Dictionary of Bible Themes
“King of Righteousness”: king and priest of Salem, who blessed Abraham. David assumed Melchizedek's role as king and priest of Jersualem for himself and his descendants. Jesus Christ succeeded to this role and became a high priest in the order of Melchizedek.
Melchizedek was both king and priest
As a king, Melchizedek entertained Abraham
As a priest, Melchizedek blessed Abraham
Abraham acknowledged Melchizedek as a priest of the LORD
Genesis 14:20,22 Melchizedek here points ahead to Jesus Christ, who is also priest and king.
The status of Melchizedek
David appropriates Melchizedek's office and authority for himself and his descendants
Psalm 110:1-2,4 The word “order” here means “in succession to”, meaning that Christ assumes the status and function of Melchizedek.
The Davidic Messiah (Christ) inherits the office of Melchizedek
Matthew 22:41-44 pp Mark 12:35-37 pp Luke 20:41-44 Jesus Christ was at that time being acclaimed as the “Son of David” and by implication here claims to be the Messiah. See also Matthew 20:30 pp Mark 10:47 pp Luke 18:35-39; Matthew 21:9 pp Mark 11:10; Matthew 21:15; Acts 2:34
Jesus Christ as high priest after the order of Melchizedek
The characteristics of the order of Melchizedek
Hebrews 7:2-3 Melchizedek's order of priesthood was one of kingship, peace and righteousness; it did not depend on genealogical descent (unlike the Levitical priesthood); it is eternal, without known beginning or end. See also Psalm 110:4; Hebrews 5:6; Hebrews 6:20; Hebrews 7:21
The uniqueness of Jesus Christ's high priesthood in the order of Melchizedek
Hebrews 7:6-7 Melchizedek was superior to Abraham and therefore to the Levitical priesthood descended from Abraham ; Psalm 110:4 The priesthood is secured by God's oath. See also Hebrews 6:17-20; Hebrews 7:16,20-22,26-27; Hebrews 8:1-2
Jesus Christ's high priesthood makes the Levitical priesthood obsolete