Acts 8:9
But there was a certain man, called Simon, which beforetime in the same city used sorcery, and bewitched the people of Samaria, giving out that himself was some great one:
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(9) But there was a certain man, called Simon.—The man who is thus brought before us in a brief episode, occupies a prominent place in the history and the legends of the Apostolic Church. For the present it will be convenient to deal only with the materials which St. Luke gives us, reserving a fuller account for the close of the narrative. Nothing is told us here as to his earlier history, prior to his arrival in Samaria. The name indicates Jewish or Samaritan origin. He appears as the type of a class but too common at the time, that of Jews trading on the mysterious prestige of their race and the credulity of the heathen, claiming supernatural power exercised through charms and incantations. Such afterwards was Elymas at Cyprus (Acts 13:6); such were the vagabond Jews exorcists at Ephesus (Acts 19:13); such was a namesake, Simon of Cyprus (unless, indeed, we have a re-appearance of the same man), who also claimed to be a magician, and who pandered to the vices of Felix, the Procurator of Judæa, by persuading Drusilla (Jos. Ant. xx. 7, § 2, see Note on Acts 24:24) to leave her first husband and to marry him. The life of such a man, like that of the Cagliostro fraternity in all ages, was a series of strange adventures, and startling as the statements as to his previous life may seem (see Note on Acts 8:24), they are not in themselves incredible. Apollonius of Tyana is, perhaps, the supreme representative of the charlatanism of the period.

Used sorcery.—Literally, was practising magic. On the history of the Greek word magos and our “magic,” as derived from it, see Note on Matthew 2:1. Our “sorcerer” comes, through the French sorcier, from the Latin sortitor, a caster of lots (sortes) for the purposes of divination. Later legends enter fully into the various forms of sorcery of which Simon made use. (See below.)

Bewitched the people of Samaria.—Literally, threw them into the state of trance or ecstasy; set them beside themselves, or out of their wits. The structure of the sentence shows that the “city” is not identical with Samaria, and that the latter name is used, as elsewhere, for the region.

Giving out that himself was some great one.—The next verse defines the nature of the claim more clearly. The cry of the people that he was “the great power of God,” was, we may well believe, the echo of his own boast. He claimed to be, in some undefined way, an Incarnation of Divine Power. The very name had appeared in our Lord’s teaching when He spoke of Himself as sitting on the right hand of “the Power of God,” as an equivalent for the Father (Luke 22:69).

