Titus 1:7
For a bishop must be blameless, as the steward of God; not self-willed, not soon angry, not given to wine, no striker, not given to filthy lucre;
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(7) For a bishop must be blameless.—There is no doubt that the “bishop” here must be identified with the presbyter of Titus 1:6. In the Pastoral Epistles written between A.D. 63-67 these terms are clearly applied indifferently to the same person. The title presbyter refers to the gravity and dignity of the office; the title bishop suggests rather the duties which belong to an elder of the church. On the question of bishops, and their position in the early Church, see Note on 1Timothy 3:1, where the grounds for assuming that the episcopal order was formally introduced into church government before the end of this century, and during the lifetime of St. John, are discussed. The Christian bishop, within a quarter of a century after the death of St. Paul, assumed many of the functions and generally discharged the duties of government which were exercised by the Apostles during their lifetime. The presbyter—then writes St. Paul—seeing he is appointed an overseer or bishop (the use of the latter term bishop in the ecclesiastical sense is, however, premature), as God’s steward, as a responsible administrator of the House, that is, of the Church of the Living God, ought indeed be blameless.

Not selfwilled.—He should not be one of those self-loving men who seeks to gratify his own personal ends in the first place, and in consequence is usually regardless of others.

Not soon angry.—Not soon provoked, or not irascible. He should not be one ever ready with an angry, hasty word, remembering always his Master, “who when He was reviled, reviled not again.”

Not given to wine.—While the presbyter is not to be chosen on account of any stern austerities or rigid asceticism he may have practised, he must be known as one “temperate,” moderate, self-denying.

No striker.—Not a brawler. No man of God—above all things, no one holding office in the church—should ever, even under sore provocation, so far forget himself as to raise his hand against his fellow.

Not given to filthy lucre.—The presbyter of the House of God must be above all dreaming of mean and paltry gains. He who is to administer the alms devoted to God must surely do it with clean hands. There is, too, another and a deeper meaning in the words. The presbyter whose mind is at all devoted to the amassing of gold is too preoccupied to be able to fix his thoughts upon those high things of God committed to his charge, among which one of his most important duties is to instruct the flock.

1:5-9 The character and qualification of pastors, here called elders and bishops, agree with what the apostle wrote to Timothy. Being such bishops and overseers of the flock, to be examples to them, and God's stewards to take care of the affairs of his household, there is great reason that they should be blameless. What they are not to be, is plainly shown, as well as what they are to be, as servants of Christ, and able ministers of the letter and practice of the gospel. And here are described the spirit and practice becoming such as should be examples of good works.For a bishop must be blameless - 1 Timothy 3:2.

As the steward of God - See notes, 1 Corinthians 4:1-2. A man, in order to perform the duties of such an office, should be one against whom no accusation could lie.

Not self-willed - Compare 2 Peter 2:10. The word - αὐθάδης authadēs - does not elsewhere occur in the New Testament. It means, properly, self-complacent; and then, assuming, arrogant, imperious; Robinson, Lexicon - The gist of the offence - the very "head and front" - is that of being self-complacent; a trait of character which, of necessity, makes a man imperious, dogmatical, impatient of contradiction, and unyielding. Such a man, evidently, is not fit for the office of a minister of the gospel.

Not soon angry - See notes, 1 Timothy 3:2, and the margin there.

Not given to wine - Notes, 1 Timothy 3:3.

No striker - Notes, 1 Timothy 3:3.

Not given to filthy lucre - In 1 Timothy 3, "Not given of filthy lucre." The same Greek word is used.

7. For … must—The emphasis is on "must." The reason why I said "blameless," is the very idea of a "bishop" (an overseer of the flock; he here substitutes for "presbyter" the term which expresses his duties) involves the necessity for such blamelessness, if he is to have influence over the flock.

steward of God—The greater the master is, the greater the virtues required in His servant [Bengel], (1Ti 3:15); the Church is God's house, over which the minister is set as a steward (Heb 3:2-6; 1Pe 4:10, 17). Note: ministers are not merely Church officers, but God's stewards; Church government is of divine appointment.

not self-willed—literally, "self-pleasing"; unaccommodating to others; harsh, the opposite of "a lover of hospitality" (Tit 1:6); so Nabal (1Sa 25:1-44); self-loving and imperious; such a spirit would incapacitate him for leading a willing flock, instead of driving.

not given to wine—(See on [2518]1Ti 3:3; [2519]1Ti 3:8).

not given to filthy lucre—not making the Gospel a means of gain (1Ti 3:3, 8). In opposition to those "teaching for filthy lucre's sake" (Tit 1:11; 1Ti 6:5; 1Pe 5:2).

