Titus 1:8
But a lover of hospitality, a lover of good men, sober, just, holy, temperate;
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(8) But a lover of hospitality.—It has been suggested that this hospitality would be especially shown in the early centuries of Christianity, when Christians travelling from one place to another were received kindly and forwarded on their journey by their brethren; but the direction of St. Paul has that broader signification, so beautifully worded in the Epistle to the Hebrews, where we are told not to be forgetful to entertain strangers, for thereby some have entertained angels unawares (Hebrews 13:2).

A lover of good men.—Although this rendering is possible, still it is better to understand the Greek word here as alluding to a virtue differing from the “hospitality” just mentioned. “A lover of good” or benevolence generally; the appellation points here to that large heart which finds room for sympathy with all that is good and noble and generous.

Sober.—Better rendered, self-restrained. In this expressive word (sophrona) mastery of self is especially implied—that self-command which wisely regulates pleasures and passions.

Just.—Or, righteous. The man who is just (dikaios) is one who tries strictly to perform his duties towards men—the duties which integrity and justice seem imperatively to ask from him in his relations with his neighbour.

Holy.—The man who is holy studies to be true and faithful in his relations to God, which duties with us largely consist in keeping pure our bodies, the temple of the Holy Spirit. While the “just” man struggles after uprightness before men, the “holy” man aims at a holy purity before God.

Temperate.—This virtue is not to be understood in the usual and more limited sense which has been already specified in “not given to wine” of the preceding verse, but signifies the being temperate—moderate in all things. The model presbyter, the ruler of a congregation of Christians, not only must be able to control his tongue, his eyes, his hands, but must show a just and wise moderation even in pressing things which of themselves are excellent. To do his Master’s work efficiently, he must be able at all times to command himself—to perform that most difficult of all tasks, the tempering zeal with discretion.

1:5-9 The character and qualification of pastors, here called elders and bishops, agree with what the apostle wrote to Timothy. Being such bishops and overseers of the flock, to be examples to them, and God's stewards to take care of the affairs of his household, there is great reason that they should be blameless. What they are not to be, is plainly shown, as well as what they are to be, as servants of Christ, and able ministers of the letter and practice of the gospel. And here are described the spirit and practice becoming such as should be examples of good works.But a lover of hospitality - Notes, 1 Timothy 3:2.

A lover of good men - Margin, "or things." The Greek (φιλάγαθος philagathos) means, a lover of good, and may apply to any thing that is good. It may refer to good men, as included under the general term good; and there is no more essential qualification of a bishop than this. A man who sustains the office of a minister of the gospel, should love every good object, and be ever ready to promote it; and he should love every good man, no matter in what denomination or country he may be found - no matter what his complexion, and no matter what his rank in life; compare the notes at Philippians 4:8.

Sober - Notes, 1 Timothy 1:2.

Just - Upright in his dealings with all. A minister can do little good who is not; compare the notes at Philippians 4:8.

Holy - Pious, or devout. Faithful in all his duties to God; Notes, 1 Timothy 2:8.

Temperate - ἐγκρατῆ egkratē. Having power or control over all his passions. We apply the term now with reference to abstinence from intoxicating liquors. In the Scriptures, it includes not only that, but also much more. It implies control over all our passions and appetites. See it explained in the notes at Acts 24:25; compare 1 Corinthians 7:9; 1 Corinthians 9:25; Galatians 5:23.

8. lover of hospitality—needed especially in those days (Ro 12:13; 1Ti 3:2; Heb 13:2; 1Pe 4:9; 3Jo 5). Christians travelling from one place to another were received and forwarded on their journey by their brethren.

lover of good men—Greek, "a lover of (all that is) good," men or things (Php 4:8, 9).

sober—towards one's self; "discreet"; "self-restrained" [Alford], (see on [2520]1Ti 2:9).

just—towards "men."

holy—towards God (see on [2521]1Th 2:10).

temperate—"One having his passions, tongue, hand and eyes, at command" [Chrysostom]; "continent."

But a lover of hospitality; a lover of strangers: See Poole on "1 Timothy 3:2".

A lover of good men; one that hath a kindness for good men, or who loves all good things.

Sober: See Poole on "1 Timothy 3:2".

Just; just in his dealings between man and man, giving to all their due.

