Joshua 9:1
And it came to pass, when all the kings which were on this side Jordan, in the hills, and in the valleys, and in all the coasts of the great sea over against Lebanon, the Hittite, and the Amorite, the Canaanite, the Perizzite, the Hivite, and the Jebusite, heard thereof;
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(1, 2) These verses record the general preparation of the natives of Canaan for the last struggle with Joshua.

Joshua 9:1-2. In all the coasts of the great sea, &c. — Some versions render this, And those along all the coasts of the great sea, and those about Lebanon. Heard thereof — That is, of the taking of Jericho and Ai, for what immediately precedes, namely, about writing the law on stones in mount Ebal, did not concern these nations. They gathered themselves together to fight, &c. — They entered into a league to do this. Though they were many kings of different nations, and doubtless of different interests, often at variance with each other, yet they are all determined to unite against Israel. O that Israel would learn this of Canaanites, to sacrifice private interests to the public good, and to lay aside all animosities among themselves, that they may cordially unite against the common enemy!

9:1,2 Hitherto the Canaanites had defended themselves, but here they consult to attack Israel. Their minds were blinded, and their hearts hardened to their destruction. Though often at enmity with each other, yet they united against Israel. Oh that Israel would learn of Canaanites, to sacrifice private interests to the public welfare, and to lay aside all quarrels among themselves, that they may unite against the enemies of God's kingdom!In the hills - See the Numbers 13:17 note.

The valleys - Or "the vale" (the Shephelah, Deuteronomy 1:7), which imports the lowland country between the mountains and the sea coast.


Jos 9:1-27. The Kings Combine against Israel.

1. all the kings which were on this side—that is, the western side of Jordan.

in the hills, and in ther valleys, and in all the coasts of the great sea—This threefold distinction marks out very clearly a large portion of Canaan. The first designates the hill country, which belonged afterwards to the tribes of Judah and Ephraim: the second, all the low country from Carmel to Gaza; and the third, the shores of the Mediterranean, from the Isthmus of Tyre to the plain of Joppa. (As for the tribes mentioned, see on [186]Nu 13:29).

heard thereof—that is, of the sacking of Jericho and Ai, as well as the rapid advance of the Israelites into the interior of the country.The kings of Canaan hear of Joshua’s exploits; consult together, and conclude to fight against Israel, Joshua 9:1,2. The Gibeonites, feigning themselves to be of a far country, obtain a league, Joshua 9:3-15. The craft is discovered; the promise which was confirmed with an oath remains firm, Joshua 9:16-20. But for a punishment they are condemned to perpetual slavery, Joshua 9:21-27.

No text from Poole on this verse.

And it came to pass, when all the kings which were on this side Jordan,.... On the side Israel now were, and was that in which the land of Canaan lay, and was now governed by many kings, and all that were now remaining, even all but the kings of Jericho and Ai, who were slain: both those

in the hills, and in the valleys; that dwelt in the mountainous part of the country, and in the plains of it:

and in all the coasts of the great sea, over against Lebanon; who inhabited and governed in that part of the country which lay on the coast of the Mediterranean sea, the country of Phoenicia, in which were Tyre, Sidon, and other cities, and were over against Mount Lebanon, which was on the northern part of the country; according to the Latin version, they dwelt near Lebanon; and according to the Septuagint, near Antilibanus. It seems best, with Noldius (g), to render the words, "even unto Lebanon", for it designs all the sea coasts reaching to it; for all the maritime coasts did not lie over against it:

the Hittite, and the Amorite, the Canaanite, the Perizzite, the Hivite, and the Jebusite, heard thereof; what they heard is not said, but to be understood; particularly they heard what had been done by Joshua, and the people of Israel, to Jericho and Ai: and their kings, Joshua 9:3. Some think, as Abarbinel, that they had heard of the altar Joshua had made, and of the stones he had set up, and of his reading the law to the people, by which they were to be governed; all which they understood as taking possession of the country, and looking upon it as conquered, and obliging his people to swear fealty to him. All the nations of Canaan are mentioned but the Gergasites; which, according to the Jewish writers, are omitted, because they were but few; the Septuagint version has them in some copies.