For a bishop must be blameless; one that hath an oversight of the church of God, ought to be one whom none can truly tax with any scandalous sin.

As the steward of God; as a chief servant in God’s house, intrusted to dispense his mysteries, 1 Corinthians 4:1, one that should set an example to the under-servants in the house of God.

Not self-willed; not auyadh, one that pleaseth himself, proud, stubborn, pertinacious, confident, &c., having a high opinion of his own person, parts, judgment, or humour; for all this the word signifies.

Not soon angry; orgilon, not too quick and subject to passion; how then shall he in meekness instruct those that are without?

Not given to wine: see the notes on 1 Timothy 3:3, where the same word is used.

No striker, not given to filthy lucre: See Poole on "1 Timothy 3:3", where both these qualifications are mentioned, and opened. For a bishop must be blameless,.... This shows that a bishop and an elder is the same; and the Syriac version here renders it, "an elder"; the character or qualification necessary to him is the same as before, and in like manner to be understood; unless it should more particularly refer to his faithfulness in the discharge of his office: since it follows,

as the steward of God; one appointed by God over his household and family, the church, to give to everyone their portion of meat in due season; one that dispenses the manifold grace, or various doctrines of the grace of God, and mysteries of Christ; and of such an one it is required, that he be faithful, both to his Lord and master, to the trust committed to him, and to the persons under his care.

Not selfwilled; not doing things in the worship and house of God, in the ministry of the word, and administration of ordinances, according to his own will, but according to the will of God, revealed in his word; otherwise what he does will come under the name of will worship: or obstinate, stubborn, and inflexible, conceited of his own sense and judgment, and resolute to have his own will and way in all things relating to the affairs of God's house. The word signifies one that is pleased with himself, has an over weening opinion of himself, is proud and haughty, and despises others:

not soon angry: but slow to wrath, which shows a man to be a man of understanding, and fit to teach others, which an angry man is not. It is a saying of R. Hillell (h), that

"neither one that is ashamed (to ask questions) learns well, nor one that is "angry" teaches well''

And the Jews say (i), that

"the law is not rightly explained but by one that is not angry.''

Hence, that direction (k),

"for ever let a man be meek as Hillell, and not angry as Shammai;''

who were two of their principal doctors, the heads of their schools, in the times of Christ: a man that rules his own spirit, and has the command of his temper and passions, is fit to govern in the church of God.

Not given to wine, no striker, nor given to filthy lucre; See Gill on 1 Timothy 3:3.

(h) Pirke Abot, c. 2. sect. 5. (i) Buxtorf. Lex. Talmud. col. 2026. (k) T. Bab. Sabbat, fol. 30. 2.

{7} For a bishop must be blameless, as the {h} steward of God; not {i} selfwilled, not soon angry, not given to wine, no striker, not given to filthy lucre;

(7) The second admonition: what faults pastors (whom he referred to before under the word elders) ought to be void of, and what virtues they ought to have.

(h) Whom the Lord has appointed steward of his gifts.

(i) Not stubborn and hard to please.

Titus 1:7. Δεῖ γάρ] The statements of Titus 1:6 are now confirmed by alluding to the higher moral necessity; “δεῖ is the emphatic word” (Wiesinger).

τὸν ἐπίσκ. ἀνέγκλητον εἶναι] ἀνέγκλ. is resumed from Titus 1:6, that the thought may be further developed. It is to be noted that the name ἐπίσκοπος appears here; it is given to the presbyter as superintendent of the church. As such “he must not be liable to any reproach, if he is to guide the church” (Wiesinger).

ὡς Θεοῦ οἰκόνομον] is added to give the reason for that higher necessity of the ἀνέγκλ. εἶναι; Heydenreich wrongly turns it to mean simply that he must know how to superintend his house well.

ὡς = “as,” i.e. “since, he is.”

Θεοῦ οἰκόνομος is the bishop in so far as there is committed to him by God authority in the ἐκκλησία as the οἶκος Θεοῦ (1 Timothy 3:15). Mack is not wrong in proving from this expression that the ἐπίσκοποι are not merely “ministers and plenipotentiaries of the church.” Even if they are elected by the church, they bear their office as divine, not exercising it according to the changing pleasure of those by whom they are elected, but according to the will of God.

μὴ αὐθάδη] occurs only here and in 2 Peter 2:10. It is compounded of αὐτός and ἁδέω, and synonymous with αὐτάρεσκος (2 Timothy 3:2 : φίλαυτος), “who in everything behaves arrogantly and regardlessly as seems good in his own eyes;” Luther: “wilful.”

