Exodus 31:10
And the cloths of service, and the holy garments for Aaron the priest, and the garments of his sons, to minister in the priest's office,
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(10) The cloths of service.—Modern critics generally suppose the state robes of the high priest to be meant (Keil, Knobel, De Wette, Kalisch, Cook); but the Rabbinical interpreters understand the cloths in which the ark and other vessels of the sanctuary were wrapped when the camp was moved from place to place (see Numbers 4:6-13). These, like the cloths here spoken of (Exodus 39:1), were to be of blue, and purple, and scarlet; and it would be natural to distinguish them from the “holy garments,” as is done both here and also in Exodus 35:19; Exodus 39:1; Exodus 39:41. They had, however, not been previously mentioned in the directions. Perhaps the true explanation is, that under the words “cloths of service” (bigdey sĕrâd, or bigdeh hassĕrâd) are included both the garments of Aaron and also those of his sons, the two later clauses of the verse being exegetical of the first clause. In that case, we should translate: The robes of service, both the holy garments for Aaron the priest, and also the garments of his sons. Exodus 39:41 is decidedly favourable to this interpretation.

Exodus 31:10. The clothes of service — Wherewith the ark, the table, the candlestick, and golden altar, were covered when the camp removed, Numbers 4:6.31:1-11 The Israelites, who had been masons and bricklayers in Egypt, were not qualified for curious workmanship; but the Spirit who gave the apostles utterance in divers tongues, miraculously gave Bezaleel and Aholiab the skill that was wanting. The honour which comes from God, is always attended with a work to be done; to be employed for God is high honour. Those whom God calls to any service, he will find or make fit for it. The Lord gives different gifts to different persons; let each mind his proper work, diligently remembering that whatever wisdom any one possesses, the Lord put it in the heart, to do his commandments.And the cloths of service - Rather, And the garments of office; that is, the distinguishing official garments of the high priest. The three kinds of dress mentioned in this verse appear to be the only ones which were unique to the sanctuary. They were:

(1) The richly adorned state robes of the high priest (see Exodus 28:6-38; Exodus 39:1 following).

(2) the "holy garments" of white linen for the high priest, worn on the most solemn occasion in the year (see Exodus 28:39; Leviticus 16:4).

(3) the garments of white linen for all the priests, worn in their regular ministrations (see Exodus 28:40-41).

6. I have given with him Aholiab—He belonged to the tribe of Dan, one of the least influential and honorable in Israel; and here, too, we can trace the evidence of wise and paternal design, in choosing the colleague or assistant of Bezaleel from an inferior tribe (compare 1Co 12:14-25; also Mr 6:7).

all that are wise-hearted I have put wisdom—At that period, when one spirit pervaded all Israel, it was not the man full of heavenly genius who presided over the work; but all who contributed their skill, experience, and labor, in rendering the smallest assistance, showed their piety and devotedness to the divine service. In like manner, it was at the commencement of the Christian Church (Ac 6:5; 18:2).

The cloths of service, wherein the ark and other sacred utensils were wrapped up when they were to be removed. See Exodus 35:19 Num 4. And the clothes of service,.... Either those the priests ministered in in the time of service, and which they never wore but when in it, and so might with propriety be so called, and what they were the following words explain; or else these were clothes of blue, purple, and scarlet, and coverings of badgers' skins, in which the ark, the shewbread table, the candlestick, and the golden altar, and other instruments of the tabernacle were wrapped, as Aben Ezra observes, when the Israelites journeyed in the wilderness, see Numbers 4:5.

and the holy garments for Aaron the priest; the breastplate, ephod, and robe, the broidered coat, mitre, and girdle, Exodus 28:4.

and the garments of his sons to minister in the priest's office; the bonnets, coats, girdles, and breeches, Exodus 28:40.

And the cloths of service, and the holy garments for Aaron the priest, and the garments of his sons, to minister in the priest's office,
10. the garments of plaited (?) work] in the Heb. a peculiar expression, of most uncertain meaning, not found before, but recurring (with the addition, ‘for ministering in the holy place’) in Exodus 35:19, Exodus 39:1; Exodus 39:41†. No root שרד occurs in Heb.: in post-Bibl. Hebrew and Aramaic (see NHWB. iii. 587b) derivatives mean a plaited basket, a sieve, a grating before an oven; Onk. also uses sârâdâ for a grating in Exodus 27:4, and for a hanging in Exodus 27:9, &c.: hence, if the word is correctly handed down,—and it occurs four times,—it can, with our present knowledge, be only explained to mean something of the nature of plaited work. The reference is evidently to the artistically woven garments of the priests (ch. 28). The ‘and’ before ‘the holy garments’ is better omitted, as in Exodus 35:19, and (in the Heb.) Exodus 39:41 : the garments in question were the ‘holy’ ones. LXX. (στολαὶ λειτουργικαί), Pesh. Targ. render garments of ministry (cf. RVm.); either treating שרד, very improbably, as though it were the same as שרת, or finding שרת four times in their MSS. for שרד,—a not less improbable alternative. ‘Finely wrought’ (RV.) yields an excellent sense; but unfortunately has no philological justification.Verse 10. The cloths of service. Rather "the vestments of office' - i.e., the distinguishing vestments of the High Priest, which he alone was allowed to wear. These were the blue robe, the ephod, the girdle of the ephod, and the breast-plate (Exodus 28:6-35). The holy garments. The rest of the High Priest's dress - i.e., the linen drawers, the diapered tunic, the inner girdle and the mitre (ib, 39, 43; Leviticus 16:4), which constituted his whole apparel on the great day of atonement. The garments of his sons - i.e, the linen drawers, tunics, girdles, and caps, mentioned in Exodus 28:40, 42.

CHAPTER 31:12-17 The Builders (cf. Exodus 35:30-36:1). - After having given directions for the construction of the sanctuary, and all the things required for the worship, Jehovah pointed out the builders, whom He had called to carry out the work, and had filled with His Spirit for that purpose. To "call by name" is to choose or appoint by name for a particular work (cf. Isaiah 45:3-4). Bezaleel was a grandson of Hur, of the tribe of Judah, who is mentioned in Exodus 17:10; Exodus 24:14, and was called to be the master-builder, to superintend the whole of the building and carry out the artistic work; consequently he is not only invariably mentioned first (Exodus 35:30; Exodus 36:1-2), but in the accounts of the execution of the separate portions he is mentioned alone (Exodus 37:1; Exodus 38:22). Filling with the Spirit of God signifies the communication of an extraordinary and supernatural endowment and qualification, "in wisdom," etc., i.e., consisting of wisdom, understanding, knowledge, and every kind of workmanship, that is to say, for the performance of every kind of work. This did not preclude either natural capacity or acquired skill, but rather presupposed them; for in Exodus 31:6 it is expressly stated in relation to his assistants, that God had put wisdom into all that were wise-hearted (see at Exodus 28:3). Being thus endowed with a supernaturally exalted gift, Bezaleel was qualified "to think out inventions," i.e., ideas or artistic designs. Although everything had been minutely described by Jehovah, designs and plans were still needed in carrying out the work, so that the result should correspond to the divine instructions.
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