Declare you in Egypt, and publish in Migdol, and publish in Noph and in Tahpanhes: say you, Stand fast, and prepare you; for the sword shall devour round about you.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)Declare ye in Egypt.—The general proclamation is afterwards defined by the names of the cities which were the more immediate objects of Nebuchadrezzar’s attack. For the three cities named see Note on Jeremiah 44:1.Jeremiah 46:14-15. Publish in Migdol, and in Noph, and Tahpanhes — Concerning these three cities, see note on Jeremiah 44:1. The meaning is, publish this prophecy over all the land of Egypt; or these three places are named, because in them the Jews, who went into Egypt with Johanan, were chiefly settled. Say, Stand fast, and prepare thee — Prepare for war, and resolve to keep your ground, and not yield to the enemy: compare Jeremiah 46:2-3. For the sword shall devour round about thee — The nations are destroyed around you, and you have reason to expect that the sword will next reach you. Why are thy valiant men swept away? — “The Hebrew word אביר, here rendered valiant, is sometimes spoken of God, as Genesis 49:24. Sometimes it is a title given to angels, as Psalm 78:25; but the LXX. understand it here of Apis, the idol of Egypt, which might properly be said to be conquered when the nation, that had put themselves under his protection, was subdued.” — Lowth. And, instead of they stood not, because the Lord did drive them, as we translate the next clause, the LXX. add, ο μοσχος ο εκλεκτος σου ουκ εμεινεν, οτι κυριος παρελυσεν αυτον, thy elect calf did not abide, because the Lord debilitated, literally, paralyzed, him. But it is not at all probable that this idol was here intended, but either of the mighty princes of Egypt; or, if the noun be singular, as Blaney understands it, reading, אבירן, thy mighty one, instead of אבירין, thy mighty ones, then the king is probably meant. Neither the king himself, nor his valiant captains, could stand before Nebuchadnezzar and the Chaldean army, because God discomfited them. It was of God to destroy Egypt, and when he works none can hinder him; when he strikes none can stand up against him, or stand before him.Jeremiah 2:16 note). Hence, the summons to arrange themselves in their ranks, and to prepare for battle by putting on their armor.
Migdol … Noph … Tahpanhes—east, south, and north. He mentions the three other quarters, but omits the west, because the Chaldeans did not advance thither. These cities, too, were the best known to the Jews, as being in their direction.
sword shall devour round about thee—namely, the Syrians, Jews, Moabites, and Ammonites (see on Jer 48:1). The exhortation is ironical, as in Jer 46:4, 9.See Poole "Jeremiah 44:1": the meaning is, Publish this prophecy over all the land of Egypt. Or perhaps these three were the chief places whither the Jews that went with Johanan the son of Kareah, &c. went, and where they fixed themselves: many more places in Egypt are named by Ezekiel, Jeremiah 30:14, &c.
Stand fast, and prepare thee; for the sword shall devour round about thee; look to yourselves, and prepare yourselves for battle, for the nations are destroyed round about you, (so it is in the Hebrew,) and you have reason to expect that the sword should come next into your countries.
and publish in Migdol, and publish in Noph, and in Tahpanhes; of these places See Gill on Jeremiah 44:1; these were principal ones in the land of Egypt, where the enemy should come, and which he should lay waste; and therefore the above things are to be published for their warning; and particularly these were places where the Jews that went into Egypt contrary to the will of God resided; and therefore for their sakes also this publication must be made, to let them see and know that they would not be safe there, but would be involved in the general calamity of the nation:
say ye, stand fast, and prepare thee; O Egypt, and the several cities mentioned, and all others; prepare for war, and to meet the enemy, resist and repel him; present yourselves on the frontiers of your country; put yourselves in proper places, and keep your ground:
for the sword shall devour round about thee; the sword of the Chaldeans, into whose hands fell Palestine, Judea, Syria, and other neighbouring countries; and therefore it was high time for them to bestir themselves, and provide for their defence and safety.Declare ye in Egypt, and publish in Migdol, and publish in Noph and in Tahpanhes: say ye, Stand fast, and prepare thee; for the sword shall devour round about thee.
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)14. Migdol] See on Jeremiah 44:1. For Noph and Tahpanhes See on Jeremiah 2:16. Migdol was the border town in the Asiatic direction and Noph the capital city of Lower Egypt. The other proper names in the v. (omitted by LXX) are probably later glosses.
Stand forth] take up a defensive position.
hath devoured] The neighbouring nations had been subdued.
round about thee] The LXX read “thy thicket,” which can be obtained by an inconsiderable modification of MT. and receives a certain amount of support from the metaphor in Jeremiah 46:22 f.Verses 14-19. - The cities of Egypt are called upon to prepare to meet the foe. But it is in vain; for all that is great and mighty in the land - Apis, the mercenary soldiers, and the Pharaoh - bows down before that terrible one who is comparable only to the most imposing objects in the inanimate world. Pharaoh's time is over; and Egypt must go into captivity. Verse 14. - Declare ye; viz. the approach of the foe (comp. Jeremiah 4:5). The news is to be told in the frontier towns Migdol and Tahpanhes, and in the northern capital Noph or Memphis (see on Jeremiah 2:16; 44:1). The sword shall devour, etc.; rather, the sword hath devoured those round about thee. The neighbouring nations (the same phrase occurs in Jeremiah 48:17, 39) have one after another succumbed; no ally is left there. Jeremiah 8:16. - In Jeremiah 46:9, the imperat. stands as in Jeremiah 46:3.: "Let the formidable army approach, - cavalry, chariots, and infantry, with all their splendidly equipped auxiliaries, - nevertheless it shall perish." עלוּ הסּוּסים does not here mean "Mount the steeds," which is against the parallelism, but "Get up (i.e., prance), ye horses;" this meaning is guaranteed by the Hiphil מעלה, as used in Nahum 3:3. התהללוּ הרכב is an imitation of Nahum 2:5. As auxiliaries, and very brave ones too (גבּורים), are mentioned "Cush," i.e., the Ethiopians; "Phut," the Libyans; and "Ludim," i.e., Hamitic, African Lydians, as in Ezekiel 30:5. On the double construct in תּפשׂי דר, "holding, bending bows," cf. Ew. 280, c.
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