Refiner
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Smith's Bible Dictionary
Refiner

The refiner's art was essential to the working of the precious metals. It consisted in the separation of the dress from the pure ore, which was effected by reducing the metal to a fluid state by the application of heat, and by the aid of solvents, such as alkali, (Isaiah 1:25) or lead, Jere 6:29 Which, amalgamating with the dress, permitted the extraction of the unadulterated metal. The instruments required by the refiner were a crucible of furnace and a bellows or blow-pipe. The workman sat at his work, (Malachi 3:3) he was thus better enabled to watch the process, and let the metal run off at the proper moment.

Easton's Bible Dictionary
The process of refining metals is referred to by way of illustrations in Isaiah 1:25; Jeremiah 6:29; Zechariah 13:9; Malachi 3:2, 3.
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
(n.) One who, or that which, refines.
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
REFINER; REFINING

re-fin'-er, re-fin'-ing: Two Hebrew words have been translated "refine": (1) tsaraph, literally, to "fuse" (Zechariah 13:9 Isaiah 48:10 Malachi 3:2, 3, etc.). The same word is rendered also "tried" (Psalm 66:10); "melt" (Jeremiah 6:29 the King James Version); "purge" (Isaiah 1:25). (2) zaqaq, literally, to "strain" or "sift." In the case of silver and gold the term probably referred to some washing process in connection with refining, as in Malachi 3:3 both tsaraph and zaqaq are used (1 Chronicles 28:18; 1 Chronicles 29:4 Job 28:1). The same word in Isaiah 25:6 referred to the straining of wine. Greek puroo, in the passive, literally, "to be ignited," is translated "refined," in Revelation 1:15; Revelation 3:18.

The ancient process of refining gold has already been described under METALLURGY (which see). Most of the Bible references are to the refining of silver (Proverbs 25:4 Zechariah 13:9 Isaiah 48:10). The silver used by the ancients was probably obtained by smelting lead sulfide ore, rich in silver (argentiferous galena). After the ore had been reduced to a metallic condition, the lead was separated from the silver by blowing hot air over the surface of the melted metal. The lead was thus changed to lead oxide which, in a powdered condition, was driven away by the air blast. The resulting lead oxide, called in the Bible silver dross, was used for glazing pottery (Proverbs 26:23), a use to which it is still put by Syrian potters. The description of refining in Ezekiel 22:18-22 may indicate that a flux (compare "as with lye," Isaiah 1:25 the American Revised Version margin) was sometimes added to the melted metal to dissolve the oxides of copper, lead, tin and iron as they formed, thus leaving the silver pure. Crude processes similar to those described above are used in the Taurus Mountains today.

Figurative:

In the various Bible references the refining of precious metals is used figuratively to illustrate the kind of trial God's children are called upon to go through. If they are of the right metal the dross will finally be blown away, leaving pure, clear, shining silver. If of base metal they will be like the dross described in Jeremiah 6:29, 30. The refiner may blow fiercely, but in vain, for nothing but lead dross appears.

James A. Patch

Strong's Hebrew
6884. tsaraph -- to smelt, refine, test
... root Definition to smelt, refine, test NASB Word Usage goldsmith (5), goldsmiths
(2), pure (1), refine (3), refined (5), refiner's (1), refining goes (1 ...
/hebrew/6884.htm - 6k

6885. tsorephi -- goldsmiths
... goldsmith's. From tsaraph; refiner; Tsorephi (with the article), an Israelite --
goldsmith's. see HEBREW tsaraph. 6884, 6885. tsorephi. 6886 . Strong's Numbers
/hebrew/6885.htm - 6k

Library

The Refiner's Fire. October 6.
... The Refiner's Fire. October 6. "Not quite that," said Amyas. "He was a
meeker man latterly than he used to be. As he said himself ...
/.../christianbookshelf.org/kingsley/daily thoughts /the refiners fire october 6.htm