Holy; one that reverenceth and worshippeth God, and is heavenly and spiritual in his conversation.

Temperate; one that restraineth all his evil inclinations and propensions, that hath brought his sensitive appetite under the dominion and government of his reason.

But a lover of hospitality,.... See Gill on 1 Timothy 3:2.

a lover of good men, or "of good"; the Syriac version renders it, "of good things"; as prayer, preaching, reading, meditation, spiritual conversation, and every religious exercise: or "of good men"; for such an elder or bishop has chiefly to do and converse with; and if he is not a lover of them, their company will be disagreeable to him, and he will be of no advantage to them; and if he does not love the souls of men, he will not naturally care for their state, or be concerned for their good.

Sober: in body, using moderation in diet and dress; and in mind, being prudent, modest, and humble, and thinking soberly of himself, and others, as he ought.

Just; righteous in his dealings with men, giving to everyone their due; upright and sincere in his conversation with the saints; and faithful in his counsel, admonitions, and reproofs.

Holy; devout towards God, constant in all religious exercises in the closet, family, and church; and living soberly, righteously, and godly in the world.

Temperate; in eating and drinking; continent from the lusts of the flesh; and even abstaining from those things which might be lawfully used, though inexpedient, for the sake of the weak, the peace of the church, and the glory of God.

But a lover of hospitality, a lover of good men, {k} sober, just, holy, temperate;

(k) Cautious, and of a sound judgment, and of a singular example of moderation.

Titus 1:8. Ἀλλὰ φιλόξενον] see 1 Timothy 3:2.

φιλάγαθον] ἅπ. λεγ. (the opposite in 2 Timothy 3:3), loving either the good or what is good. Chrysostom is inaccurate: τὰ αὐτοῦ πάντα τοῖς δεομένοις προϊέμενος; and Luther: “kindly.”

σώφρονα] see 1 Timothy 3:2.

δίκαιον, ὅσιον] These two ideas are frequently placed together; comp. 1 Thessalonians 2:10; Ephesians 4:24; Plato (Gorg. 507 B) thus distinguishes between them: καὶ μὴν περὶ μὲν ἀνθρώπους τὰ προσήκοντα πράττων δίκαιʼ ἂν πράττοι, περὶ δὲ θεοὺς ὅσια.

δίκαιος is one who does no wrong to his neighbour; ὅσιος is one who keeps himself free from that which stains him in the eyes of God; synonymous with ἄκακος, ἀμίαντος, Hebrews 7:26.

ἐγκρατῆ] ἅπ. λεγ., Chrysostom: τὸν πάθους κρατοῦντα, τὸν καὶ γλώττης, καὶ χειρὸς, καὶ ὀφθαλμῶν ἀκολάστων· τοῦτο γὰρ ἐστὶν ἐγκράτεια, τῷ μηδενὶ ὑποσύρεσθαι πάθει. There is no ground for limiting the word to the relation of the sexes; besides, ἐγκράτεια, and ἐγκρατεύεσθαι in the N. T. hardly convey anything more than the general idea of self-control. The three last qualifications are closely related to each other, describing the conduct of the man towards his neighbour, towards God, towards himself; comp. Titus 2:12.

The positive qualifications in this verse are not direct antitheses to the negative qualifications in the preceding verse; still there is a certain antithesis of cognate ideas. This is the case with μὴ αὐθάδη and φιλόξενον, φιλάγαθον; with μὴ ὀργίλον, μὴ πάροινον, μὴ πλήκτην, and σώφρονα; μὴ αἰσχροκερδῆ and δίκαιον, ὅσιον, ἐγκρατῆ. Still these epithets, though corresponding to one another, are not quite the same in the extent of their application.

Titus 1:8. φιλόξενον: See on 1 Timothy 3:2.

φιλάγαθον: In Wis 7:22, the πνεῦμα which is in σοφία is φιλάγαθον, loving what is good. The epithets which immediately precede and follow φιλάγαθον in Wisd. have no reference to persons, with the exception of φιλάνθρωπον. It seems best, with the R.V., to give the words as wide a reference as possible; see on ἀφιλάγαθοι, 2 Timothy 3:3.

σώφρονα: See notes on 1 Timothy 2:9; 1 Timothy 3:2.

