Leviticus 4:20
And he shall do with the bullock as he did with the bullock for a sin offering, so shall he do with this: and the priest shall make an atonement for them, and it shall be forgiven them.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
Leviticus 4:20. For a sin-offering — That is, for the priest’s sin-offering, called the first bullock, Leviticus 4:21.4:13-21 If the leaders of the people, through mistake, caused them to err, an offering must be brought, that wrath might not come upon the whole congregation. When sacrifices were offered, the persons, on whose behalf they were devoted, were to lay their hands on the heads of the victims, and to confess their sins. The elders were to do so, when the sacrifices were offered for the whole congregation. The load of sin was supposed then to be borne by the guiltless animal. When the offering is completed, it is said, atonement is made, and the sin shall be forgiven. The saving of churches and kingdoms from ruin, is owing to the satisfaction and mediation of Christ.The altar ... in the tabernacle - i. e. the altar of incense (compare Leviticus 4:5-7). 13-21. if the whole congregation of Israel sin through ignorance—In consequence of some culpable neglect or misapprehension of the law, the people might contract national guilt, and then national expiation was necessary. The same sacrifice was to be offered as in the former case, but with this difference in the ceremonial, that the elders or heads of the tribes, as representing the people and being the principal aggressors in misleading the congregation, laid their hands on the head of the victim. The priest then took the blood into the holy place, where, after dipping his finger in it seven times, he sprinkled the drops seven times before the veil. This done, he returned to the court of the priests, and ascending the altar, put some portion upon its horns; then he poured it out at the foot of the altar. The fat was the only part of the animal which was offered on the altar; for the carcass, with its appurtenances and offals, was carried without the camp, into the place where the ashes were deposited, and there consumed with fire. For a sin-offering, to wit, for the priest’s sin-offering, called the first bullock. Leviticus 4:21. And the priest that is anointed shall bring of the bullock's blood,.... That is, the chief priest, as the Targums of Onkelos and Jonathan explain it:

to the tabernacle of the congregation; as he brought the blood of his own bullock, Leviticus 4:5 from hence to the Leviticus 4:16 an account is given of the same rites to be observed in the sin offering, for the congregation, as for the anointed priest; See Gill on Leviticus 4:6, Leviticus 4:7, Leviticus 4:12.

And he shall do with the bullock as he did with the bullock for a sin offering, so shall he do with this: and the priest shall make an atonement for them, and it shall be forgiven them.
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
20. the bullock of the sin offering] i.e. the bullock referred to in Leviticus 4:3-12; called ‘the first bullock’ in Leviticus 4:21.

Another law in Numbers 15:22-26 prescribes an offering to be brought by the whole congregation which differs from that here enjoined, viz. a young bullock for a Burnt-Offering with the accompanying Meal-Offering and Drink-Offering, and a he-goat for a Sin-Offering. The most probable explanation of the divergence is that the laws are from different sources.

Jewish tradition interprets ‘the congregation’ in this section as referring to the Sanhedrin, and ‘the assembly’ as meaning the children of Israel. If the Sanhedrin were to give a wrong decision on some point of observance, thereby causing the people who followed such decision to transgress, then the sacrifice enjoined in this section would be necessary. A short treatise of the Mishna (Horaioth) discusses decisions of this kind, and the circumstances under which the sacrifice of Leviticus 4:13-21 should be brought. This interpretation was probably prompted by a desire to reconcile this law with that of Numbers 15:22-26. But in Leviticus 4:13-21 the words ‘assembly’ and ‘congregation’ denote the same thing, the whole community. Note that in Leviticus 4:14; Leviticus 4:21 the rendering ‘congregation’ of A.V. is corrected in R.V. to ‘assembly,’ the Heb. word ḳâhâl being the same as in Leviticus 4:13 where both R.V. and A.V. translate ‘assembly.’Sin of the whole congregation. - This is still further defined, as consisting in the fact that the thing was hid (נעלּם)

(Note: In the correct editions נעלּם has dagesh both here and in Leviticus 5:2, Leviticus 5:4, as Delitzsch informs me, according to an old rule in pointing, which required that every consonant which followed a syllable terminating with a guttural should be pointed with dagesh, if the guttural was to be read with a quiescent sheva and not with chateph. This is the case in ויּאסּר in Genesis 46:29; Exodus 14:6, תּעלּים in Psalm 10:1, and other words in the critical edition of the Psalter which has been carefully revised by Bהr according to the Masora, and published with an introduction by Delitzsch. In other passages, such as בּכל־לּבּי Psalm 9:2, על־לּשׁנו Psalm 15:3, etc., the dagesh is introduced to prevent the second letter from being lost in the preceding one through the rapidity of reading. - Ewald's conjectures and remarks about this "dagesh, which is found in certain MSS," is a proof that he was not acquainted with this rule which the Masora recognises.)

from the eyes of the congregation, i.e., that it was a sin which was not known to be such, an act which really violated a commandment of God, though it was not looked upon as sin. Every transgression of a divine command, whether it took place consciously or unconsciously, brought guilt, and demanded a sin-offering for its expiation; and this was to be presented as soon as the sin was known. The sin-offering, which the elders had to offer in the name of the congregation, was to consist of a young ox, and was to be treated like that of the high priest (Leviticus 4:14-23 compared with Leviticus 4:3-12), inasmuch as "the whole congregation" included the priesthood, or at any rate was on an equality with the priesthood by virtue of its calling in relation to the Lord. חטא with על signifies to incur guilt upon (on the foundation of) sin (Leviticus 5:5, etc.); it is usually construed with an accusative (Leviticus 4:3, Leviticus 4:28; Leviticus 5:6, Leviticus 5:10, etc.), or with בּ, to sin with a sin (Leviticus 4:23; Genesis 42:22). The subject of ושׁחט (Leviticus 4:15) is one of the elders. "The bullock for a sin-offering:" sc., the one which the anointed priest offered for his sin, or as it is briefly and clearly designated in Leviticus 4:21, "the former bullock" (Leviticus 4:12).

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