Acts 8:9-11. But there was, &c. — At the time when the gospel was thus brought to them by Philip, a man was there, called Simon, which before- time in the same city used sorcery — Greek, had been μαγευων, using magic arts. Some think the expression is entirely of the same signification with the word μαγος, and is intended to tell us, that this Simon was one of the sect of the magi; (see on Matthew 2:1;) and it is possible he might profess himself of that sect: but certainly the expression here used imports much more, and amounts to the same with one who used enchantments, pretending, in consequence of them, to exert some supernatural powers; whereas the word magus, at least about Christ’s time, seems to have signified much the same with our English word sage, and to have denoted a proficient in learning, and especially in astronomy, and other branches of natural philosophy, to which the Persian magi addicted themselves, and so gave name to many who were far from holding the peculiarities of that sect. Yet as many natural philosophers pretended also to be magicians in the common sense of the word among us, and might make their natural knowledge subservient to that pretence when it was mere imposture, it is not improbable that they generally called themselves magi; and so the verb μαγευων might come to signify the making use of unlawful arts, (as it plainly does here,) while the noun, from whence it was derived, might still retain a more extensive and innocent signification. See Doddridge. And bewitched the people — Εξιστων το εθνος, astonishing the nation; of Samaria — By his magic arts he showed many signs and lying wonders, which seemed to be miracles, but really were not so; like those of the magicians of Egypt, and those of the man of sin, mentioned 2 Thessalonians 2:9 : giving out, that himself was some great one — A person possessed of supernatural powers; he wished the people to believe so, and to respect him accordingly. To whom they all gave heed — Paid great regard, as he desired them to do; from the least to the greatest — Both young and old, both poor and rich; saying, This man is the great power of God — Greek, η δυναμις του Θεου, η μεγαλη, literally, the power of God, that great power. Thus ignorant, unthinking people mistake what is done by the power of Satan, as if it were done by the power of God; and so with the Gentile world, devils pass for deities, and in the antichristian kingdom, all the world wonders after the beast, to whom the dragon gives his power, and who opens his mouth in blasphemy against God, Revelation 13:2-5. Their meaning probably was, that Simon was the long-expected Messiah, and even Omnipotence itself incarnate, otherwise, they supposed, he could not do such wonderful things. And to him they had regard — Had the greater regard; because that of long time he had bewitched them — Or rather, had astonished them, the word being the same with that used Acts 8:9; with sorceries — With the lying wonders which he wrought by his enchantments.8:5-13 As far as the gospel prevails, evil spirits are dislodged, particularly unclean spirits. All inclinations to the lusts of the flesh which war against the soul are such. Distempers are here named, the most difficult to be cured by the course of nature, and most expressive of the disease of sin. Pride, ambition, and desire after grandeur have always caused abundance of mischief, both to the world and to the church. The people said of Simon, This man is the great power of God. See how ignorant and thoughtless people mistake. But how strong is the power of Divine grace, by which they were brought to Christ, who is Truth itself! The people not only gave heed to what Philip said, but were fully convinced that it was of God, and not of men, and gave up themselves to be directed thereby. Even bad men, and those whose hearts still go after covetousness, may come before God as his people come, and for a time continue with them. And many wonder at the proofs of Divine truths, who never experience their power. The gospel preached may have a common operation upon a soul, where it never produced inward holiness. All are not savingly converted who profess to believe the gospel.But there was a certain man called Simon - The fathers have written much respecting this man, and have given strange accounts of him; but nothing more is certainly known of him than is stated in this place. Rosenmuller and Kuinoel suppose him to have been a Simon mentioned by Josephus (Antiq., book 20, chapter 7, section 2), who was born in Cyprus. He was a magician, and was employed by Felix to persuade Drusilla to forsake her husband Azizus, and to marry Felix. But it is not very probable that this was the same person. (See the note in Whiston's Josephus.) Simon Magus was probably a "Jew" or a "Samaritan," who had addicted himself to the arts of magic, and who was much celebrated for it. He had studied philosophy in Alexandria in Egypt (Mosheim, vol. i., pp. 113, 114, Murdock's translation), and then lived in Samaria. After he was cut off from the hope of adding to his other powers the power of working miracles, the "fathers" say that he fell into many errors, and became the founder of the sect of the Simonians. They accused him of affirming that he came down as the "Father" in respect to the Samaritans, the "Son" in respect to the Jews, and the "Holy Spirit" in respect to the Gentiles. He did not acknowledge Christ to be the Son of God, but a rival, and pretended himself to be Christ. He rejected the Law of Moses. Many other things are affirmed of him which rest on doubtful authority. He seems to have become an enemy to Christianity, though he was willing "then" to avail himself of some of its doctrines in order to advance his own interests. The account that he came to a tragical death in Rome; that he was honored as a deity by the Roman senate; and that a statue was erected to his memory in the isle of Tiber, is now generally rejected. His end is not known. (See Calmet, art. "Simon Magus," and Mosheim, vol. i., p. 114, note.)

Beforetime - The practice of magic, or sorcery, was common at that time, and in all the ancient nations.

Used sorcery - Greek: μαγεύων mageuōn. Exercising the arts of the "Magi," or "magicians"; hence, the name Simon "Magus." See the notes on Matthew 2:1. The ancient "Magi" had their rise in Persia, and were at first addicted to the study of philosophy, astronomy, medicine, etc. This name came afterward to signify those who made use of the knowledge of these arts for the purpose of imposing on mankind - astrologers, soothsayers, necromancers, fortune-tellers, etc. Such persons pretended to predict future events by the positions of the stars, and to cure diseases by incantations, etc. See Isaiah 2:6. See also Daniel 1:20; Daniel 2:2. It was expressly forbidden the Jews to consult such persons on pain of death, Leviticus 19:31; Leviticus 20:6. In these arts Simon had been eminently successful.

And bewitched - This is an unhappy translation. The Greek means merely that he "astonished" or amazed the people, or "confounded" their judgment. The idea of "bewitching" them is not in the original.

