Luke 24:44
And he said unto them, These are the words which I spake unto you, while I was yet with you, that all things must be fulfilled, which were written in the law of Moses, and in the prophets, and in the psalms, concerning me.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(44) These are the words which I spake unto you.—As with the travellers to Emmaus, so now with the Ten who were present, our Lord leads His disciples to the true method of interpreting the prophecies which foretold the Christ. And that method was not an afterthought. It had been given in hints and outlines before; now they were led to see it in its fulness. The three-fold division of the Law, the Prophets (including most of the historic books), and the Psalms (the latter term standing for the whole of the Kethubim, the Hagiographa or “holy writings,” of which the Psalms were the most conspicuous portion), corresponded to that which was in common use among the Jews. (See General Introduction I.The Books of the New Testament.)

Luke 24:44-48. And he said to them — Not, as appears, on the day of his resurrection, but on that of his ascension. These are the words which I spake to you — In private, frequently; while I was yet with you — Dwelling among you: we should better understand what Christ does, if we did but better remember what he hath said; that all must be fulfilled which is written in the law of Moses, and the prophets, and the psalms — Under these three, the Jews were wont to comprehend all the books of the Old Testament. Under the name law, the five books called the pentateuch were included; the chief of the historical books were joined with the prophets, and all the rest with the psalms. The prophecies, as well as types, relating to the Messiah, are contained in one or other of these books. Then opened he their understanding to understand the Scriptures — Especially in their reference to him. He had explained many parts of them before, repeatedly, in the course of his ministry, and since his resurrection, especially to the two as they went to Emmaus. But still they understood them not, till he took off the veil from their hearts, by the illumination of his Spirit. And he said, Thus it is written, &c. — Thus Moses and the prophets foretold that the Messiah should suffer, and rise from the dead on the third day, as Jesus had done; so that, if they had understood the Scriptures, instead of being stumbled at these events, and finding their faith in him as the Messiah shaken by them, they would thereby have found it confirmed. And that repentance and remission of sins — The two principal doctrines of the gospel, inclusive of, or leading to, all the others; should be preached — As they continually were by the apostles, both to Jews and Gentiles. And should they not still be preached? are they not as necessary to be preached as ever? in his name — In imitation of his example as a prophet; through his mediation and grace as a priest; and by his authority and ordinance, as a king; among all the Gentile nations — As well as among the Jews; beginning at Jerusalem — In God’s visible church, where there had long been the greatest light, and the greatest privileges and advantages; where the greatest blessings had been abused, and the greatest guilt contracted; and where, in a little time, judgment would begin, as mercy was to begin now. That the heralds of divine grace should begin at Jerusalem, was appointed both graciously and wisely; graciously, as it encouraged the greatest sinners to repent, when they saw that even the murderers of Christ were not excepted from mercy; and wisely, as hereby Christianity was more abundantly attested, the facts being published first on the very spot where they happened. And ye are witnesses of these things — Chosen of God, and appointed to be such; namely, witnesses of Christ’s life, doctrine, and miracles, and especially of his death, resurrection, and ascension.

24:36-49 Jesus appeared in a miraculous manner, assuring the disciples of his peace, though they had so lately forsaken him, and promising spiritual peace with every blessing. Many troublesome thoughts which disquiet our minds, rise from mistakes concerning Christ. All the troublesome thoughts which rise in our hearts at any time, are known to the Lord Jesus, and are displeasing to him. He spake with them on their unreasonable unbelief. Nothing had passed but what was foretold by the prophets, and necessary for the salvation of sinners. And now all men should be taught the nature and necessity of repentance, in order to the forgiveness of their sins. And these blessings were to be sought for, by faith in the name of Jesus. Christ by his Spirit works on the minds of men. Even good men need to have their understandings opened. But that we may have right thoughts of Christ, there needs no more than to be made to understand the Scriptures.These are the words - Or this is the "fulfillment" of what I before told you respecting my death. See Luke 18:33; Mark 10:33.

While I was yet with you - Before my death. While I was with you as a teacher and guide.

In the law of Moses - The five books of Moses - Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy. Among the Jews this was the first division of the Old Testament, and was called the "law."

The prophets - This was the second and largest part of the Hebrew Scriptures. It comprehended the books of Joshua, Judges, 1st and 2nd Samuel, 1st and 2nd Kings, which were called the "former prophets;" and Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and the twelve smaller books from Daniel, to Malachi, which were called the "latter prophets."

