Kidneys
Jump to: ISBEWebster'sConcordanceThesaurusGreekHebrewLibrarySubtopicsTerms
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
(n.) Plural of Kidney.
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
KIDNEYS

kid'-niz (always in the plural: kelayoth; nephroi; Latin renes, whence the English "reins"): "Reins" and "kidneys" are synonyms, but the King James Version undertook a distinction by using the former word in the figurative, the latter in the literal passages. the English Revised Version has followed the King James Version exactly, but the American Standard Revised Version has retained "reins" only in Job 16:13 Lamentations 3:13 Revelation 2:23, elsewhere substituting "heart," except in Psalm 139:13, where "inward parts" is used. the King James Version and the English Revised Version also have "reins" for chalatsayim, in Isaiah 11:5 (the American Standard Revised Version "loins"). The physiological function of the kidneys is not referred to in the Bible, but has been introduced (quite wrongly) by the King James Version margin to Leviticus 15:2; Leviticus 22:4.

(1) The kidneys owe their importance in the Bible partly to the fact that they are imbedded in fat, and fat of such purity that fat of the kidneys was a proverbial term for surpassing excellence (Deuteronomy 32:14 margin). For the visceral fat was the part of the animal best adapted for sacrificial burning, and hence, came to be deemed peculiarly sacred (Leviticus 7:22-25 1 Samuel 2:16). Accordingly, the kidneys with the fat surrounding them were burned in every sacrifice in which the entire animal was not consumed, whether in peace (Leviticus 3:4, 10, 15; Leviticus 9:19), sin (Exodus 29:13 Leviticus 4:9; Leviticus 8:16; Leviticus 9:10), or trespass, (Leviticus 7:4) offerings; compare the "ram of consecration" (Exodus 29:22 Leviticus 8:25). So in Isaiah 34:6, "fat of the kidneys of rams" is chosen as a typical sacrificial term to parallel "blood of lambs and goats."

(2) The position of the kidneys in the body makes them particularly inaccessible, and in cutting up an animal they are the last organs to be reached. Consequently, they were a natural symbol for the most hidden part of a man (Psalm 139:13), and in Job 16:13 to "cleave the reins asunder" is to effect the total destruction of the individual (compare Job 19:27 Lamentations 3:13). This hidden location, coupled with the sacred sacrificial use, caused the kidneys to be thought of as the seat of the innermost moral (and emotional) impulses. So the reins instruct (Psalm 16:7) or are "pricked" (Psalm 73:21), and God can be said to be far from the reins of sinners (Jeremiah 12:2). In all of these passages "conscience" gives the exact meaning. So the reins rejoice (Proverbs 23:16), cause torment (2 Esdras 5:34), or tremble in wrath (1 Maccabees 2:24). And to "know" or "try the reins" (usually joined with "the heart") is an essential power of God's, denoting His complete knowledge of the nature of every human being (Psalm 7:9; Psalm 26:2 Jeremiah 11:20; Jeremiah 17:10; Jeremiah 20:12; Wis 1:6; Revelation 2:23). See FAT; PSYCHOLOGY; SACRIFICE. Compare RS2, 379-80, and for Greek sacrificial parallels Journal of Philology, XIX (1890), 46. The anatomical relations are well exhibited in the plate in Sacred Books of the Old Testament, "Leviticus."

Burton Scott Easton

Greek
4697. splagchnizomai -- to be moved in the inward parts, ie to ...
... moved. Cognate: 4697 -- "from , 'the inward parts,' especially the nobler
entrails -- the heart, lungs, liver, and kidneys. These ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/4697.htm - 7k

3510. nephros -- a kidney, fig. the (inmost) mind
... Philo (about ad 50) applied this term to "the emotions driving the conscience,"
ie . [The also used 3510 () this way when translating OT 3629 ("kidneys").]. ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/3510.htm - 7k

Strong's Hebrew
3629. kilyah -- a kidney
... 3628, 3629. kilyah. 3630 . a kidney. Transliteration: kilyah Phonetic Spelling:
(kil-yaw') Short Definition: kidneys. ... kidneys, reins. ...
/hebrew/3629.htm - 6k

2910. tuchah -- inward parts
... From tachah (or tuwach) in the sense of overlaying; (in the plural only) the kidneys
(as being covered); hence (figuratively) the inmost thought -- inward parts ...
/hebrew/2910.htm - 6k

Library

The Manner of Our Offering Sacrifices.
... They also sprinkle the altar with their blood; but they lay upon the altar the kidneys
and the caul, and all the fat, and the lobe of the liver, together with ...
/.../josephus/the antiquities of the jews/chapter 9 the manner of.htm

On the Interior Man
... [Hab.3:16]. The kidneys are the interior sense; in the psalm: my reins teach me
at night, at all times, and from above. [Ps.15(16):7 Vulgate]. ...
/.../eucherius/the formulae of st eucherius of lyons/vi on the interior man.htm

