1 Kings 4:31
Parallel Verses
New International Version
He was wiser than anyone else, including Ethan the Ezrahite--wiser than Heman, Kalkol and Darda, the sons of Mahol. And his fame spread to all the surrounding nations.

New Living Translation
He was wiser than anyone else, including Ethan the Ezrahite and the sons of Mahol--Heman, Calcol, and Darda. His fame spread throughout all the surrounding nations.

English Standard Version
For he was wiser than all other men, wiser than Ethan the Ezrahite, and Heman, Calcol, and Darda, the sons of Mahol, and his fame was in all the surrounding nations.

New American Standard Bible
For he was wiser than all men, than Ethan the Ezrahite, Heman, Calcol and Darda, the sons of Mahol; and his fame was known in all the surrounding nations.

King James Bible
For he was wiser than all men; than Ethan the Ezrahite, and Heman, and Chalcol, and Darda, the sons of Mahol: and his fame was in all nations round about.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
He was wiser than anyone--wiser than Ethan the Ezrahite, and Heman, Calcol, and Darda, sons of Mahol. His reputation extended to all the surrounding nations.

International Standard Version
He was wiser than anyone of his day—wiser than Ethan the Ezrahite, Heman, and wiser than Mahol's sons Calcol and Darda. His reputation was known throughout the surrounding nations.

NET Bible
He was wiser than any man, including Ethan the Ezrahite or Heman, Calcol, and Darda, the sons of Mahol. He was famous in all the neighboring nations.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
He was wiser than anyone, than Ethan the Ezrahite, or Heman, Calcol, or Darda, Mahol's sons. His fame spread to all the nations around him.

Jubilee Bible 2000
For he was wiser than all men, than Ethan, the Ezrahite, and Heman and Chalcol and Darda, the sons of Mahol; and he was named in all nations round about.

King James 2000 Bible
For he was wiser than all men; than Ethan the Ezrahite, and Heman, and Calcol, and Darda, the sons of Mahol: and his fame was in all nations round about.

American King James Version
For he was wiser than all men; than Ethan the Ezrahite, and Heman, and Chalcol, and Darda, the sons of Mahol: and his fame was in all nations round about.

American Standard Version
For he was wiser than all men; than Ethan the Ezrahite, and Heman, and Calcol, and Darda, the sons of Mahol: and his fame was in all the nations round about.

Douay-Rheims Bible
And he was wiser than all men: wiser than Ethan the Ezrahite, and Heman, and Chalcol, and Dorda the sons of Mahol, and he was renowned in all nations round about.

Darby Bible Translation
For he was wiser than all men; than Ethan the Ezrahite, and Heman, and Calcol, and Darda, the sons of Mahol; and his fame was in all the nations round about.

English Revised Version
For he was wiser than all men; than Ethan the Ezrahite, and Heman, and Calcol, and Darda, the sons of Mahol: and his fame was in all the nations round about.

Webster's Bible Translation
For he was wiser than all men; than Ethan the Ezrahite, and Heman, and Chalcol, and Darda, the sons of Mahol: and his fame was in all the surrounding nations.

World English Bible
For he was wiser than all men; than Ethan the Ezrahite, and Heman, and Calcol, and Darda, the sons of Mahol: and his fame was in all the nations all around.

Young's Literal Translation
and he is wiser than all men, than Ethan the Ezrahite, and Heman, and Chalcol, and Darda, sons of Mahol, and his name is in all the nations round about.
Parallel Commentaries
Matthew Henry's Concise Commentary

4:29-34 Solomon's wisdom was more his glory than his wealth. He had what is here called largeness of heart, for the heart is often put for the powers of the mind. He had the gift of utterance, as well as wisdom. It is very desirable, that those who have large gifts of any kind, should have large hearts to use them for the good of others. What treasures of wisdom and knowledge are lost! But every sort of knowledge that is needful for salvation is to be found in the holy Scriptures. There came persons from all parts, who were more eager after knowledge than their neighbours, to hear the wisdom of Solomon. Solomon was herein a type of Christ, in whom are hid all treasures of wisdom and knowledge; and hid for us, for he is made of God to us, wisdom. Christ's fame shall spread through all the earth, and men of all nations shall come to him, learn of him, and take upon them his easy yoke, and find rest for their souls.

