, but from kipper, the Piel form of the same verb, which has never any other sense than that of covering, or forgiving sins. In this sense it is used in the Old Testament some seventy times. Whether the mercy seat was the real cover of the ark of the covenant, or whether that had its own lid of acacia wood, as Kalisch supposes, is uncertain. At any rate, it was not called kipporeth because it was a cover, but because it was a seat of propitiation. On the importance of the mercy seat, as in some sort transcending the ark itself, see Leviticus 16:2, and 1 Chronicles 28:11. Atonement was made by sprinkling the blood of expiation upon it (Leviticus 16:14, 15). Of pure gold, Not of wood, plated with metal, or richly gilt, but of solid gold - an oblong slab, three feet nine inches long, two feet three inches wide, and probably not less than an inch thick. The weight of such a slab would be above 750 lbs. troy, and its value above 25,000l. of our money. The length and breadth were exactly those of the ark itself, which the mercy seat thus exactly covered (ver. 10). And thou shall make a mercy seat of pure gold,.... Or "covering" (n); so Jarchi and Aben Ezra; for so the word properly signifies; and what is meant was no more than a cover of the ark, which was open at the top, and this was the lid of it, and exactly answered to it, as appears by the dimensions afterwards given of it; and because the root of this word in one form signifies to propitiate or make atonement, some render it the "propitiatory" or "propitiation" (o); which is favoured by the apostle in Hebrews 9:5 and to which he seems to refer, Romans 3:25 and the rather since God is represented sitting on this, as showing himself propitious and well pleased with men, by his communing with them from hence; the Septuagint version takes in both senses, rendering it the "propitiatory covering" (p): this being called by what name it will, was typical of Christ; he is the seat of mercy, or, as it is in the New Testament expressed, the throne of grace; whereon, or in whom God shows himself to be gracious and merciful to the children of men; all the stores of mercy are in him, and all the vessels of mercy are put into his hands; the mercy of God is displayed in the mission of him as a Saviour, and is glorified by him in a way consistent with his justice and holiness; through him only special mercy is communicated to sinful men, to whom God is only merciful in Christ: and Christ himself is all mercy to his people; his ways of old were mercy and truth, and all his works, especially his great work of redemption, are done in mercy and pity to them; he shows himself to be merciful to them, by sympathizing with them, and supporting them under all their temptations and afflictions, in granting them all the necessary supplies of grace here, and by bestowing eternal life on them hereafter: he is their "covering", the covering of their persons by his righteousness, imputed to them, and of their sins, by his blood shed for them, and sprinkled on them, and of the law, by his satisfaction for the transgressions of it; whereby they are secured from the avenging justice of God, and wrath to come: and he is the "propitiation" or "propitiatory", who has made atonement and reconciliation for sin; and in and through whom God shows himself propitious to his people, he being pacified, his wrath appeased, and his justice satisfied by his obedience and sufferings: and this mercy seat, being of "pure gold", without any alloy or mixture in it, may denote the purity of Christ's obedience, righteousness, and sacrifice, in the completeness of salvation by him, without any works of righteousness of men; the worth and excellency of Christ, and of these blessings of his, and the preciousness of his blood, and the continued virtue and efficacy of it, and of his righteousness and sacrifice, by which the propitiation is made:

two cubits and a half shall be the length thereof, and a cubit and a half the breadth thereof: which are exactly the dimensions of the ark, to which this was a lid or cover, see Exodus 25:10 in the mystical sense it intimates, that Christ, in his nature, obedience, sufferings, and death, is the end of the law for righteousness, which is entirely commensurate, and answers to all its demands: his holy nature is answerable to the holiness and spirituality of the law; his righteousness to all that obedience it requires, and his sufferings and death to the penalty of it; so that, through Christ, we have a righteousness to justify us before God, as long and as broad as the law is, though the commandment is exceeding broad, Psalm 119:96. Aben Ezra observes, that there is no mention made of the thickness of the mercy seat; and the same Jarchi takes notice of, but adds, that, according to their Rabbins, it was an hand's breadth, and the Targum of Jonathan says,"and its thickness an hand's breadth.''

(n) "opertorium", Montanus; "tegmen sive operimentum", Vatablus; "operculum", Piscator. (o) "Propitiatorium", V. L. Pagninus, Munster, Tigurine version. (p) Sept. "operculum propitiatorium", Junius & Tremellius. 17. thou shalt make a mercy seat of pure gold—to serve as a lid, covering it exactly. It was "the propitiatory cover," as the term may be rendered, denoting that Christ, our great propitiation [1Jo 2:2; 4:10], has fully answered all the demands of the law, covers our transgressions, and comes between us and the curse of a violated law.25:10-22 The ark was a chest, overlaid with gold, in which the two tables of the law were to be kept. These tables are called the testimony; God in them testified his will. This law was a testimony to the Israelites, to direct them in their duty, and would be a testimony against them, if they transgressed. This ark was placed in the holy of holies; the blood of the sacrifices was sprinkled, and the incense burned, before it, by the high priest; and above it appeared the visible glory, which was the symbol of the Divine presence. This was a type of Christ in his sinless nature, which saw no corruption, in personal union with his Divine nature, atoning for our sins against it, by his death. The cherubim of gold looked one towards another, and both looked downward toward the ark. It denotes the angels' attendance on the Redeemer, their readiness to do his will, their presence in the assemblies of saints, and their desire to look into the mysteries of the gospel. It was covered with a covering of gold, called the mercy-seat. God is said to dwell, or sit between the cherubim, on the mercy-seat. There he would give his law, and hear supplicants, as a prince on his throne.
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