The psalms - The word here used probably means what were comprehended under the name of "Hagiographa," or holy writings. This consisted of the Psalms, Proverbs, Job, Song of Solomon, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, Esther, Daniel, Ezra, and Nehemiah, and the two books of Chronicles. This division of the Old Testament was in use long before the time of Christ, and was what he referred to here; and he meant to say that in "each of" these divisions of the Old Testament there were prophecies respecting himself. The "particular" subject before them was his "resurrection from the dead." A most striking prediction of this is contained in Psalm 16:9-11. Compare it with Acts 2:24-32; Acts 13:35-37.

44-49. These are the words, &c.—that is, "Now you will understand what seemed so dark to you when I told you about the Son of man being put to death and rising again" (Lu 18:31-34).

while … yet with you—a striking expression, implying that He was now, as the dead and risen Saviour, virtually dissevered from this scene of mortality, and from all ordinary intercourse with His mortal disciples.

law … prophets … psalms—the three Jewish divisions of the Old Testament Scriptures.

The Jews ordinarily divided the Old Testament into the law, the prophets, and the holy writings, which they called the Hagiographa. The Book of Psalms was one of the last sort, and one of the most noted amongst them. So as by these three terms our Saviour understands all the Scriptures of the Old Testament. He tells them, that he had before his death, while he conversed with them, told them that all things (which were very many) which were found in any of these books concerning him must be fulfilled: he had told them so, Luke 18:31 Matthew 16:21 17:22 20:18 Mark 9:31 10:34.

And he said unto them, these are the words which I spake unto you,.... Or this is the substance of them, the sense and meaning of them; for what follows, we do not find any where expressed in so many words:

while I was yet with you; that is, whilst he was in his state of humiliation, whilst he dwelt among them, and had his abode with them; otherwise he was now with them, but not to continue with them; in a short time he was to ascend to his God, and their God, to his Father, and their Father:

that all things must be fulfilled, which were written in the law of Moses, and in the Prophets, and in the Psalms, concerning me: concerning his sufferings, and death, and resurrection from the dead, spoken of in Genesis 3:15 Psalm 16:10 and in this he refers to what he had said to his disciples in Matthew 16:21 and alludes to the usual distinction among the Jews of the books of the Old Testament into the Law, the Prophets, and the Hagiographa; among which last stands the book of Psalms, and is put for the whole; a division often to be met with in both their Talmuds (a), and other writings (b).

(a) T. Hieros. Shekalim, fol. 47. 3. T. Bab. Moed Katon, fol. 15. 1. & 18. 2. & 21. 1. Roshhashana, fol. 32. 1. Taanith, fol. 8. 1. & 16. 1. & 20. 1. & 30. 1. Megilla, fol. 21. 2. & 24. 1. Bava Bathra, fol. 8. 1. & 13. 2. & Sanhedrin, fol. 106. 1.((b) Zohar in Lev. fol. 39. 2.

{7} And he said unto them, These are the words which I spake unto you, while I was yet with you, that all things must be fulfilled, which were written in the law of Moses, and in the prophets, and in the psalms, concerning me.

(7) The preaching of the gospel, which was promised to the prophets, and performed in his time, is committed unto the apostles, the sum of which is repentance and remission of sins.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
Luke 24:44. Εἶπεν δὲ αὐτοῖς] after the eating; a continuation of the same scene. According to the simple narrative, it is altogether unwarrantable to place an interval between these two passages.[277] No impartial reader could do this, and how easy would it have been for Luke to give a hint to that effect!

οὗτοι οἱ λόγοι κ.τ.λ.] these (namely, that I—as ye have now convinced yourselves—after my sufferings and death have actually arisen) are the words (in their realization, namely) which I spoke to you while I was yet with you, to wit, that all things must he fulfilled, etc. (the substance of the λόγοι). Jesus assuredly often actually said this to them, according to the substance generally. Comp. Luke 18:31 f., Luke 22:37; Matthew 26:56, and elsewhere.