Giving out ... - "Saying"; that is, boasting. It was in this way, partly, that he so confounded them. Jugglers generally impose on people just in proportion to the "extravagance" and folly of their pretensions. The same remark may be made of "quack doctors," and of all persons who attempt to delude and impose on people.

9-13. used sorcery—magical arts.

some great one … the great power of God—a sort of incarnation of divinity.

Used sorcery; magical enchantments, as a wizard.

Bewitched the people; caused them, as men in an ecstasy, to be amazed at and afraid of him.

Some great one; as if he had been God, or at least had some great favour with him, and had received some extraordinary power from him. Ecclesiastical histories speak much of him, and tell us that he had a statue set up in Rome for him, inscribed, To Simon the holy God. But there was a certain man called Simon,.... Who, as Justin Martyr (f) says, was a Samaritan, and of a village called Gitton; and so a Jewish writer (g) calls him Simeon, "the Samaritan", a wizard: here is a

but upon this new church, the success of the Gospel in this place, and the joy that was there; a man of great wickedness and sophistry plays the hypocrite, feigns himself a believer, and gets in among them; See Gill on Acts 5:1,

which beforetime in the same city used sorcery; who before Philip came thither, practised magic arts; wherefore he is commonly called "Simon Magus", for he was a magician, who had learned diabolical arts, and used enchantments and divinations, as Balaam and the magicians of Egypt did:

and bewitched the people of Samaria; or rather astonished them, with the strange feats he performed; which were so unheard of and unaccountable, that they were thrown into an ecstasy and rapture; and were as it were out of themselves, through wonder and admiration, at the amazing things that were done by him:

giving out that himself was some great one; a divine person, or an extraordinary prophet, and it may be the Messiah; since the Samaritans expected the Messiah, as appears from John 4:25 and which the Syriac version seems to incline to, which renders the words thus, "and he said, I am that great one"; that great person, whom Moses spake of as the seed of the "woman", under the name of Shiloh, and the character of a prophet.

(f) Apolog. 2. p. 69. (g) Juchasin, fol. 242. 2.

{5} But there was a certain man, called Simon, which beforetime in the same city used {b} sorcery, and {c} bewitched the people of Samaria, giving out that himself was some great one:

(5) Christ overcomes Satan as often as he desires, and carries him about as it were in triumph, in the sight of those whom Satan deceived and bewitched.

(b) The word which is used in this place was at first used of good things, and is borrowed from the language of the Persians, who call their wise men by that name; but afterwards it was used of evil things.

(c) He had so allured the Samaritans with his witchcraft that as blind and mad idiots they were wholly addicted to him.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
Acts 8:9 Σίμων] is not identical (in opposition to Heumann, Krebs, Rosenmüller, Kuinoel, Neander, de Wette, Hilgenfeld, see also Gieseler’s Kirchengesch. I. sec. 18. 8, and others) with the Simon of Cyprus in Joseph. Antt. xx. 7. 2,[220] whom the Procurator Felix, at a later period, employed to estrange Drusilla, the wife of Azizus king of Emesa in Syria, from her husband. For (1) Justin, Apol. I. 26 (comp. Clem. Hom. i. 15, ii. 22), expressly informs us that Simon was from the village Gitthon in Samaria, and Justin himself was a Samairitan, so that we can the less suppose, in his case, a confusion with the name of the Cyprian town Κίτιον (Thuc. i. 112. 1). (2) The identity of name cannot, on account of its great prevalence, prove anything, and as little can the assertion that the Samaritans would hardly have deified one of their own countrymen (Acts 8:10). The latter is even more capable of explanation from the national pride, than it would be with respect to a Cyprian.

ΠΡΟΫΠῆΡΧΕΝ] he was formerly (even before the appearance of Philip) in the city. The following μαγεύων κ.τ.λ. then adds how he was occupied there; comp. Luke 23:12.

