Romans 9:24
Even us, whom he has called, not of the Jews only, but also of the Gentiles?
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(24) Even us.—So far the form of the sentence had been abstract—“vessels of wrath,” “vessels of glory.” Now the Apostle explains who are meant by these abstract terms. The “vessels of glory” are those who were intended to accept the Christian teaching, whether Jews or Gentiles. The “vessels of wrath” are the unbelieving mass of the people of Israel.

Romans 9:24-26. Even us, whom he hath called — By his gospel and his grace, to repentance, faith, and holiness, and hath enabled us to obey the call; we are these vessels of mercy, of what nation soever we may be; not of the Jews only — Who have hitherto been the peculiar people of God; but also of the Gentiles — Who are now taken for God’s people, as well as the Jews. As he saith also in Osee, I will call them my people, &c. — These words are quoted from two places of the prophecy of Hosea; (namely, chap. Romans 1:10; Romans 2:23;) and according to the connection in which they there stand, they seem very evidently to refer primarily to God’s purpose of restoring the Jews to the privileges of his people, after they had been a while rejected of him; but nevertheless they are here applied by the apostle to the calling of the Gentiles, which they doubtless were also intended to include. (See the notes on those passages of Hosea.) Indeed, as Dr. Doddridge justly observes, that great event might, with some probability, be inferred, partly from the temporary rejection of the Jews, of which this text also speaks; (for it was not to be imagined that God would have no people in the world;) and partly as it was in the nature of things more probable that he should call the heathen, than that he should restore the Jews, when he had cast them off for such ingratitude, as rendered them less worthy of his favour than the most idolatrous nations. And her beloved — As a spouse; who once was not beloved — Consequently not unconditionally elected. In these words the apostle, nearly following the Septuagint version, rather interprets than quotes Hosea’s words, which are, I will have mercy on her that had not obtained mercy. The expressions of the apostle are different from those of the prophet, but their meaning is the same. “In the beginning of the chapter, Hosea, having described the idolatry of the Jews under the figure of whoredom, and their chastisement by hedging up their way with thorns, foretels their return to their first husband, who would speak comfortably to them, and betroth them a second time. He then adds the words above quoted, which the apostle very properly expresses by, I will call her beloved who was not beloved — That is, I will pardon her, and restore her to her former place in my affection, and to her ancient relation to me, by introducing her into the gospel church. In quoting this passage from Hosea, the apostle begins with the conversion of the Gentiles, because it was to happen first; but the prophet speaks first of the conversion of the Jews.” — Macknight. And it shall come to pass, &c. — Here the apostle quotes Hosea’s words exactly, (see Hosea 1:10,) and that with a view still more fully to show that the conversion of the Gentiles had been foretold, to which this passage more plainly refers than those cited above: that in the place — In the countries; where it was said — To the idolatrous Gentiles; Ye are not my people — Where there was no church formerly, namely, in the times of the Old Testament; there they shall be called — Not only the people, but the children — The sons and daughters; of the living God — For, as the living God, he can easily bring it to pass, however incredible it may appear.9:14-24 Whatever God does, must be just. Wherein the holy, happy people of God differ from others, God's grace alone makes them differ. In this preventing, effectual, distinguishing grace, he acts as a benefactor, whose grace is his own. None have deserved it; so that those who are saved, must thank God only; and those who perish, must blame themselves only, Hos 13:9. God is bound no further than he has been pleased to bind himself by his own covenant and promise, which is his revealed will. And this is, that he will receive, and not cast out, those that come to Christ; but the drawing of souls in order to that coming, is an anticipating, distinguishing favour to whom he will. Why does he yet find fault? This is not an objection to be made by the creature against his Creator, by man against God. The truth, as it is in Jesus, abases man as nothing, as less than nothing, and advances God as sovereign Lord of all. Who art thou that art so foolish, so feeble, so unable to judge the Divine counsels? It becomes us to submit to him, not to reply against him. Would not men allow the infinite God the same sovereign right to manage the affairs of the creation, as the potter exercises in disposing of his clay, when of the same lump he makes one vessel to a more honourable, and one to a meaner use? God could do no wrong, however it might appear to men. God will make it appear that he hates sin. Also, he formed vessels filled with mercy. Sanctification is the preparation of the soul for glory. This is God's work. Sinners fit themselves for hell, but it is God who prepares saints for heaven; and all whom God designs for heaven hereafter, he fits for heaven now. Would we know who these vessels of mercy are? Those whom God has called; and these not of the Jews only, but of the Gentiles. Surely there can be no unrighteousness in any of these Divine dispensations. Nor in God's exercising long-suffering, patience, and forbearance towards sinners under increasing guilt, before he brings utter destruction upon them. The fault is in the hardened sinner himself. As to all who love and fear God, however such truths appear beyond their reason to fathom, yet they should keep silence before him. It is the Lord alone who made us to differ; we should adore his pardoning mercy and new-creating grace, and give diligence to make our calling and election sure.Even us ... - See Romans 1:16; Romans 2:10; Romans 3:29-30. To prove that the Gentiles might be called as well as the Jews, was a leading design of the Epistle.