The Last Word of Prophecy
... for He is like a refiner's fire, and like fullers' soap: 3. And He shall sit as
a refiner and purifier of silver: and He shall purify the sons of Levi, and ...
/.../maclaren/expositions of holy scripture a/the last word of prophecy.htm

The Axe at the Root --A Testimony against Puseyite Idolatry
... Christ has the winnowing fan in his hand; he sits as a refiner; he is compared by
the prophet to the "refiner's fire" and to "fuller's soap;" and hence you see ...
/.../spurgeon/spurgeons sermons volume 12 1866/the axe at the roota.htm

The Need and Nature of Conversion
... For he is like a refiner's fire, and like fullers' soap: and he shall sit as a refiner
and purifier of silver: and he shall purify the sons of Levi, and purge ...
/.../spurgeon/spurgeons sermons volume 48 1902/the need and nature of.htm

In the Holy of Holies
... for He is like a refiner's fire, and like fullers' soap: and He shall sit as a refiner
and purifier of silver: and He shall purify the sons of Levi, and purge ...
//christianbookshelf.org/white/the great controversy/chapter 24 in the holy.htm

In the Holy of Holies.
... for He is like a refiner's fire, and like fullers' soap: and He shall sit as a refiner
and purifier of silver: and He shall purify the sons of Levi, and purge ...
/.../white/the great controversy between christ and satan /24 in the holy of.htm

On the Clause, and Shall Come in Glory to Judge the Quick and the ...
... or who shall stand when He appeareth? Because He cometh in like a refiner's fire,
and like fullers' herb; and He shall sit as a refiner and purifier. ...
/.../cyril/lectures of s cyril of jerusalem/lecture xv on the clause.htm

But as it is in Mockery that Celsus Says we Speak of "God Coming ...
... says that our God is "a consuming fire," [3728] and that "He draws rivers of fire
before Him;" [3729] nay, that He even entereth in as "a refiner's fire, and ...
/...//christianbookshelf.org/origen/origen against celsus/chapter xiii but as it.htm

In this Diagram were Described Ten Circles, Distinct from Each ...
... punishment, intended for the purification of such souls as are to be purified by
torments, agreeably to the saying: "The Lord cometh like a refiner's fire, and ...
/.../origen/origen against celsus/chapter xxv in this diagram.htm

January 21 Morning
... He is like a refiner's fire, and like fullers' soap: and he shall sit as a refiner
and purifier of silver: and he shall purify the sons of Levi, and purge them ...
/.../anonymous/daily light on the daily path/january 21 morning.htm

Thesaurus
Refiner (10 Occurrences)
... Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia. REFINER; REFINING. ... The refiner may blow fiercely,
but in vain, for nothing but lead dross appears. James A. Patch. ...
/r/refiner.htm - 13k

Refiner's (1 Occurrence)
... Multi-Version Concordance Refiner's (1 Occurrence). ... For he is like a refiner's fire,
and like launderer's soap; (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV). ...
/r/refiner's.htm - 6k

Refining (8 Occurrences)
... Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia. REFINER; REFINING. ... The refiner may blow fiercely,
but in vain, for nothing but lead dross appears. James A. Patch. ...
/r/refining.htm - 12k

Purifier (1 Occurrence)
... Noah Webster's Dictionary (n.) One who, or that which, purifies or cleanses; a cleanser;
a refiner. Multi-Version Concordance Purifier (1 Occurrence). ...
/p/purifier.htm - 6k

Bellows (1 Occurrence)
... "The bellows blow fiercely; the leads is of the fire." Here the imagery is drawn
from the refiner's art, and the "bellows" are those used to make the refiner's...
/b/bellows.htm - 8k

Refined (26 Occurrences)
... Jeremiah 6:29 The bellows have been burnt, By fire hath the lead been consumed,
In vain hath a refiner refined, And the wicked have not been drawn away. (YLT). ...
/r/refined.htm - 14k

Finer (1 Occurrence)
... See REFINER. ... Proverbs 25:4 Take away the dross from the silver, and material comes
out for the refiner; (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT). ...
/f/finer.htm - 7k