Tobacco.
... quantity of tobacco received into the system by smoking, chewing, or snuffing is
carried through the circulation to the skin, lungs, liver, kidneys, and to all ...
/.../judy/questionable amusements and worthy substitutes/i tobacco.htm

Of the Unknown Purpose of Some of the Intestines.
... which the stomach is netted over and covered? What the twofold resemblance
of the kidneys? which Varro says are so named because ...
/.../lactantius/on the workmanship of god/chap xiv of the unknown purpose.htm

Isaiah's Discourse
... The sword of the LORD is filled with blood, it is made fat with fatness, with the
blood of lambs and goats, with the fat of the kidneys of rams: for the LORD ...
/.../various/select masterpieces of biblical literature/v isaiahs discourse.htm

Regeneration the Work of God.
... There is the eye with its muscles, and the ear with its organs of hearing; in the
post-mortem examination heart, spleen, liver, and kidneys appear to be ...
/.../kuyper/the work of the holy spirit/xxi regeneration the work of.htm

The Tenth Book Discusses the Unattainable and Incomprehensible
... means of the enclosure of sinewy membrane; whether the creature has a liver, and
in connection with the liver a gall-bladder; whether it has kidneys and heart ...
/.../gregory/gregory of nyssa dogmatic treatises etc/section 1 the tenth book.htm

Concerning the Festivals; and How Each Day of Such Festival is to ...
... great altar. Besides this, they set the extremities, and the kidneys, and
the fat, with the lobe of the liver, upon the altar. The ...
/.../josephus/the antiquities of the jews/chapter 10 concerning the festivals.htm

Letter Xlv. To a Lapsed Monk.
... to back, and all hollow with fasting; you would wear no soft bandage, and drawing
in your stomach, like a gourd, made it adhere to the parts about your kidneys ...
/.../basil/basil letters and select works/letter xlv to a lapsed.htm

Letter xvi. Against Eunomius the Heretic.
... Has it a liver, with a gall bladder near the liver? Has it kidneys, heart, arteries,
veins, membranes, cartilages? Is it hairy or hairless? ...
/.../basil/basil letters and select works/letter xvi against eunomius the.htm

Thesaurus
Kidneys (15 Occurrences)
... Noah Webster's Dictionary (n.) Plural of Kidney. Int. Standard Bible
Encyclopedia. KIDNEYS. kid'-niz (always in the plural: kelayoth ...
/k/kidneys.htm - 16k

Caul (12 Occurrences)
... CAUL. kol: (1) yothereth (Exodus 29:13), the large lobe or flap of the liver, which
is usually mentioned together with the kidneys and the fat as the special ...
/c/caul.htm - 12k

Lobe (19 Occurrences)
... Exodus 29:13 And thou shalt take all the fat that covereth the inwards, and the
caul upon the liver, and the two kidneys, and the fat that is upon them, and ...
/l/lobe.htm - 12k

Redundance (11 Occurrences)
... Exodus 29:13 and thou hast taken all the fat which is covering the inwards, and
the redundance on the liver, and the two kidneys, and the fat which 'is' on them ...
/r/redundance.htm - 10k

Appendage (11 Occurrences)
... Exodus 29:13 You shall take all the fat that covers the innards, the cover of the
liver, the two kidneys, and the fat that is on them, and burn them on the ...
/a/appendage.htm - 9k

Flanks (7 Occurrences)
... Leviticus 3:4 And the two kidneys, and the fat that is on them, which is by the
flanks, and the caul above the liver, with the kidneys, it shall he take away. ...
/f/flanks.htm - 8k

Liver (16 Occurrences)
... Still others consider it to be the "fatty mass at the opening of the liver, which
reaches to the kidneys and becomes visible upon the removal of the lesser ...
/l/liver.htm - 16k

Joining (43 Occurrences)
... Exodus 29:13 And take all the fat covering the inside of the ox, and the fat joining
the liver and the two kidneys with the fat round them, and let them be ...
/j/joining.htm - 19k

Legs (50 Occurrences)
... Leviticus 3:4 And the two kidneys, and the fat on them, which is by the top part
of the legs, and the fat joining the liver and the kidneys, he is to take away ...
/l/legs.htm - 21k

Net (91 Occurrences)
... Exodus 29:13 And thou shalt take all the fat that covereth the inwards, and the
net of the liver, and the two kidneys, and the fat that is upon them, and burn ...
/n/net.htm - 36k

Concordance
Kidneys (15 Occurrences)