Us - Christians, selected from both Jews and Gentiles. This proves that he did not refer to nations primarily, but to individuals chosen out of nations. Two things are established here.

(1) that the grace of God was not confined to the Jewish people, as they supposed, so that it could be conferred on no others.

(2) that God was not bound to confer grace on all the descendants of Abraham, as he bestowed it on those selected from the mass, according to his own will, and not of necessity "on the mass" itself.

24. even us, whom he hath called, &c.—rather, "Whom he hath also called, even us," &c., in not only "afore preparing," but in due time effectually "calling us."

not of the Jews, &c.—better, "not from among Jews only, but also from among Gentiles." Here for the first title in this chapter the calling of the Gentiles is introduced; all before having respect, not to the substitution of the called Gentiles for the rejected Jews, but to the choice of one portion and the rejection of another of the same Israel. Had Israel's rejection been total, God's promise to Abraham would not have been fulfilled by the substitution of the Gentiles in their room; but Israel's rejection being only partial, the preservation of a "remnant," in which the promise was made good, was but "according to the election of grace." And now, for the first time, the apostle tells us that along with this elect remnant of Israel, it is God's purpose to "take out of the Gentiles a people for His name" (Ac 28:14); and that subject, thus introduced, is now continued to the end of the eleventh chapter.

Hitherto he hath been showing, that the promise was never made or meant to the carnal seed of Abraham. This argument he began, Romans 9:6,7, and he continues it (using several apostrophes and amplifications, which were to his purpose) till he comes to these words; and here he tells you plainly who are the true seed of Abraham, and the children of the promise, even the called of God of all nations, whether Jews or Gentiles. And he takes occasion to fall into it, by speaking of some in the foregoing verse, that were vessels of mercy, afore prepared unto glory: now here, in this verse, he tells you, who these are; (and to be sure they are the persons he is inquiring after, viz. the spiritual seed of Abraham, and the children of the promise:) he says, they are such as God called; i.e. effectually called,

not of the Jews only, but also of the Gentiles; and that this is so, he further proves in the following verse. Even us whom he hath called,.... From election the apostle proceeds to calling, the fruit and evidence of it, taking the same method he did in Romans 8:30, with a view to treat of the call of the Gentiles, of which he afterwards gives proof from prophecy; whence it appears to be according to divine predestination, upon which prophecy is founded; for God foretells that such a thing will be, because he has foreordained it shall be. These words are explanative of the former, and show who the vessels of mercy are; they are such whom God calls by his grace. Election may be known by calling, as the cause by its effect, and that without an extraordinary revelation. This may as well be known, as man's adoption, justification, and the forgiveness of his sins; for as all the chosen are, and shall be called in time, so all that are truly called by the grace of God, are manifestly, and to a demonstration, the chosen vessels of salvation: if a man is satisfied of his calling, he ought to be equally so of his election, the one being demonstrable by the other; and for such an one to doubt of it, is his sin and crime. Moreover, the above phrase, "afore prepared for glory", is here further explained; to be afore prepared for glory, is no other than to be called, sanctified, and justified, in the name of the Lord Jesus, and by the Spirit of our God; for this is the saints' preparation for glory, before they come to it; and hereby the means are expressed, even sanctification of the Spirit, and belief of the truth, through which God appoints his people unto salvation: now this calling is to be understood, not of a call to any office, as of Aaron to the priesthood, of Saul to the kingdom, of the disciples of Christ to apostleship, or of ministers to the work of the ministry; for persons may be called to the highest office in church and state, as Judas to: apostleship, and Pharaoh to the throne of Egypt, and yet have no share in electing grace: nor of a call by the external ministry of the word, which is often slighted, despised, and of none effect; in this sense many are called, who are not chosen: but of a call that is by the powerful, efficacious, and irresistible grace of God; a call that is internal, that reaches the heart, and not the ear only: a special one that is peculiar to God's elect, is by special grace, and is to special blessings, as both grace and glory; it is an high, heavenly, and holy calling, and is without repentance; between which and glorification, as between it and eternal election, there is a close and an inseparable connection. The objects of this grace follow,