ἔτι ὢν σὺν ὑμ.] for by death He was separated from them, and the earlier association with them was not, moreover, now again after the resurrection restored.[278]

ἘΝ Τῷ ΝΌΜῼ Μ. Κ. ΠΡΟΦ. Κ. ΨΑΛΜΟῖς] certainly contains in itself that which is essential of the Jewish tripartite division of the Canon into law (תוֹרָה), prophets (נְבִיאִים), and Hagiographa (כְּתוּבִים). Under the law was reckoned merely the Pentateuch; under the prophets, Joshua, Judges , 1 James , 2 d Samuel, 1James , 2 d Kings (נְבִיאִים רִאשׁוֹנִים), and the prophets properly so called, except Daniel (נְבִיאִים אַהֲרו̇נִים); under the Hagiographa, all the rest of the canonical Scriptures, including Daniel, Esther, Ezra and Nehemiah (the two reckoned together as one book), and Chronicles. See Bava Bathra f. xiv. 2; Lightfoot, p. 900. Yet, according to the use of προφητ. and ψαλμ. elsewhere (comp. Luke 20:42) from the mouth of Jesus, it is not to be assumed that He by these two designations intended to express that definite literary historical extent of the נביאים, and the whole of the Hagiographa. He means the prophets proper who have prophesied of Him (Luke 24:25), from whom He certainly, moreover, did not think Daniel excluded (Matthew 24:15); and by ΨΑΛΜ., the actual Psalms in the accustomed sense as that portion of the Scripture in which, besides the law and the prophets, the Messianic prophecy is chiefly deposited. Moreover, observe the non-repetition of the article before ΠΡΟΦ. and ΨΑΛΜ., whereby the three portions appear in their connection as constituting one whole of prophecy.

[277] But to say, with Ebrard, p. 596, that the passage vv. 44–49 depicts in general the whole of the teaching communicated to the disciples by Christ after His resurrection, is just as marvellous a despairing clutch of harmonistics. So also older harmonists, and even Grotius. Wieseler, in the Chronol. Synopse, p. 423 f., like Bengel and others, places between ver. 43 and ver. 44 the forty days, after the lapse of which ver. 44 ff. is spoken on the day of the ascension. But his proof depends on the presupposition that in the Gospel and in Acts 1. Luke must needs follow the same tradition in respect of the time of the ascension. The separation of ver. 44 from what precedes ought not only to have been prevented by the use of the δέ (comp. on ver. 50), but also by the use of the οὗτοι, referring as it does to what goes before. Lange, L. J. II. 3, p. 1679, represents ver. 45, beginning with τότε διὴνοιξεν κ.τ.λ., as denoting the forty days’ ministry of Jesus begun on that evening; for he maintains that the unfolding of the knowledge did not occur in a moment. But why not? At least there needed no longer time for that purpose than for the instructions of ver. 27. Rightly, Hofmann, Schriftbew. II. 2, p. 5, declares himself opposed to separations of that kind; nevertheless, he afterwards comes back to a similar arbitrary interpolation of the forty days in vv. 45–49. If the place for the forty days has first been found here, there is indeed sufficient room to place the direction of ver. 49, καθίσατε ἐν τῇ πόλει κ.τ.λ., first after the return of the disciples from Galilee, as Lange does; but Luke does not, since he here absolutely excludes a withdrawal on their part to Galilee. Ewald rightly recognises (Gesch. des Apost. Zeitalt. p. 93) that Luke limits all appearances of the Risen One to the resurrection Sunday. So also, impartially, Bleek, Holtzmann.

[278] Grotius well says: “nam tunc tantum κατʼ οἰκονομίαν illis aderat.”

Luke 24:44-49. Parting words.—εἶπε δὲ αὐτοῖς: it is at this point, if anywhere, that room must be made for an extended period of occasional intercourse between Jesus and His disciples such as Acts 1:3 speaks of. It is conceivable that what follows refers to another occasion. But Lk. takes no pains to point that out. His narrative reads as if he were still relating the incidents of the same meeting. In his Gospel the post-resurrection scenes seem all to fall within a single day, that of the resurrection.—οὗτοι οἱ λόγοι, etc., these are the words. With Euthy. Zig. we naturally ask: which? (οὗτοι· ποῖοι; and there he leaves it). Have we here the concluding fragment of a longer discourse not given by Lk., possibly the end of a document containing a report of the words of Jesus generally (so J. Weiss in Meyer)? As they stand in Lk.’s narrative the sense must be: these events (death and resurrection) fulfil the words I spoke to you before my death. If that be the meaning the mode of expression is peculiar.—ἐν τ. ν. Μωσέως, etc.: Moses, Prophets, Psalms, a unity (no article before προφήταις or ψαλμοῖς) = the whole O.T. canon. So most. Or, these three parts of the O.T. the main sources of the Messianic proof (Meyer, Hahn, etc.). The latter the more likely.

