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International Standard Bible Encyclopedia

Year Amount

1861 27.30"

1862 21.86"

1863 26.54"

1864 15.51"

1865 18.19"

1866 18.55"

1867 29.42"

1868 29.10"

1869 18.61"

1870 13.19"

1871 23.17"

1872 22.26"

1873 22.72"

1874 29.75"

1875 27.01"

1876 14.41"

1877 26.00"

1878 32.21"

1879 18.04"

1880 32.11"

1881 16.50"

1882 26.72"

1883 31.92" 1884 23.16"

1885 29.47"

1886 31.69"

1887 29.81"

1888 37.79"

1889 13.16"

1890 35.51"

1891 34.72"

1892 31.23"

1893 30.54"

1894 35.38"

1895 23.15"

1896 32.90"

1897 41.62"

1898 28.66"

1899 22.43"

1900 21.20"

1901 17.42"

1902 25.51"

1903 18.04"

1904 34.48"

1905 34.22"

1906 28.14"

1907 27.22"

1908 31.87"

1909 21.13"

1910 24.64"

The amount of rainfall in ancient times was probably about the same as in present times, though it may have been distributed somewhat differently through the year, as suggested by Huntington. Conder maintains that the present amount would have been sufficient to support the ancient cities (Tent-Work in Palestine). Trees are without doubt fewer now, but meteorologists agree that trees do not produce rain.

4. Dry and Rainy Seasons;

The rainfall is largely on the western slopes of the mountains facing the sea, while on the eastern slopes there is very little. The moisture-laden air comes up from the sea with the west and southwest wind. When these currents strike the hills they are thrown higher up into the cooler strata, and the moisture condenses to form clouds and rain which increases on the higher levels. Having passed the ridge of the hills, the currents descend on the other side to warmer levels, where the moisture is easily held in the form of vapor so that no rain falls and few clouds are seen, except in the cold mid-winter months.

The summer months are practically rainless, with very few clouds appearing in the sky. From May 1 to the middle of October one can be sure of no rain; "The winter is past; the rain is over" (Songs 2:11), so many sleep on the roofs of the houses or in tents of leaves and branches in the fields and vineyards throughout the summer. The continuous hot droughts make the people appreciate the springs and fountains of fresh running water and the cool shade of rock and tree.

The rainy season from October to May may be divided into three parts, the former, the winter, and the latter rains, and they are often referred to under these names in the Old Testament.

The "former rains" are the showers of October and the first part of November. They soften the parched ground so that the winter grain may be sown before the heavy continuous rains set in. The main bulk of the rain falls in the months of December, January and February. Although in these months the rains are frequent and heavy, a dark, foggy day is seldom seen. The "latter rains" of April are the most highly appreciated, because they ripen the fruit and stay the drought of summer. They were considered a special blessing: Yahweh "will come.... as the latter rain that watereth the earth" (Hosea 6:3); "They opened their mouth wide as for the latter rain" (Job 29:23); and as a reason for worshipping Yahweh who sent them, "Let us now fear Yahweh our God, that giveth rain, both the former and the latter, in its season" (Jeremiah 5:24).

The rain storms always come from the sea with a west or southwest wind. The east wind is a hot wind and the "north wind driveth away rain" (Proverbs 25:23, the King James Version). "Fair weather cometh out of the north" (Job 37:22, the King James Version).

5. Biblical Uses:

The Psalmist recognizes that the "showers that water the earth" (Psalm 72:6) are among the choicest blessings from the hand of Yahweh: "The early rain covereth it with blessings" (Psalm 84:6). The severest punishment of Yahweh was to withhold the rain, as in the time of Ahab and Elijah, when the usual rain did not fall for three years (1 Kings 17); "the anger of Yahweh be kindled against you, and he shut up the heavens, so that there shall be no rain, and the land shall not yield its fruit; and ye perish quickly" (Deuteronomy 11:17). Too much rain is also a punishment, as witness the flood (Genesis 7:4) and the plague of rain and hail (Ezra 10:9). Sending of rain was a reward for worship and obedience: "Yahweh will open unto thee his good treasure, the heavens, to give the rain of thy land in its season, and to bless all the work of thy hand" (Deuteronomy 28:12). Yahweh controls the elements and commands the rain: "He made a decree for the rain" (Job 28:26); "For he saith to the snow, Fall thou on the earth; likewise to the shower of rain" (Job 37:6). LITERATURE

