Revelation 22
Vincent's Word Studies
And he shewed me a pure river of water of life, clear as crystal, proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb.


Clear (λαμπρὸν)

See on Luke 23:11. Rev., bright.

In the midst of the street of it, and on either side of the river, was there the tree of life, which bare twelve manner of fruits, and yielded her fruit every month: and the leaves of the tree were for the healing of the nations.
In the midst of the street thereof

Some connect these words with the preceding. So Rev.

On either side (ἐντεῦθεν καὶ ἐντεῦθεν)

For the latter ἐντεῦθεν read ἐκεῖθεν, as render, as Rev., on this side and on that.

Tree (ξύλον)

See on Luke 23:31, and see on Revelation 2:7.

Twelve manner of fruits (καρποὺς δώδεκα)

Lit., twelve fruits. Some render crops or harvests of fruit. On these two verses compare Ezekiel 47:1-12; Joel 3:18; Zechariah 14:8.

And there shall be no more curse: but the throne of God and of the Lamb shall be in it; and his servants shall serve him:
Shall serve (λατρεύσουσιν)

See on Luke 1:74. Rev., do Him service. The word originally means to serve for hire. In the New Testament, of the worship or service of God in the use of the rites intended for His worship. It came to be used by the Jews in a very special sense, to denote the service rendered to Jehovah by the Israelites as His peculiar people. See Romans 9:4; Acts 26:7; Hebrews 9:1, Hebrews 9:6. Hence the significant application of the term to Christian service by Paul in Philippians 3:3.

And they shall see his face; and his name shall be in their foreheads.
And there shall be no night there; and they need no candle, neither light of the sun; for the Lord God giveth them light: and they shall reign for ever and ever.
No night there (ἐκεῖ)

Substitute ἔτι any more. Rev., there shall be night no more.

And he said unto me, These sayings are faithful and true: and the Lord God of the holy prophets sent his angel to shew unto his servants the things which must shortly be done.
The Lord God (Κύριος ὁ Θεὸς)

Rather, as Rev., the Lord, the God.

Of the holy prophets (τῶν ἁγίων προφητῶν)

For ἁγίων holy substitute πνευμάτων spirits, and render, as Rev., the God of the spirits of the prophets.

Be done (γεγέσθαι)

Better, as Rev., come to pass.

Behold, I come quickly: blessed is he that keepeth the sayings of the prophecy of this book.
Keepeth (τηρῶν)

A favorite word with John, occurring in his writings more frequently than in all the rest of the New Testament together. See on reserved 1 Peter 1:4.

Book (βιβλίου)

Diminutive, properly a little book or scroll. See on writing, Matthew 19:7; see on bill, Mark 10:2; see on book, Luke 4:17.

And I John saw these things, and heard them. And when I had heard and seen, I fell down to worship before the feet of the angel which shewed me these things.
I John saw (ἐγὼ Ἱωάννης ὁ βλέπων)

The A.V. overlooks the article with the participle - the one seeing. Hence Rev., correctly, I John am he that heard and saw.

Had heard and seen (ἤκουσα καὶ ἔβλεψα)

Aorist tense. There is no need of rendering it as a pluperfect. Rev., rightly, I heard and saw. The appeal to hearing and seeing is common to all John's writings. See John 1:14; John 19:35; John 21:14; 1 John 1:1, 1 John 1:2; 1 John 4:14.

Then saith he unto me, See thou do it not: for I am thy fellowservant, and of thy brethren the prophets, and of them which keep the sayings of this book: worship God.
See thou do it not (ὅρα μή)

Lit., see not.

Thy brethren the prophets

The spiritual brotherhood of John with the prophets is exhibited in Revelation.

And he saith unto me, Seal not the sayings of the prophecy of this book: for the time is at hand.
Seal (σφραγίσῃς)

Rev., seal up. This word occurs eighteen times in Revelation and twice in the Gospel, and only five times elsewhere in the New Testament. It means to confirm or attest (John 3:33); to close up for security (Matthew 27:66; Revelation 20:3); to hide or keep secret (Revelation 10:4; Revelation 22:10); to mark a person or thing (Revelation 7:3; Ephesians 1:13; Ephesians 4:30)

Time (καιρὸς)

See on Matthew 12:1.

He that is unjust, let him be unjust still: and he which is filthy, let him be filthy still: and he that is righteous, let him be righteous still: and he that is holy, let him be holy still.
Unjust (ἀδικῶν)

Rev., better, unrighteous.