Shamed (91 Occurrences)
... (Root in YLT RSV). Jeremiah 10:14 Brutish is every man by knowledge, Put to shame
is every refiner by a graven image, For false 'is' his molten image. ...
/s/shamed.htm - 33k

Launderer's (1 Occurrence)
... the day of his coming? And who will stand when he appears? For he is like
a refiner's fire, and like launderer's soap; (WEB NIV). ...
/l/launderer's.htm - 6k

Lye (4 Occurrences)
... the day of his coming? and who shall stand when he appeareth? For he will
be like a refiner's fire, and like fullers' lye. (DBY). ...
/l/lye.htm - 7k

Concordance
Refiner (10 Occurrences)

Judges 17:4
And he giveth back the money to his mother, and his mother taketh two hundred silverlings, and giveth them to a refiner, and he maketh them a graven image, and a molten image, and it is in the house of Micah.
(YLT)

Nehemiah 3:31
After him hath Malchijah son of the refiner strengthened, unto the house of the Nethinim, and of the merchants, over-against the gate of the Miphkad, and unto the ascent of the corner.
(YLT)

Proverbs 25:4
Take away the dross from the silver, and material comes out for the refiner;
(WEB JPS ASV DBY YLT)

Isaiah 40:19
The graven image poured out hath a artizan, And a refiner with gold spreadeth it over, And chains of silver he is refining.
(YLT)

Isaiah 41:7
And strengthen doth an artizan the refiner, A smoother 'with' a hammer, Him who is beating 'on' an anvil, Saying, 'For joining it 'is' good,' And he strengtheneth it with nails, it is not moved!
(YLT)

Jeremiah 6:29
The bellows have been burnt, By fire hath the lead been consumed, In vain hath a refiner refined, And the wicked have not been drawn away.
(YLT)

Jeremiah 10:14
Brutish is every man by knowledge, Put to shame is every refiner by a graven image, For false 'is' his molten image. And there is no breath in them.
(YLT)

Jeremiah 51:17
Brutish hath been every man by knowledge, Put to shame hath been every refiner by a graven image, For false 'is' his molten image, And there is no breath in them.
(YLT)

Malachi 3:2
"But who can endure the day of his coming? And who will stand when he appears? For he is like a refiner's fire, and like launderer's soap;
(WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Malachi 3:3
and he will sit as a refiner and purifier of silver, and he will purify the sons of Levi, and refine them as gold and silver; and they shall offer to Yahweh offerings in righteousness.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT RSV NIV)

Subtopics

Refiner

Related Terms

Refiner's (1 Occurrence)

Refining (8 Occurrences)

Purifier (1 Occurrence)

Bellows (1 Occurrence)

Refined (26 Occurrences)

Finer (1 Occurrence)

Shamed (91 Occurrences)

Launderer's (1 Occurrence)

Lye (4 Occurrences)

Fullers (4 Occurrences)

Fuller (5 Occurrences)

Fuller's (4 Occurrences)

Refines (1 Occurrence)

Refine (9 Occurrences)

Refinement (1 Occurrence)

Refiners (2 Occurrences)

Dross (7 Occurrences)

Metallurgy

Beats (3 Occurrences)

Artizan (7 Occurrences)

Smelter (2 Occurrences)

Silverlings (24 Occurrences)

Smoother (3 Occurrences)

Strengtheneth (28 Occurrences)

Soap (4 Occurrences)

Silversmith (4 Occurrences)

Appearing (20 Occurrences)

Appeareth (31 Occurrences)

Beating (31 Occurrences)

Lead (192 Occurrences)

Joining (43 Occurrences)

Appears (38 Occurrences)

Purified (44 Occurrences)

Skilled (44 Occurrences)

Purify (39 Occurrences)

Purge (35 Occurrences)

Material (61 Occurrences)

Mankind (80 Occurrences)

Workers (76 Occurrences)

Founder (5 Occurrences)

Fining (2 Occurrences)

Strengthened (113 Occurrences)

Endure (90 Occurrences)

Levi (79 Occurrences)

Images (158 Occurrences)

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