not of the Jews only, but also of the Gentiles; not all the Jews, nor all the Gentiles, but some of each; as all are not chosen, all are not redeemed, only some out of every kindred, tongue, nation, and people; so not all, but some only are called by grace: and this is not peculiar to the Jews, it reaches to the Gentiles also; and under the present dispensation, to the far greater number of them.

{24} Even us, whom he hath called, not of the {a} Jews only, but also of the Gentiles?

(24) Having established the doctrine of the eternal predestination of God on both parts, that is, on the part of the reprobate as well as of the elect, he comes now to show its use, teaching us that we ought not to seek its testimony in the secret counsel of God, but by the calling which is made manifest, and set forth in the Church, propounding to us the example of the Jews and Gentiles, that the doctrine may be better perceived.

(a) He does not say that each and every one of the Jews are called, but some of the Jews, and some of the Gentiles.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
Romans 9:24. Not a confirmation of the design of the divine endurance expressed in Romans 9:23 (Hofmann), but as the continuation of the relative construction most readily suggests, the concrete more precise designation of those intended by σκεύη ἐλέους, and that for the confirmation of what was said of them by ἃ προητοίμασεν εἰς δόξαν. The καί denotes what is added to this προητοίμ. . δ.: as which σκεύη He has also called us to this glory of the Messianic kingdom.

οὕς] attracted by ἡμᾶς into the same gender. See Bernhardy, p. 302; Winer, p. 156 f. [E. T. 207]. The relative after an interrogative sentence has the emphasis of an οὗτος γάρ (Kühner, ad Xen. Mem. i. 2. 64); but the masculine is first introduced here, not in the preceding relative sentence (against Hofmann’s objection), because the neuter expression ἃ προητοίμ. was required by the conformity with the correlate κατηρτισμένα.

οὐ μόνον κ.τ.λ.] Therefore without preference of the Jews. “Judaeus credens non est eo ipso vocatus, quod Judaeus est, sed vocatus est ex Judaeis,” Bengel.24. even us] Lit., and better, whom also he called, us, &c. The “also” or “even” goes with the verb, and seems to indicate that the “afore-preparation” is rather that of the electing purpose of God than that of personal sanctification (which is, however, the sure sequel of the other). Q. d., “He fore-ordained to glory the vessels of mercy, and then proceeded actually to call them to grace.”

hath called] Better, called. See on Romans 8:28.

not of the Jews only] Here St Paul reminds us of the special subject of this discussion; the apparent rejection of Israel. By the true heirs of Abraham was all along meant the church of the elect; those who should be “called” and should “love God.” In the Mosaic age these were but some of the bodily Israel; in the Christian age they were largely found outside that Israel. But in both cases the Promise, in its true intention, was fulfilling. He now quotes in proof of that true intention.Romans 9:24. Οὓς καὶ, whom also) καὶ, also, in chap. Romans 8:30, Cluverus: whom (having been previously prepared for glory) He hath also called.—ἐκάλεσεν, called) in some respects an antithesis to, He endured, Romans 9:22. Again, I will call, occurs in the next verse.—ἡμᾶς, us) This gnome[114] leads Paul to come to the proposition respecting grace, which is laid open to Jews and Gentiles; and he proceeds to refute the Jewish Particularism, and to defend the universality of grace.—οὐ μόνον ἐξ, not only from) The believing Jew is not called on the very ground that he is a Jew, but he is called from the Jews. This is the root of the word ἐκκλησία. [The epistle to the Ephesians most especially corresponds to this whole section, as well as to the exhortation, chapters 14, 15, deduced from it.—V. g.]—ἐξ Ἰουδαίων, from the Jews) He treats of this at Romans 9:27.—ἐξ ἐθνῶν, from the Gentiles) He treats of this, Romans 9:25, etc.

[114] ‘Noëma,’ a gnome or religious and moral sentiment appertaining to human life and action.—See Appendix.Called - of

Compare Romans 8:30. For of, read from (ἐξ), as Rev. From among.

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