44. These are the words] i.e. this is the meaning of the words.

which I spake unto you] Luke 18:31; Matthew 16:21.

while I was yet with you] Important as shewing that the forty days between the Resurrection and the Ascension were not intended to be a continuous sojourn with the Disciples, or an integral portion of the Lord’s human life.

which were written] See on Luke 24:26-27.

the law...the prophets., the psalms] This corresponds with the (possibly later) Jewish division of the Old Testament into the Pentateuch, Prophets, and Ketubhim (Hagiographa).

Luke 24:44. Εἶπε, He said) namely, on the day of the Ascension. See Luke 24:50, with which comp. Acts 1:2; Acts 1:5; Acts 1:9.[273]—ἔτι, as yet) It was a thing sad to hear of, before that it took place; but now most joyous, when it has taken place.—ἐν τῷ νόμῳ, κ.τ.λ., in the law, etc.) Here we have the division of the Hebrew Bible [the Law, the Prophets, and the Hagiographa],—προφήταις, the Prophets) the former and later Prophets. It is in reference to the former ones, that the Prophets are put before the Psalms. As to the Twelve especially, see Sir 49:12.—ψαλμοῖς, the Psalms) The Hagiographa, the foremost place in which is occupied by the Psalms, a remarkable portion of the Scriptures, in which also the subject of Christ and His kingdom is most copiously discussed. See note on Hebrews 10:8 [which quotes Psalm 40:6, “Sacrifice and offering Thou didst not desire—then said I, Lo, I come,” etc.; proving the great authority of the Psalms].

[273] Verse 47, “Beginning at Jerusalem.” accords with Acts 1:8, “Ye shall be witnesses to Me, both in Jerusalem,” etc., spoken just before the Ascension.—E. and T.

Verses 44-49. - A summary of some of the Lord's last words. The next six verses do not record sayings uttered the same first Easter evening. They are, in fact, a very brief summary of instructions given by the Master on different occasions during the forty days which elapsed between the Resurrection and the Ascension. In considering the reasons of the omission of any special reference to the Galilaean appearances of the risen Lord, two points must be borne in mind.

(1) Neither Luke nor Paul had any personal reminiscences, like Matthew, or Mark (who wrote down, we believe, St. Peter's memories), or St. John. Luke was dependent on other sources altogether.

(2) Luke, when he wrote the Gospel bearing his name, probably proposed to complete his recital of the close of the earthly ministry of the Lord in his second work, the Acts of the Apostles. His knowledge of what took place after the Resurrection was evidently derived from a source unfamiliar with the Galilaean manifestations of the risen Lord. St. Luke's knowledge of the Ascension seems to have been most precise. He evidently lays great stress upon the importance of this last scene, both as a piece of evidence and as a theme of teaching; for he not only concludes his Gospel with it, but commences his book of the Acts with the same recital, accompanied with further details. Verse 44. - And he said unto them, These are the words which I spoke unto you, while I was yet with you, that all things must be fulfilled, which were written in the Law of Moses, and in the prophets, and in the Psalms, concerning me. The words, "while I was yet with you," plainly show that, in the Master's mind, the period of his sojourn with men was, in the human sense of the expression, past. His abode now was elsewhere. This and the next verse (45) probably refer to what the Master said that first Easter evening to the assembled disciples, but the exact fixing the time in the forty days (the time specially mentioned by St. Luke in the Acts as elapsing between the Resurrection and the Ascension, Acts 1:3) is of comparatively small importance. What is, however, of real moment is the weight Jesus showed that he attached to Old Testament words and types and prophecies by this repeated mention. The remarks of Meyer and Van Oosterzee on this subject are well worthy of being quoted: "If the exegete should read the Old Testament Scriptures without knowing to whom and to what they everywhere point, the New Testament clearly directs his understanding, and places him under an obligation, if he would be a sound Christian teacher, to acknowledge its authority and interpret accordingly. Doubt as to the validity of our Lord and of his apostles' method of expounding, involves necessarily a renunciation of Christianity" (Meyer). "They who consult the teaching of Jesus and his apostles with respect to the prophecies concerning the Messiah, need not grope in uncertainty, but should, nevertheless, remember that the Lord probably directed the attention of the disciples, on this occasion (he is referring to the walk to Emmaus), less to isolated Scriptures than to the whole tenor of the Old Testament in its typical and symbolical character" (Van Oosterzee). Luke 24:44The words

The best texts insert my.

Must (δεῖ)

See on ought not, Luke 24:26.

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