ἐγκρατῆ: The noun ἐγκράτεια occurs Acts 24:25; Galatians 5:23; 2 Peter 1:6, where to the rendering temperance the R.V.m. gives the alternative self-control. The verb ἐγκρατεύομαι in 1 Corinthians 7:9 is to have continency, but in 1 Corinthians 9:25 to be temperate generally. The word differs from σώφρων as having a reference to bodily appetites, while σώφρων has reference also to the desires of the mind. ἐγκράτ. concerns action, σωφρ. thought.

8. a lover of hospitality] As in 1 Timothy 3:2, where its appropriateness to the times is explained.

a lover of good men] An adjective occurring only in N.T. suggested by the similar compound preceding, as with the similar play of words 2 Timothy 3:4, ‘lovers of pleasure rather than lovers of God.’ The contrast there of ‘thing’ and ‘person’ as the object of affection increases the probability of the neuter ‘good’ being intended here rather than the masculine ‘good men;’ but ‘lover’ should be kept as having suggested the phrase, a lover of hospitality, a lover of good.

sober, just, holy, temperate] Rather, pure, righteous, holy, temperate. On the distinction between ‘pure’ and ‘temperate’ see 1 Timothy 3:2; on that between ‘righteous’ and ‘holy’ see 1 Timothy 2:9. The generally drawn distinction of ‘doing one’s duty to man’ (‘righteous’), and ‘to God’ (‘holy’), would mislead there, and so does R.V. following A.V. here in rendering ‘just,’ though substituting ‘righteous’ in such striking passages as Matthew 1:19, ‘Joseph, being a righteous man;’ 1 John 1:9, ‘he is faithful and righteous to forgive us our sins.’ See Dr Westcott’s note on this last verse, ‘The essence of righteousness lies in the recognition and fulfilment of what is due from one to another. Truth passing into action is righteousness.’ On man’s part therefore ‘righteousness’ is duty done to God and to man for God’s sake. So in effect Trench, N. T. Syn. § 88, ‘The second great commandment is not coordinated with the first greatest, but subordinated to and in fact included in it.’

Titus 1:8. Ἐγκρατῆ, temperate) Ἐγκρατῆς and ἀκρατὴς are sometimes taken in a wider sense; comp. Matthew 23:25 (ἀκρασίας, excess), note. The opposite, ἀκραστὴς, is clear, so that it was not necessary to express it; and ἀκρασία, so far as it is opposed to τῇ παροινίᾳ, would not come so much under the eye of Titus.

Verse 8. - Given to for a lover of, A.V.; good for good men, A.V.; sober-minded for sober, A.V. Given to hospitality (φιλόξενον); 1 Timothy 3:2, note. A lover of good (φιλάγαθον) see 2 Timothy 3:3, note on ἀφιλάγαθον. Only here in the New Testament, and only once in the LXX., Wisd. 7:22, where it seems to mean "a lover of that which is good," and where the long string of adjectives is very similar to that here; found occasionally in classical Greek. Sober-minded (σώφρονα); see Titus 2:2, 5, and 1 Timothy 3:2, note. The rendering "discreet" in Titus 2:5 (A.V.) expresses the meaning very well. Just, holy. Δίκαιος is usually considered as describing that side of a good man's character which is in relation to his fellow-men, and ὅσιος that side which has respect to God. Joseph was δίκαιος (Matthew 1:19) in his conduct towards Mary; the Lord Jesus was God's Holy One (τὸν ὅσιόν σου). In classical Greek the words are more commonly applied to things. Ὅσια καὶ δίκαια are things sanctioned by Divine and human laws respectively. Temperate (ἐγκρατῆ); only here in the New Testament, and never in this sense in the LXX.; but it has exactly the same meaning in Aristotle, viz. "master of one's self," having the appetites under control. Titus 1:8A lover of hospitality (φιλόξενον)

Better, hospitable. See on 1 Timothy 3:2.

A lover of good men (φιλάγαθον)

N.T.o. Better, lover of good.

Temperate (ἐγκρατῆ)

N.T.o. Originally, having power over; possessed of; hence, controlling, keeping in hand. Ἑγκράτεια temperance, Acts 24:25; Galatians 5:23; 2 Peter 1:6. Εγκρατεύεσθαι to contain one's self, 1 Corinthians 7:9; 1 Corinthians 9:25.

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