Pulpit Commentary

Verse 31. - For (Heb. and) he was wiser than all men [Keil adds "of his time," but we have no right to restrict the words to his contemporaries (see note on chap. 3:12). It is very doubtful whether the names mentioned presently are those of contemporaries] than Ethan the Ezrahite, and Heman, and Chalcol, and Darda [It is impossible to say whether these are the same persons as the Ethan and Heman and Chalcol and Dara of 1 Chronicles 2:6, or the Ethan and Heman who were David's singers. The resemblance is certainly remarkable. Not only are the names practically the same (Dara may well be a clerical error: many MSS., together with the Syr. and Arab., read Darda), but they occur in the same order. Our first impression, consequently, is that the two lists represent the same persons, and if so, these four sages were the "sons" of Zerah, the son of Judah (Genesis 38:30). But against this it is urged that Ethan is here called the Ezrahite, as are both Ethan and Heman in the titles of Psalm 89, and 88. respectively. The resemblance, however, of Ezrahite (אֶזְרָתִי) to Zerahite (זַרְתִי) is so close as to suggest identity rather than difference. There is, perhaps, more weight in the objection that Chalcol and Darda are here distinctly said to be "the sons of Mahol," though here again it has been observed that Mahol (מָחול) means pipe or dance, and the "sons of Mahol," consequently, may merely be a synonym, agreeably to Eastern idiom (Ecclesiastes 12:4, with which cf. 2 Samuel 19:35), for "musicians." We may therefore allow that the four names may be those of sons (i.e., descendants) of Zerah. But the question now presents itself: Are Ethan and Heman to be identified with the well known precentors of David? Against their identity are these facts:

1. That Ethan the singer (1 Chronicles 6:31) is described as the son of Kishi (1 Chronicles 6:44), elsewhere called Kushaiah (1 Chronicles 15:17), and of the family of Merari; as a Levite that is, instead of a descendant of Judah, and that Heman, who is called the singer, or musician (1 Chronicles 6:33), and the "king's seer" (1 Chronicles 25:5) is said to be a son of Joel, a grandson of the prophet Samuel, and one of the Kohathite Levites (1 Chronicles 15:17). The first impression in this case, therefore, is that they must be distinct. But it should be remembered

(1) that the sons - in the strict sense - of Zerah are nowhere else named for their wisdom, whereas the royal singer and seer probably owed their appointments to their genius, and

(2) that though Levites, they may have been incorporated (possibly like Jair, through marriage - see note on ver. 13 above, and cf. Ezra 2:61) into the tribe of Judah. The Levite in Judges 17:7 is spoken of as belonging to the family of Judah, because he dwelt in Bethlehem of Judah, and Elkanah the Levite is called an Ephraimite in 1 Samuel 1:1, because in his civil capacity he was incorporated into the tribe of Ephraim" (Keil). It must be admitted, however, that the natural interpretation of 1 Chronicles 2:6 is that the "sons" of Zerah there mentioned were his immediate and actual descendants, and not Levites who long centuries afterwards were somehow incorporated into his family. But the question is one of so much nicety that it is hardly possible to come to a positive conclusion] and his fame [Heb. name] was in all [Heb. all the] nations round about. [Cf. 10:24, etc.]

Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible

For he was wiser than all men,.... Not only that lived in his time, but in ages past since the fall of Adam, and in times to come, especially in natural wisdom and knowledge, in all the branches of it; for though some men excel in some part of knowledge, yet not in all, as Solomon did:

than Ethan the Ezrahite, and Heman, and Chalcol, and Darda, the sons of Mahol; men of the same names are said to be sons of Zerah, grandson of Judah, 1 Chronicles 2:6; wherefore these are either other men, or their father had two names; or Mahol here may be an appellative, and describe the character of these then, and point at what they were famous for, as that they were sons of music, piping, and dancing, as Mahol may signify; the Jews have a tradition (o), that Ethan is Abraham, and Heman Moses, and Chalcol Joseph:

and his fame was in all nations round about; not for his riches and grandeur only, but chiefly for his wisdom.

(o) Hieron. Trad. Heb. in 2 Reg. fol. 80. 1.

Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Bible Commentary

31. wiser than all men—that is, all his contemporaries, either at home or abroad.

than Ethan—or Jeduthun, of the family of Merari (1Ch 6:44).

Heman—(1Ch 15:17-19)—the chief of the temple musicians and the king's seers (1Ch 25:5); the other two are not known.

the sons of Mahol—either another name for Zerah (1Ch 2:6); or taking it as a common noun, signifying a dance, a chorus, "the sons of Mahol" signify persons eminently skilled in poetry and music.

1 Kings 4:31 Additional Commentaries
Context
Solomon's Wisdom
30Solomon's wisdom surpassed the wisdom of all the sons of the east and all the wisdom of Egypt. 31For he was wiser than all men, than Ethan the Ezrahite, Heman, Calcol and Darda, the sons of Mahol; and his fame was known in all the surrounding nations. 32He also spoke 3,000 proverbs, and his songs were 1,005.…
Cross References
1 Kings 3:12
I will do what you have asked. I will give you a wise and discerning heart, so that there will never have been anyone like you, nor will there ever be.

1 Chronicles 2:6
The sons of Zerah: Zimri, Ethan, Heman, Kalkol and Darda --five in all.

1 Chronicles 15:19
The musicians Heman, Asaph and Ethan were to sound the bronze cymbals;

Psalm 88:1
A song. A psalm of the Sons of Korah. For the director of music. According to mahalath leannoth. A maskil of Heman the Ezrahite. LORD, you are the God who saves me; day and night I cry out to you.

Psalm 89:1
A maskil of Ethan the Ezrahite. I will sing of the LORD's great love forever; with my mouth I will make your faithfulness known through all generations.

Daniel 1:20
In every matter of wisdom and understanding about which the king questioned them, he found them ten times better than all the magicians and enchanters in his whole kingdom.
Treasury of Scripture

For he was wiser than all men; than Ethan the Ezrahite, and Heman, and Chalcol, and Darda, the sons of Mahol: and his fame was in all nations round about.

wiser

1 Kings 3:12 Behold, I have done according to your words: see, I have given you …

Matthew 12:42 The queen of the south shall rise up in the judgment with this generation, …

Luke 11:31 The queen of the south shall rise up in the judgment with the men …

Colossians 2:3 In whom are hid all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge.

Ethan

1 Chronicles 15:19 So the singers, Heman, Asaph, and Ethan, were appointed to sound …

Psalm 89:1 I will sing of the mercies of the LORD for ever: with my mouth will …

Heman

1 Chronicles 2:6 And the sons of Zerah; Zimri, and Ethan, and Heman, and Calcol, and …

1 Chronicles 6:33 And these are they that waited with their children. Of the sons of …

1 Chronicles 15:17 So the Levites appointed Heman the son of Joel; and of his brothers, …

Psalm 88:1 O lord God of my salvation, I have cried day and night before you:

his fame

1 Kings 5:7 And it came to pass, when Hiram heard the words of Solomon, that …

1 Kings 10:1,6 And when the queen of Sheba heard of the fame of Solomon concerning …

2 Chronicles 9:23 And all the kings of the earth sought the presence of Solomon, to …

Matthew 4:24 And his fame went throughout all Syria: and they brought to him all …

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Alphabetical: all and any Calcol Darda Ethan Ezrahite fame For He Heman his in including known Mahol man men nations of other sons spread surrounding than the to was wiser

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