μαγεύων] practising magical arts, only here in the N. T.; but see Eur. Iph. T. 1337; Meleag. 12; Clearch. in Athen. vi. p. 256 E; Jacobs, ad Anthol. VI. p. 29. The magical exercises of the wizards, who at that time very frequently wandered about in the East, extended chiefly to an ostentatious application of their attainments in physical knowledge to juggling conjurings of the dead and demons, to influencing the gods, to sorceries, cures of the sick, soothsayings from the stars, and the like, in which the ideas and formulae of the Oriental-Greek theosophy were turned to display. See Neander, Gesch. d. Pflanz. u. Leit. d. christl. K. I. p. 99 f.; Müller in Herzog’s Encykl. VIII. p. 675 ff.

τιναμέγαν] We are not, accordingly, to put any more definite claim into the mouth of Simon; the text relates only generally his boasting self-exaltation, which may have expressed itself very differently according to circumstances, but always amounted to this, that he himself was a certain extraordinary person. Perhaps Simon designedly avoided a more definite self-designation, in order to leave to the praises of the people all the higher scope in the designating of that (Acts 8:10) which he himself wished to pass for.

ἑαυτόν] He thus acted quite differently from Philip, who preached Christ, Acts 8:5. Comp. Revelation 2:20.

[220] Neander, p. 107 f., has entirely misunderstood the words of Josephus. See Zeller, p. 164 f.Acts 8:9. Σίμων: very few of the most advanced critics now dismiss Simon as an unhistorical character, or deny that the account before us contains at least some historical data; see McGiffert’s note, Apostolic Age, p. 100. Hilgenfeld and Lipsius may be reckoned amongst those who once refused to admit that Simon Magus was an historical personage, but who afterwards retracted their opinion. But it still remains almost unaccountable that so many critics should have more or less endorsed, or developed, the theory first advocated by Baur that the Simon Magus of the Clementine Homilies is none other than the Apostle Paul. It is sufficient to refer for an exposition of the absurdity of this identification to Dr. Salmon “Clementine Literature” (Dict. of Christ. Biog., iii., pp. 575, 576; see also Ritschl’s note, Die Entstehung der altkatholischen Kirche, p. 228 (second edition)). This ingenuity outdid itself in asking us to see in Simon’s request to buy the power of conferring the Holy Ghost a travesty of the rejection of Paul’s apostolic claims by the older Apostles, in spite of the gift of money which he had collected for the poor Saints in Jerusalem (Overbeck). No wonder that Spitta should describe such an explanation as “a perfect absurdity” (Apostelgeschichte, p. 149). Before we can believe that the author of the Acts would make any use of the pseudo-Clementine literature in his account of Simon, we must account for the extraordinary fact that an author who so prominently represents his hero as triumphing over the powers of magic, Acts 13:6-12, Acts 19:11-19, should have recourse to a tradition in which this same hero is identified with a magician (see Spitta, u. s., p. 151; Salmon, “The Simon of Modern Criticism,” Dict. of Christian Biog., iv., p. 687; Zöckler, Apostelgeschichte, p. 212, and Wendt’s note, p. 201). In Acts 21:8 we read that St. Luke spent several days in the house of Philip the Evangelist, and if we bear in mind that this same Philip is so prominent in chap. 8, there is nothing impossible in the belief that St. Luke should have received his narrative from St. Philip’s lips, and included it in his history as an early and remarkable instance of the triumph of the Gospel—we need not search for anymore occult reason on the part of the historian (see Salmon, u. s., p. 688). Simon then is an historical personage, and it is not too much to say that to all the stories which have gathered round his name the narrative of Acts always stands in a relation of priority—the two facts mentioned in Acts, that Simon was a magician, and that he came into personal antagonism with St. Peter, always recur elsewhere—but Acts tells us nothing of the details of Simon’s heretical preaching, and it draws the veil entirely over his subsequent history. But “the hero of the romance of heresy” comes into prominence under the name of Simon in Justin Martyr, Apol., i., 26, Irenæus, i., 23 (who speaks of Simon the Samaritan, from whom all heresies had their being), and in the Clementine literature. But there is good reason for thinking that St. Irenæus, whilst he gives us a fuller account, is still giving us an account dependent on Justin, and there is every reason to believe that the Clementine writers also followed the same authority; see further, Salmon, “Simon Magus,” u. s., 