μὴ ὀργίλον] ἅπ. λεγ. “passionate;” οἱ ὀργίλοι ταχέως ὀργίζονται.

μὴ πάροινον] see 1 Timothy 3:3.

μὴ πλήκτην] see also 1 Timothy 3:3.

μὴ αἰσχροκερδῆ] see 1 Timothy 3:8; perhaps with special reference to the opportunities which the bishop had in his office of acquiring gain.

These five negative qualifications are opposed to arrogance, anger, and avarice; several positive qualifications follow.Titus 1:7. τὸν ἐυίσκοπον: On the use of the singular as a generic term See on 1 Timothy 3:2. Here, where the thought is of the various official functions of the minister, the official title is appropriate.

ἀνέγκλητον: See notes on 1 Timothy 3:2; 1 Timothy 3:10.

θεοῦ οἰκονόμον: a steward appointed by God (Luke 12:42; 1 Corinthians 9:17), in the house of God (1 Timothy 3:15), to dispense His mysteries and manifold grace (1 Corinthians 4:1; 1 Peter 4:10). θεοῦ is emphatic, suggesting that the steward of such a Lord should conform to the highest ideal of moral and spiritual qualifications.

αὐθάδη: self-assertive, arrogant. Vulg. has here superbum, but more accurately in 2 Peter 2:10, sibi placentes.

ὀργίλον: passionate, iracundum (Vulg.). The ὀργίλος is one who has not his passion of anger under control.

πάροινον, πλήκτην: See on 1 Timothy 3:3.

μὴ αἰσχροκερδῆ: This negative quality is required in deacons, 1 Timothy 3:8. Persons who are concerned in the administration of small sums must be such as are above the commission of petty thefts. There are no regulations here laid down for deacons; so we are entitled to conclude that in Crete, at this time, presbyters performed the duties of every Church office. Hence they should have the appropriate diaconal virtue. See note on 1 Timothy 3:8. On the other hand, it may be objected against this inference that in 1 Peter 5:2 μὴ αἰσχροκερδῶς is used of the spirit of the ideal presbyter.7. For a bishop must be blameless] Or, as R.V., the bishop. Both are correct and idiomatic; note on 1 Timothy 3:2. ‘Bishop’ here is admitted to refer to the ‘presbyter’ of Titus 1:5, ‘bishop’ describing the nature of the duties assigned, viz. superintendence and pastoral oversight, while ‘presbyter’ refers rather to station and character; the one is official the other personal. See note on 1 Timothy 3:1, Introduction, pp. 15–19, and Appendix, C. Bp Wordsworth well paraphrases here, ‘For he who has the oversight of others ought to be blameless.’

as the steward of God] ‘The director of the house of God; Timothy had been told how he was to conduct himself in “the house of God,” and now Titus is told that every bishop or elder, has similar responsibilities.’ Dr Reynolds. Cf. 1 Corinthians 4:1-2; 1 Peter 4:10. An approved settled Christian life was essential, because recent converts from heathenism might endanger the Christian Church by bringing into it the relics of their heathen life. Even in the 4th century Chrysostom complains that men came to the Holy Communion hustling and kicking one another.

not self-willed, not soon angry] ‘Self-willed,’ ‘headstrong,’ ‘unfeeling,’ occurs only here and 2 Peter 2:10 in N.T. Theophrastus (Char. xv.) describes the character in a way which shews the idea conveyed by the word to be worse than our English ‘self-willed’ implies. He describes it as ‘A certain roughness that shews itself in a man’s whole conversation and behaviour. Ask one of this savage temper if he has seen such a person lately, he answers you, Prithee, friend, don’t be impertinent. If you desire to know the price of anything he has to sell, he grows surly, and asks what fault you find with it? He is inexorable upon the slightest offence; do but chance to tread upon his foot, or push him with your elbow, and he’ll never forget you as long as he lives. If a friend desires to borrow some money of him he at first gives him a flat denial, but upon second thoughts brings it to him, and throwing it down in a churlish manner, Well, here ’tis, says he, but I never expect to see it again. If he stumbles against a stone in the street, he looks back and falls a cursing it.’ Burgell’s Trans. ‘Soon angry,’ ‘irascible,’ ‘choleric,’ only here in N.T., not as Theod. Mops, ‘reminiscentem iram et per longi temporis spatia tenentem,’ i.e. ‘bearing malice.’ The form of the word denotes rather ‘liable to,’ ‘with frequent fits of.’ So the word occurs in the Teaching of the Twelve Apostles, iii. 1, ‘Be not soon angry, for anger leadeth to murder.’ The word for ‘jesting,’ Ephesians 5:4, is from an adjective of similar form, ‘quick at banter.’