(g) Concord. Ebr. Part. p. 80. No. 370.

And it came to pass, when all the kings which {a} were on this side Jordan, in the hills, and in the valleys, and in all the coasts of the {b} great sea over against Lebanon, the Hittite, and the Amorite, the Canaanite, the Perizzite, the Hivite, and the Jebusite, heard thereof;

(a) In respect to the plain of Moab.

(b) The main sea called the Mediterranean.

Ch. Joshua 9:1-2. The First League of the Canaanite Kings

1. And it came to pass] Thus “that spring morning” did Israel “consecrate Palestine unto the Lord, and take sea and lake, mountain and valley—the most hallowed spots in their history—as witnesses of their covenant.” It was probably on this occasion that the Egyptian coffin, containing the embalmed body of Joseph (Genesis 50:25-26), was laid by the two tribes of the house of Joseph in the parcel of ground near Shechem, which Jacob bought of the sons of Hamor (Genesis 33:19). These important preliminaries having been carried out, the further prosecution of the campaign was possible.

the kings] Hitherto single cities had been the objects of Joshua’s contention. Now leagues and confederacies were formed against him.

in the hills] i.e. the hill country of southern and central Canaan. In Numbers 13:17, it is called “the mountain.” Comp. also Deuteronomy 1:7. The whole region of the western portion of Canaan is here described under three divisions: (a) the central hills, (b) the valleys = the shephelah (Deuteronomy 1:7), (c) the seaboard. For the nations here enumerated see above, Joshua 3:10.

Verse 1. - And it came to pass, when all the kings. According to the explanation given above (Joshua 6:5, 15) of the particle כ with the infinitive, this must mean immediately. We must therefore suppose that the distance at which they lived from the scene of the events had prevented them from comprehending their astounding character so clearly as those who lived in the immediate neighbourhood (see Joshua 2:11; Joshua 5:1; Joshua 6:1). The kings (see Introduction). In the hills. "The land is classified under three heads: the hills (or mountain district), the plain, and the sea coast over against Lebanon" (Keil). The hills are not the Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon range, the operations against which are detailed in ch. 11, but the mountains of Ephraim and Judah. The word translated "valleys" here is neither עֲרָבָה nor כִּכַּר (see above note on Joshua 3:16), but ְשפֵלָה or low country, i.e., the great plain from Joppa, or Carmel, to Gaza. The חופor sea coast probably refers to the coast between Type and Joppa. The Hittite. The Girgashites are the only tribe omitted here from the list in Joshua 3:10. Joshua 9:1Joshua 9:1, Joshua 9:2 form the introduction to chs. 9-11, and correspond to the introduction in Joshua 5:1. The news of the miraculous passage of the Israelites through the Jordan had thrown all the kings of Canaan into such despair, that they did not venture to make any attack upon Israel. But they gradually recovered from their first panic, partly, no doubt, in consequence of the failure of the first attack of the Israelites upon Ai, and resolved to join together in making war upon the foreign invaders. The kings of Canaan did this when they heard, sc., what Israel had hitherto undertaken and accomplished, not merely "what Joshua had done to Jericho and Ai" (Knobel): that is to say, all the kings across the Jordan, i.e., in the country to the west of the Jordan (היּרדּן עבר, as in Joshua 5:1), viz., "upon the mountains" (not only the mountains of Judah, as in Joshua 10:40; Joshua 11:16, etc., but all the mountains which run throughout the whole length of Canaan, as in Deuteronomy 1:7 and Numbers 13:17 : see the explanation of the latter passage); "in the lowlands" (shephelah, the low-lying country between the mountains and the sea-coast, which is simply intersected by small ranges of hills; see at Deuteronomy 1:7); "and on all the coast of the Great Sea towards Lebanon," i.e., the narrow coast of the Mediterranean Sea from Joppa up to the Ladder of Tyre (see at Deuteronomy 1:7). The different tribes of the Canaanites are also mentioned by name, as in Joshua 3:10, except that the Girgashites are omitted. These gathered themselves together to fight with Joshua and Israel with one mouth, or with one accord (1 Kings 22:13).
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