4, p. 681 ff., and for a summary of the legends which gathered round the name of the Samaritan magician Plumptre’s note, in loco, may be consulted. To the vexed question as to the identification of the Simon of Justin with the Simon of the Acts Dr. Salmon returns a decided negative answer, u. s., p. 683, and certainly the Simon described by Justin seems to note rather the inheritor and teacher of a Gnostic system already developed than to have been in his own person the father of Gnosticism. Simon, however, was no uncommon name, e.g., Josephus, Ant., xx., 7, 2, speaks of a Simon of Cyprus, whom there is no valid reason to identify with the Simon of the Acts (although famous critical authorities may be quoted in favour of such an identification). On the mistake made by Justin with reference to the statue on the Tiberine island with the words Semoni Sanco Deo Fidio inscribed (cf. the account of the marble fragment, apparently the base of a statue, dug up in 1574, marked with a similar inscription, in Lanciani’s Pagan and Christian Rome) in referring it to Simon Magus, Apol., i, 26, 56, Tertullian, Apol., c. xiii., and Irenæus, i., 23, whilst in reality it referred to a Sabine god, Semo Sancus, the Sabine Hercules, see further, Salmon, u. s., p. 682, Rendall, Acts, p. 220. (Van Manen, followed by Feine, claims to discover two representations of Simon in Acts—one as an ordinary magician, Acts 8:9; Acts 8:11, the other as a supposed incarnation of the deity, Acts 8:10—so too Jüngst, who refers the words from μαγεύων to Σαμαρίας to his Redactor; but on the other hand Hilgenfeld and Spitta see no contradiction, and regard the narrative as a complete whole.)—μαγεύων: only here in N.T., not found in LXX (but cf. μάγος in Daniel 1:20; Daniel 2:2), though used in classical Greek. The word μάγος was used frequently by Herodotus of the priests and wise men in Persia who interpreted dreams, and hence the word came to denote any enchanter or wizard, and in a bad sense, a juggler, a quack like γόης (see instances in Wetstein). Here (cf. Acts 13:6) it is used of the evil exercise of magic and sorcery by Simon, who practised the charms and incantations so extensively employed at the time in the East by quacks claiming supernatural powers (Baur, Paulus, i, p. 107; Neander, Geschichte der Pflan zung, cf. i., 84, 85 (fifth edit.); Wendt, Apostelgeschichte, p. 202; Blass, in loco; Deissmann, Bibelstudien, p. 19, and see below on Acts 13:6.—ἐξιστῶν, from ἐξιστάω (ἐξίστημι); so ἐξιστάνων, W. H. from ἐξιστάνω (hellenistic), see Blass, Grammatik, pp. 48, 49, transitive in present, future, first aorist active, cf. Luke 24:22—so ἐξεστακέναι, Acts 8:11, perfect active, hellenistic form, also transitive; see Blass, u. s. (also Winer-Schmiedel, p. 118, and Grimm-Thayer, sub v.) (in 3Ma 1:25 ἐξιστάνειν also occurs).—ἵσταμαι, intransitive, Acts 8:13, Blass, u. s., p. 49—the revisers have consistently rendered the verb by the same English word in the three Acts 8:9; Acts 8:11; Acts 8:13, thus giving point and force to the narrative, see on Acts 8:13.—λέγων κ.τ.λ., cf. Acts 5:36 Blass, Grammatik, p. 174, regards μέγαν as an interpolation, and it is not found in the similar phrase in Acts 5:36 (so too Winer-Schmiedel, p. 243), cf. Galatians 2:6; Galatians 6:3, and the use of the Latin aliquis, Cicero, Att., iii., 15, so too vii. 3, etc. It may be that Simon set himself up for a Messiah (see Ritschl’s note, p. 228, Die Entstehung der altkatholischen Kirche, second edition), or a Prophet, Jos., Ant., xviii., 4, 1, but Acts 8:14 points to a definite title, and it is likely enough that the people would repeat what Simon had told them of himself. His later followers went further and made him say, “Ego sum sermo Dei, ego sum speciosus, ego paraclitus, ego omnipotens, ego omnia Dei” Jerome, Commentar. in Matt., c. Acts 20:24 (Neander, Geschichte der Pflan zung, cf. i., 85, note).—ἑαυτὸν: contrast Philip’s attitude; he preached Christ, not himself (cf. Revelation 2:20).9. a certain man, called Simon] From the Gk. word magos=sorcerer or magician, this man is usually spoken of as Simon Magus. According to Justin Martyr (Apol. i. 26) he was born at Gitton, a village of Samaria. The history which is given of him after the events mentioned in this chapter describes him as persistently hostile to St Peter and as following that Apostle to Rome to oppose his teaching. But much that is related is of very doubtful authority. He is said to have been deified at Rome, but it seems probable that Justin mistook a tablet, which was discovered in the sixteenth century with an inscription “Semoni Sanco deo fidio” which was erected in honour of the Sabine Hercules, for a record of Divine honours paid to this Simon Magus.