Palestine Exploration Fund Quarterly; meteorological observations from the Dead Sea, Jerusalem, Jaffa and Tiberias; various observers; Zeitschrift des deutschen Paldstina-Vereins; H. Hilderscheid, Die Niederschlagsverhdltnisse Paldstinas in alter and neuer Zeit; C. R. Conder, Tent-Work in Palestine; Edward Hull, Mount Seir, Sinai and Western Palestine; Ellsworth Huntington, Palestine and Its Transformation; bulletin of the Syrian Protestant College Observatory, Meteorological Observations in Beirut and Syria.

Alfred H. Joy

4083. pechus -- the forearm, ie a cubit
... 4083 -- "traditionally the distance from the elbow to the end of the fingers, about
eighteen inches or one-half meter -- 'cubit, eighteen inches, half meter ...
// - 6k

Mormonites, or the Church of the Latter-Day Saints.
... "These records were engraven on plates which had the appearance of gold; each plate
was six inches wide and eight inches long, and not quite so thick as common ...
/.../hayward/the book of religions/mormonites or the church of.htm

Methodism on the Stage
... actors went on. In the middle of the second act, all the shilling seats
gave a crack, and sank several inches down. A great noise ...
/.../wesley/the journal of john wesley/methodism on the stage.htm

The Last Twelve Verses of the Gospel According to S. Mark
... 8), as explained at p.70, and pp.86-8. The original Photograph, which is here
reproduced on a diminished scale, measures in height full fourteen inches and one ...
/.../burgon/the last twelve verses of the gospel according to s mark/title page.htm

A Look into the Hebrew Bible.
... appeared to Smith and told him where he would find this book; that he went to the
spot designated, and found in a stone box a volume six inches thick, composed ...
// wrote the bible/chapter i a look into.htm

The Codex
... 8), as explained at p.70, and pp.86-8. The original Photograph, which is here
reproduced on a diminished scale, measures in height full fourteen inches and one ...
/.../burgon/the last twelve verses of the gospel according to s mark /the codex.htm

The Right to My Own Time
... We got our sun hats, joined Mrs. Ning, and started off. Her feet were not
more than six inches long, and she did take such tiny steps! ...
/...// we no rights/chapter 6 the right to.htm

Hiring a Coachman
... going over. The first said he could drive within six inches of it; the
second said he could drive within two inches of it. When ...
/.../chidley/fifty-two story talks to boys and girls/hiring a coachman.htm

How Sebbi, King of the Same Province, Ended his Life in a ...
... Hereupon they chipped away as much of the stone as they could, and made the coffin
about two inches longer; but not even so would it contain the body. ...
/.../bede/bedes ecclesiastical history of england/chap xi how sebbi king.htm

Annunciation to Zacharias of the Birth of John the Baptist.
... the most holy places. It was a small table twenty-two inches in breadth
and length and forty-four inches in height. It was made ...
/.../mcgarvey/the four-fold gospel/v annunciation to zacharias of.htm

Constantine's Letter to Eusebius on the Preparation of Copies of ...
... "13½ inches in length by 14-7/8 inches high." "Beautiful vellum." "Each page comprises
four columns, with 48 lines in each column." "Continuous noble uncials ...
/.../the life of constantine/chapter xxxvi constantines letter to eusebius.htm

Inches (1 Occurrence)
... Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia RAINFALL IN JERUSALEM IN INCHES. Year ... Alfred H.
Joy. Multi-Version Concordance Inches (1 Occurrence). Genesis ...
/i/inches.htm - 12k

Millstone (9 Occurrences)
... ft. to 2 3/4 ft., and in width from 10 inches to 1 1/3 ft. ... The "upper stone"
or "rider" was much smaller, 4 inches to 8 in. long ...
/m/millstone.htm - 15k

Mill (9 Occurrences)
... ft. to 2 3/4 ft., and in width from 10 inches to 1 1/3 ft. ... The "upper stone"
or "rider" was much smaller, 4 inches to 8 in. long ...
/m/mill.htm - 18k