Let him be unjust (ἀδικησάτω)

The verb means to do wickedly. Hence Rev., correctly, let him do unrighteousness.

He which is filthy (ὁ ῥυπῶν)

Only here in the New Testament. On the kindred noun ῥύπος filth, see on 1 Peter 3:21. Ῥυπαρία filthiness occurs only in James 1:21; and the adjective ῥυπαρός filthy only in James 2:2.

Let him be filthy (ῥυπωσάτω)

The best texts read ῥυπανθήτω let him be made filthy. So Rev.

Let him be righteous (δικαιωθήτω)

Read δικαιοσύνην ποιησάτω let him do righteousness. So Rev.

Let him be holy (ἁγιασθήτω)

Rev., giving literally the force of the passive voice, let him be made holy.

And, behold, I come quickly; and my reward is with me, to give every man according as his work shall be.
My reward is with me (ὁ μισθός μου μετ' ἐμοῦ)

Μισθός reward is strictly wages. Compare Isaiah 40:10; Isaiah 62:11. See on 2 Peter 2:13.

To give (ἀποδοῦναι)

Lit., to give back or in return for, thus appropriate to μισθός reward. Hence Rev., better, render. See on give an account, Luke 16:2; and see on gave, Acts 4:33.

Shall be (ἔσται)

Read ἐστιν is.

I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end, the first and the last.
Blessed are they that do his commandments, that they may have right to the tree of life, and may enter in through the gates into the city.
That do His commandments (οἱ ποιοῦντες τὰς ἐντολὰς αὐτοῦ)

Read οἱ πλύνοντες τὰς στολὰς αὐτῶν they that wash their robes. Compare Revelation 7:14.

That they may have right to the tree of life (ἵνα ἔσται ἡ ἐξουσία αὐτῶν ἐπὶ τὸ ξύλον τῆς ζωῆς)

Lit., in order that theirs shall be authority over the tree of life. For ἐξουσία right, authority, see on John 1:12. Ἑπί may be the preposition of direction: "may have right to come to" (so Rev.) or may be rendered over.

For without are dogs, and sorcerers, and whoremongers, and murderers, and idolaters, and whosoever loveth and maketh a lie.
Dogs (οἱ κύνες)

The A.V. omits the article "the dogs." Compare Philippians 3:2. This was the term of reproach with which the Judaizers stigmatized the Gentiles as impure. In the Mosaic law the word is used to denounce the moral profligacies of heathen worship (Deuteronomy 23:18). Compare Matthew 15:26. Here the word is used of those whose moral impurity excludes them from the New Jerusalem. "As a term of reproach, the word on the lips of a Jew, signified chiefly impurity; of a Greek, impudence. The herds of dogs which prowl about Eastern cities, without a home and without an owner, feeding on the refuse and filth of the streets, quarreling among themselves, and attacking the passer-by, explain both applications of the image" (Lightfoot, on Philippians 3:2).


See on Revelation 9:21, and compare Revelation 21:8.

Whoremongers (πόρνοι)

Rev., better, fornicators.

Maketh (ποιῶν)

Or doeth. Compare doeth the truth, John 3:21; 1 John 1:6. See on John 3:21.

I Jesus have sent mine angel to testify unto you these things in the churches. I am the root and the offspring of David, and the bright and morning star.
The root

Compare Isaiah 11:1, Isaiah 11:10. See on Nazarene, Matthew 2:23.

The morning-star

See on Revelation 2:28.

And the Spirit and the bride say, Come. And let him that heareth say, Come. And let him that is athirst come. And whosoever will, let him take the water of life freely.
The Spirit

In the Church.

The Bride

The Church.


The voice of the Spirit and the Bride.

For I testify unto every man that heareth the words of the prophecy of this book, If any man shall add unto these things, God shall add unto him the plagues that are written in this book:
And if any man shall take away from the words of the book of this prophecy, God shall take away his part out of the book of life, and out of the holy city, and from the things which are written in this book.
The Book of Life

Read τοῦ ξύλου the tree. So Rev.

He which testifieth these things saith, Surely I come quickly. Amen. Even so, come, Lord Jesus.
Even so (ναὶ)


The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all. Amen.
Our Lord (ἡμῶν)


With you all (μετὰ πάντων ὑμῶν)

The readings differ. Some read μετὰ πάντων with all, omitting you. Others, μετὰ τῶν ἁγίων with the saints.

Vincent's Word Studies, by Marvin R. Vincent [1886].
Text Courtesy of Internet Sacred Texts Archive.

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