which beforetime in the same city used sorcery] There is no word for “same” in the original. The sorcery which Simon, and men like him, used was probably no more than a greater knowledge of some of the facts of chemistry by which they at first attracted attention and then traded on the credulity of those who came to consult them. From the time of their sojourn in Egypt the Jews had known of such impostors, and in their traditional literature some of the “wisdom” of Moses partakes of this character.

and bewitched [amazed] the people of Samaria] The same verb is used (Acts 8:13) of the feeling produced in Simon himself by the sight of Philip’s miracles, and is there rendered “wondered.”

giving out that himself was some great one] The general expectation that some great person was to arise among the Jews dictated the form in which impostors would proclaim themselves and aided them in procuring credence for what they said.Acts 8:9. Ἀνὴρ, a man) Such an adversary also Paul found, ch Acts 13:6 (Elymas).—προϋπῆρχεν, was before) Not always is he, who is prior in point of time, entitled to precedency also in claim of right: Acts 8:11, ch. Acts 13:6. “When he was alone, he was able to find applause; but the coming of the light dispels the darkness. Great is the power of the kingdom of God: Acts 8:7; Acts 8:13; Exodus 9:11.—μαγεύων, using magic or sorcery) There are therefore in reality magicians, and such a thing as magic: Exodus 7:11; Exodus 7:22; Exodus 8:7.—τῆς Σαμαρείας, of Samaria) When the error of this nation has come to its height, the truth is at hand (arrives).Verse 9. - Simon by name for called Simon, A.V.; the city for the same city, A.V.; amazed for bewitched, A.V. (here and in ver. 13). Amazed. In Luke 24:22 the same word (ἐξίστημι) is rendered "made us astonished" in the A.V.; and in Acts 2:7, 12, and elsewhere, in an intransitive sense, "were amazed." It has also the meaning of "being out of one's mind," or "beside one's self" (Mark 3:21; 2 Corinthians 5:13), but never that of "bewitching" or "being bewitched." As regards Simon, commonly surnamed Magus, from his magic arts, it is doubtful whether he is the same Simon as is mentioned by Josephus ('Ant. Jud.,'20. 7:2) as being employed by Felix the Procurator of Judaea, in the reign of Claudius (Acts 23:25), to bewitch Drusfila into forsaking her husband, King Azizus, and marrying him, which she did (Acts 24:24). The doubt arises from Josephus stating that Simon to be a Cypriot (Κύπριον γένος), whereas Justin Martyr says of Simon Magus that he was ἀπὸ κώμης λεγομένης Γίττων, a native of Gitton, or Githon, a village of Samaria. It has been thought that Gitton may be a mistake of Justin's for Citium, in Cyprus (Farrar's 'Life of St. Paul,' vol. 1. pp. 260, 352; Alford, etc.). The after history of Simon Magus is full of fable. He is spoken of by Irenaeus and other early writers as the inventor or founder of heresy. (For a list of authorities concerning Simon, see Farrar's 'Life of St. Paul,' vol. 1. p. 260, note; Alford, 1:6; 'Bible Dictionary; 'and a good article in 'Dict. of Biog. and Mythol.') Used sorcery (μαγεύων)

Only here in New Testament. One of the wizards so numerous throughout the East at that time, and multiplied by the general expectation of a great deliverer and the spread of the Messianic notions of the Jews, who practised upon the credulity of the people by conjuring and juggling and soothsaying.

Bewitched (ἐξιστῶν)

Better as Rev., amazed. See on Acts 2:7.

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