Rain (118 Occurrences)
... The amount of rain on the western slopes is comparable with that in England and
America, varying from 25 to 40 inches per annum, but it falls mostly in the ...
/r/rain.htm - 43k

Weights (14 Occurrences)
... of their square building-bricks, which are regarded as being two-thirds of a cubit
on a side, we judge the latter to have been of about 19 or 20 inches. ...
/w/weights.htm - 21k

Cubit (51 Occurrences)
... The common computation as to the length of the cubit makes it 20.24 inches
for the ordinary cubit, and 21.888 inches for the sacred one. ...
/c/cubit.htm - 26k

Antelope (2 Occurrences)
... The accompanying illustration is from a photograph of a well-grown female oryx in
the zoological gardens at Cairo, which is 35 inches high at the shoulder and ...
/a/antelope.htm - 11k

Measures (50 Occurrences)
... of their square building-bricks, which are regarded as being two-thirds of a cubit
on a side, we judge the latter to have been of about 19 or 20 inches. ...
/m/measures.htm - 35k

Goliath (6 Occurrences)
... 2:20, 21). His height was "six cubits and a span," which, taking the cubit
at 21 inches, is equal to 10 1/2 feet. David cut off ...
/g/goliath.htm - 12k

Finger (35 Occurrences)
... of the hand; a measure of nearly an inch; also, the length of finger, a measure
in domestic use in the United States, of about four and a half inches or one ...
/f/finger.htm - 22k

Inches (1 Occurrence)

Genesis 6:16
You shall make a roof in the ship, and you shall finish it to a cubit upward. You shall set the door of the ship in its side. You shall make it with lower, second, and third levels.
(See NIV)



Related Terms

Millstone (9 Occurrences)

Mill (9 Occurrences)

Rain (118 Occurrences)

Weights (14 Occurrences)

Cubit (51 Occurrences)

Antelope (2 Occurrences)

Measures (50 Occurrences)

Goliath (6 Occurrences)

Finger (35 Occurrences)


Shewbread (16 Occurrences)

Samaritan (8 Occurrences)

Potter (14 Occurrences)

Pottery (11 Occurrences)

Jacob's (34 Occurrences)

Aqueduct (4 Occurrences)

Cistern (21 Occurrences)

Babylonia (17 Occurrences)

Glass (12 Occurrences)

Gourd (4 Occurrences)

Wild (147 Occurrences)

Reel (6 Occurrences)

Rome (12 Occurrences)

Plow (11 Occurrences)

Porcupine (3 Occurrences)

Accent (1 Occurrence)

Sheep (413 Occurrences)

Shushan (19 Occurrences)

Pool (25 Occurrences)

Well (2882 Occurrences)

Machpelah (6 Occurrences)

Weaving (4 Occurrences)

Incident (5 Occurrences)

Altar (343 Occurrences)

Dead (580 Occurrences)

Handbreadth (9 Occurrences)

Gezer (14 Occurrences)

Bread (433 Occurrences)

Jerusalem (782 Occurrences)

Tabernacle (333 Occurrences)


Yard (8 Occurrences)

Volume (4 Occurrences)

Kite (3 Occurrences)


Nose-jewels (1 Occurrence)

Nail (9 Occurrences)

Nuts (2 Occurrences)

Ostrich (9 Occurrences)

Owl (11 Occurrences)

Olive (61 Occurrences)


Link (2 Occurrences)

Line (131 Occurrences)

Weasel (1 Occurrence)


Inchantments (1 Occurrence)

Flour (69 Occurrences)

Ferret (1 Occurrence)

Face (780 Occurrences)

Foot (193 Occurrences)

Fowler (3 Occurrences)


Thick (129 Occurrences)

Tablets (31 Occurrences)

Tortoise (1 Occurrence)

Round (664 Occurrences)

Rephidim (5 Occurrences)


Rule (291 Occurrences)



Dish (54 Occurrences)

Deal (170 Occurrences)

Dove (27 Occurrences)

Bricks (10 Occurrences)

Breastplate (45 Occurrences)

Bee (1 Occurrence)

Bearing (150 Occurrences)

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