The enemy shall not exact on him; nor the son of wickedness afflict him.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)Exact.—This meaning is possible, and is supported by the LXX. and Vulgate, “shall not get profit.” There may be an allusion to Deuteronomy 15:6, but perhaps it is better to take the verb in the same sense as the Hebrew margin of Psalm 55:15, “shall not surprise him;” Symmachus has, “lead him astray.”Matthew 18:25, Matthew 18:28. Then it is used to denote oppression, or subjugation, which is the idea here. The enemy shall not be suffered to act the part of one who rigidly exacts the payment of a debt; that is, he shall not be allowed to oppress him.
Nor the son of wickedness afflict him - This is copied almost literally from 2 Samuel 7:10. The phrase "the son of wickedness" means simply the wicked. He shall not fall into the hands, or under the power of wicked men.Not exact upon him; not conquer him, or make him tributary. Or, shall not deceive or circumvent him, as this word is used, Genesis 3:13 2 Kings 18:29.
Afflict him, to wit, so as to overthrow or destroy him. Matthew 13:39, the implacable enemy of Christ and his church; and yet, notwithstanding all his enmity and malice, he could not "exact", or get more inflicted on him, than the law and justice of God required of him, as the sinner's surety; or could not "exact" a tribute of him, or make him tributary to him; or, in other words, conquer him, and subject him to him: so far from it, that he was conquered by Christ, and all his principalities and powers spoiled; or could not "deceive" him, in which sense the word (b) is sometimes used; and so the Targum here: though he deceived Eve, he could not deceive the Messiah, the seed of the woman; he tried it, in person, by his temptations in the wilderness, and by his agents and instruments, the Scribes and Pharisees: but in vain, and to no purpose; he could not succeed:
nor the son of wickedness afflict him: at least not always: he was indeed afflicted, as by wicked men, and by Satan the wicked one, yet not so as to be overcome by any; and as Christ personal, so Christ mystical, or his church and people, are afflicted by the sons of wickedness; yet, sooner or later, they are delivered out of all their afflictions. Antichrist, that man of sin, and son of perdition, that wicked one, that is eminently so, and may be well called "the son of wickedness", has long and greatly oppressed the people of Christ, and his interest; but he shall not always; he shall be destroyed with the spirit of his mouth, and with the brightness of his coming, 2 Thessalonians 2:3. This passage is applied to the Messiah by the Jews (c).The enemy shall not exact upon him; nor the son of wickedness afflict him.
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)22. shall not exact upon him] Shall not oppress him as a creditor oppresses a debtor. But the sense is doubtful, and the word probably means surprise him, fall upon him unawares, as in Psalm 55:15.
nor the son of wickedness afflict him] The phrase is taken from 2 Samuel 7:10, where however it is applied to the people.Verse 22. - The enemy shall not exact upon him; nor the son of wickedness afflict him (see 2 Samuel 7:10, which has supplied the very words of the second clause). Psalm 84:5). תּרוּעה is the festive sound of joy of the mouth (Numbers 23:21), and of trumpets or sackbuts (Psalm 27:6). This confirmation of the blessing is expanded in Psalm 89:17-19. Jahve's שׁם, i.e., revelation or manifestation, becomes to them a ground and object of unceasing joy; by His צדקה, i.e., the rigour with which He binds Himself to the relationship He has entered upon with His people and maintains it, they are exalted above abjectness and insecurity. He is תּפארת עזּמו, the ornament of their strength, i.e., their strength which really becomes an ornament to them. In Psalm 89:18 the poet declares Israel to be this happy people. Pinsker's conjecture, קרנם (following the Targum), destroys the transition to Psalm 89:19, which is formed by Psalm 89:18. The plural reading of Kimchi and of older editions (e.g., Bomberg's), קרנינוּ, is incompatible with the figure; but it is immaterial whether we read תּרים with the Chethb (Targum, Jerome), or with the Ker (lxx, Syriac) תּרוּם.
(Note: Zur Geschichte des Karaismus, pp. קפא and קפב, according to which, reversely, in Joshua 5:1 עברוּ is to be read instead of עברם, and Isaiah 33:2 זרענוּ instead of זרעם, Psalm 12:8 תשמרנּוּ instead of תשמרם, Micah 7:19 חטאתנוּ instead of חטאתם, Job 32:8 תביננּוּ instead of תבינם, Proverbs 25:27 כבודנוּ instead of כבודם (the limiting of our honour brings honour, - an unlikely interpretation of the חקר).)
מגנּנוּ and מלכּנוּ in Psalm 89:19 are parallel designations of the human king of Israel; מגן as in Psalm 47:10, but not in Psalm 84:10. For we are not compelled, with a total disregard of the limits to the possibilities of style (Ew. 310, a), to render Psalm 89:19: and the Holy One of Israel, (as to Him, He) is our King (Hitzig), since we do not bring down the Psalm beyond the time of the kings. Israel's shield, Israel's king, the poet says in the holy defiant confidence of faith, is Jahve's, belongs to the Holy One of Israel, i.e., he stands as His own possession under the protection of Jahve, the Holy One, who has taken Israel to Himself for a possession; it is therefore impossible that the Davidic throne should become a prey to any worldly power.
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