not given to wine, no striker] As in 1 Timothy 3:3, not quarrelsome over wine, no striker; see notes there.

not given to filthy lucre] As of the deacons in 1 Timothy 3:8, where see note; elsewhere in N.T. only the adverb, 1 Peter 5:2. Vulg. ‘non turpis lucri cupidum.’ Bp Ellicott (following Huther) refers it especially to ‘dishonesty with the alms of the Church, or any abuse of a spiritual office for purposes of gain.’ The similarly formed word ‘filthy communication,’ Colossians 3:8, is in R.V. ‘shameful speaking’; and it would be clearer to render here not given to unfair gains. ‘Fair gains’ are the parson’s right for fair pains, 1 Timothy 5:18; 2 Timothy 2:6. The phrase ‘filthy lucre’ has come to bear a meaning as if, according to a right and high standard, money per se, rents, tithes, and fees, were all ‘of the earth’ worldly, and unfit to be pressed for by any clergyman who professed to set an example.Titus 1:7. Ὡς Θεοῦ οἰκονόμον, as the steward of God) The greater that the Master is, the greater virtues should be in His servant. Paul calls the ministers of the Gospel the stewards of God, 1 Corinthians 4:1, note. The power, therefore, of a bishop is indeed circumscribed, but he has still some authority. He is a steward, and the steward of God; but a steward has at least some authority and power, something is entrusted to his fidelity and skill; he does not merely use the power of locomotion, he is not an instrument or a machine: the steward of God is not the slave of men, not a drudge or a sutler; only let him be a true steward. This remark needs to be made in opposition to the false politicians, who desire that the ministers of Christ, and the princes, whose name they abuse, and believers and all things, should belong, not to God, not to believers, but to themselves.—μὴ αὐθάδη, not harsh or self-willed) The antithesis is in Titus 1:8, a lover of hospitality; for αὐθάδης, a man harsh, inflexible, neglects humble guests, as Nabal did, 1 Samuel 25; he cares for himself alone, and whatever is connected with himself: others also he bids to keep their own affairs and anxieties to themselves.—μὴ ὀργίλον, not soon angry) The antithesis is a lover of good.—μὴ πάροινον, not given to wine) The antithesis is sober.—μὴ πλήκτην, no striker) The antithesis is just, who decides by reason and equity, not by violence.—μὴ αἰσχροκερδῆ, not covetous of filthy lucre) Base gain (filthy lucre) might be acquired in a matter honourable in itself, as in the work-shop, in bargains and merchandise, in the office of a bishop; Titus 1:11; 1 Timothy 6:5; 2 Corinthians 11:12; 2 Corinthians 11:20; Php 3:19; 1 Peter 5:2; 2 Peter 2:3. The antithesis is ὅσιον, holy.Verse 7. - The for a, A.V.: God's steward for the steward of God, A.V.; no brawler for not given to wine, A.V.; greedy of for given to, A.V. Blameless (see ver. 6). God's steward (οἰκονόμον); comp. 1 Corinthians 4:1, 2; 1 Peter 4:10. (For the office of the steward, see Luke 12:42, 43.) Self-willed (αὐθάδη); elsewhere in the New Testament only in 2 Peter 2:10; in the LXX. Genesis 49:3, 9 and Proverbs 21:24; and common in classical Greek. It is always used in a bad sense - stubborn, harsh, remorseless, and the like. Soon angry (ὀργίλον); only here in the New Testament, found occasionally in the LXX., and common in classical Greek - passionate, quick-tempered, irascible (comp. Ephesians 4:31; Colossians 3:8). Brawler (πάροινον); see 1 Timothy 3:3, note. Striker (1 Timothy 3:3, note). Greedy of filthy lucre (αἰσχροχερδῆ) 1 Timothy 3:3, 8, note. A bishop (τὸν ἐπίσκοπον)

See on 1 Timothy 3:1; see on 1 Timothy 5:1. Rend. the bishop. It will be observed that the qualifications of the elders are fixed by those of the bishop. Appoint elders who shall be unaccused, etc. for the bishop must be unaccused, etc. The overseers must have the qualifications of approved presbyters.

Steward of God (θεοῦ οἰκονόμον)

Comp. 1 Corinthians 4:1, 1 Corinthians 4:2; 1 Peter 4:10; and see on Romans 16:23; see on Luke 16:1. The phrase N.T.o.

Self-willed (αὐθάδη)

Only here and 2 Peter 2:10 (note).

Soon angry (ὀργίλον)

N.T.o. Rarely in lxx and Class. Irascible.

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