Exodus 29:13
You shall take all the fat that covers the innards, the cover of the liver, the two kidneys, and the fat that is on them, and burn them on the altar.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Exodus 29:22
Also you shall take some of the ram's fat, the fat tail, the fat that covers the innards, the cover of the liver, the two kidneys, the fat that is on them, and the right thigh (for it is a ram of consecration),
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Leviticus 3:4
and the two kidneys, and the fat that is on them, which is by the loins, and the cover on the liver, with the kidneys, he shall take away.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Leviticus 3:10
and the two kidneys, and the fat that is on them, which is by the loins, and the cover on the liver, with the kidneys, he shall take away.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Leviticus 3:15
and the two kidneys, and the fat that is on them, which is by the loins, and the cover on the liver, with the kidneys, he shall take away.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Leviticus 4:9
and the two kidneys, and the fat that is on them, which is by the loins, and the cover on the liver, with the kidneys, he shall take away,
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Leviticus 7:4
and the two kidneys, and the fat that is on them, which is by the loins, and the cover on the liver, with the kidneys, shall he take away;
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Leviticus 8:16
He took all the fat that was on the innards, and the cover of the liver, and the two kidneys, and their fat; and Moses burned it on the altar.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Leviticus 8:25
He took the fat, and the fat tail, and all the fat that was on the innards, and the cover of the liver, and the two kidneys, and their fat, and the right thigh;
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Leviticus 9:10
but the fat, and the kidneys, and the cover from the liver of the sin offering, he burned upon the altar; as Yahweh commanded Moses.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Leviticus 9:19
and the fat of the bull and of the ram, the fat tail, and that which covers the innards, and the kidneys, and the cover of the liver:
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Deuteronomy 32:14
Butter of kine, and milk of sheep, with fat of lambs, and rams of the breed of Bashan, and goats, with the fat of kidneys of wheat; and thou didst drink the pure blood of the grape.
(KJV DBY WBS YLT)

Job 16:13
His archers surround me. He splits my kidneys apart, and does not spare. He pours out my gall on the ground.
(WEB NAS RSV NIV)

Isaiah 34:6
Yahweh's sword is filled with blood. It is covered with fat, with the blood of lambs and goats, with the fat of the kidneys of rams; for Yahweh has a sacrifice in Bozrah, And a great slaughter in the land of Edom.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Lamentations 3:13
He has caused the shafts of his quiver to enter into my kidneys.
(WEB)

Subtopics

Kidney: Burnt offering of The

Kidneys

Related Terms

Caul (12 Occurrences)

Lobe (19 Occurrences)

Redundance (11 Occurrences)

Appendage (11 Occurrences)

Flanks (7 Occurrences)

Liver (16 Occurrences)

Joining (43 Occurrences)

Legs (50 Occurrences)

Net (91 Occurrences)

Reins (15 Occurrences)

Loins (72 Occurrences)

Innards (15 Occurrences)

Entrails (18 Occurrences)

Inwards (24 Occurrences)

Remove (173 Occurrences)

Covering (191 Occurrences)

Cover (254 Occurrences)

Fat (150 Occurrences)

Inner (141 Occurrences)

Tail (16 Occurrences)

Rump (5 Occurrences)

Covers (50 Occurrences)

Covereth (61 Occurrences)

Beside (326 Occurrences)

Aside (416 Occurrences)

Inside (185 Occurrences)

Smoke (98 Occurrences)

Thigh (38 Occurrences)

Leg (24 Occurrences)

Inward (43 Occurrences)

Removed (294 Occurrences)

Perfume (202 Occurrences)

Shoulder (72 Occurrences)

Ram (96 Occurrences)

He-goats (38 Occurrences)

Quiver (9 Occurrences)

Kidney-fat (1 Occurrence)

Kidon (1 Occurrence)

Urine (2 Occurrences)

Layer (4 Occurrences)

Gravel (3 Occurrences)

Wheat (56 Occurrences)

Idumea (5 Occurrences)

Insides (1 Occurrence)

Fat-tail (1 Occurrence)

Ram's (7 Occurrences)

Eliminate (3 Occurrences)

Portions (49 Occurrences)

Pours (21 Occurrences)

Pierces (8 Occurrences)

Part (2071 Occurrences)

Bozrah (9 Occurrences)

Consecration (22 Occurrences)

Cream (5 Occurrences)

Clean (298 Occurrences)

Arena (1 Occurrence)

Archers (15 Occurrences)

Stone (290 Occurrences)

Slashes (1 Occurrence)

Shafts (6 Occurrences)

Surround (39 Occurrences)

Splits (3 Occurrences)

Spills (1 Occurrence)

Suet (3 Occurrences)

Fatness (17 Occurrences)

Ox (197 Occurrences)

Kine (24 Occurrences)

Offered (320 Occurrences)

Gall (17 Occurrences)

Bullock (95 Occurrences)

Ordination (12 Occurrences)

Burn (206 Occurrences)

Sin-offering (115 Occurrences)

Bull (114 Occurrences)

Spare (80 Occurrences)

Burned (587 Occurrences)

Marked (163 Occurrences)

Pieces (209 Occurrences)

Links
Bible ConcordanceBible DictionaryBible EncyclopediaTopical BibleBible Thesuarus


Kidney-fat
Top of Page
Top of Page