2 Kings 23:34
And Pharaohnechoh made Eliakim the son of Josiah king in the room of Josiah his father, and turned his name to Jehoiakim, and took Jehoahaz away: and he came to Egypt, and died there.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
THE REIGN OF JEHOAHAZ (31-34).

(34) Jehoahaz.—Called Shallum (Jeremiah 22:11; 1Chronicles 3:15), which may have been his name before his accession. (Comp. 2Kings 23:34; 2Kings 24:17.) Hitzig suggested that he was so called by Jeremiah in allusion to his brief reign, as if he were a second Shallum (2Kings 15:13). It is against this that Shallum was not a Judean prince, but an obscure adventurer who usurped the throne of Samaria a hundred and fifty years previously, so that the allusion would not be very clear.

Hamutal.—“Akin to dew.” (Comp. Abital, “father of dew,” or perhaps, “the father is dew.”) Tal, however, may be a divine name; the meaning then is, “Tal is a kinsman.” (Comp. Hamuel, “El is a kinsman.”)

(34) Turned his name to Jehoiakim.—A slight change. Eliakim is “El setteth up;” Jehoiakim, “Jah setteth up.” Necho meant to signify that the new king was his creature. Eliakim, the elder son, may have paid court to Necho; or the Egyptian may have deposed Jehoahaz, as elected without his consent, and perhaps as likely to prove a stronger king than his brother. Necho may have fancied a resemblance between the name Yahû (i.e., Jah; so it was then pronounced) and Aah, the name of the Egyptian moon-god. (See Note on 1Chronicles 4:18.)

And he came to Egypt, and died there.—LXX. and Vulg. as Chronicles: and he brought him to Egypt (by a slight change of the pointing in the Hebrew.) Jeremiah had foretold the fact (Jeremiah 22:10-12).

2 Kings 23:34. Pharaoh-nechoh made Eliakim king — Whom he probably perceived to be of a more mild and peaceable disposition. And turned his name to Jehoiakim — It was usual for conquerors to change the names of the persons they vanquished in war, in testimony of their absolute power over them. Thus we find the king of Babylon changing the name Mattaniah into Zedekiah, when he constituted him king of Judah, chap. 2 Kings 24:17. Archbishop Usher further remarks, that the king of Egypt gave Eliakim the name of Jehoiakim, which signifies, God hath made, or shall make it to prosper; thereby to testify, that he ascribed his victory over the Babylonians to Jehovah, the God of Israel, who had excited him, as he pretended, (2 Chronicles 35:21,) to undertake the expedition. And took Jehoahaz away — That he might give no disturbance to his brother, and also probably as a punishment for him. And he came to Egypt, and died there — According to the prophecy of Jeremiah, whom God sent to call this new king and the people to repentance. See Jeremiah 22:1-3; Jeremiah 22:10; Jeremiah 22:12.

23:31-37 After Josiah was laid in his grave, one trouble came on another, till, in twenty-two years, Jerusalem was destroyed. The wicked perished in great numbers, the remnant were purified, and Josiah's reformation had raised up some to join the few who were the precious seed of their future church and nation. A little time, and slender abilities, often suffice to undo the good which pious men have, for a course of years, been labouring to effect. But, blessed be God, the good work which he begins by his regenerating Spirit, cannot be done away, but withstands all changes and temptations.In the room of Josiah his father - Not "in the room of Jehoahaz his brother;" the phrase is intended to mark the fact, that Neco did not acknowedge that Jehoahaz had ever been king.

Turned his name to Jehoiakim - Compare 2 Kings 23:30 and 2 Kings 24:17. It seems likely, from their purely Jewish character, that the new names of the Jewish kings, though formally imposed by the suzerain, were selected by the individuals themselves. The change now made consisted merely in the substitution of יהוה yehovâh for אל 'êl ("God, Yahweh, will set up"). Both names alike refer to the promise which God made to David 2 Samuel 7:12 and imply a hope that, notwithstanding the threats of the prophets, the seed of David would still be allowed to remain upon the throne.

29. In his days Pharaoh-nechoh—(See 2Ch 35:20-27). Eliakim the son of Josiah; whom he perceived to be of a more mild and peaceable disposition.

Turned his name to Jehoiakim; because the giving of names was accounted an act and sign of dominion; which therefore parents did to their children, and conquerors to their vassals or tributaries. Compare 2 Kings 24:17 Daniel 1:7.

Took Jehoahaz away; partly as a punishment for him, and partly that he might give no disturbance to his brother.

And Pharaohnechoh made Eliakim the son of Josiah king in the room of Josiah his father,.... Not in the room of Jehoahaz; for he did not allow him to be a king, and to have any lawful right to the throne; but, deposing him, set up his elder brother:

and turned his name to Jehoiakim; to show his subjection to him, and that he held his government by him:

and took Jehoahaz away: with him, from Jerusalem, when he departed thence:

and he came to Egypt, and died there: and never returned to Jerusalem, according to the prophecy of Jeremiah, Jeremiah 22:11.

And Pharaohnechoh made Eliakim the son of Josiah king in the room of Josiah his father, and turned his name to Jehoiakim, and took Jehoahaz away: and he came to Egypt, and died there.
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
34. Eliakim … and turned his name to Jehoiakim] We can hardly think that this change was made by Pharaoh. He probably insisted on a change of name, but allowed the new king to suggest what it should be. So the change was made from El (God) iakim (will establish), to Jeho (i.e. Jehovah) will establish. On the custom of changing the names of subject persons and slaves, cf. the change of Joseph’s name in Egypt (Genesis 41:45, also chap. 2 Kings 24:17 below). To these may be added the changes mentioned in the book of Daniel (Daniel 1:7).

and [R.V. but he] took Jehoahaz away] i.e. From Riblah, and carried him with him prisoner into Egypt, where he died. On his death see Jeremiah 22:11-12.

Verses 34-37. - ACCESSION AND EARLY YEARS OF JEHOIAKIM. Pharaoh-Nechoh, when he deposed Jehoahaz, at once supplied his place by another king. He had no intention of altering the governmental system of Palestine, or of ruling his conquests in any other way than through dependent monarchs. His choice fell on Josiah's eldest surviving son (1 Chronicles 3:15), Eliakim, who was the natural successor of his father. Eliakim, on ascending the throne, changed his name, as Jehoahaz appears to have done (see the comment on ver. 31), and reigned as Jehoiakim. For three years (B.C. 608-605) he continued a submissive vassal of the Egyptian monarch, and remitted him his tribute regularly (ver. 36). But his rule was in all respects an evil one. He "did that which was evil in the sight of the Lord" (ver. 37). He leant towards idolatry (2 Chronicles 36:8); he was oppressive and irreligious (Josephus, 'Ant. Jud.' 10:5. § 2); he "shed innocent blood" (Jeremiah 22:17); he was luxurious (Jeremiah 22:14, 15), covetous (Jeremiah 22:17), and tyrannical (Ezekiel 19:6). Verse 34. - And Pharaoh-Nechoh made Eliakim the son of Josiah king in the room of Josiah his father. (On the general inclination of Oriental monarchs to support the hereditary principle, and to establish sons in their fathers' governments, even when the father's had been rebels or enemies, see Herod., 3:15.) And turned his name to Jehoiakim. We may understand that Nechoh required him to take a new name, as a mark of subjection (comp. Genesis 41:45; Ezra 5:14; Daniel 1:7; and also 2 Kings 24:17), but left the choice of the name to himself. He made the change as slight as possible, merely substituting "Jehovah" for "El" as the initial element. The sense of the name remained the same, "God will set up." The idea that Nechoh was pleased with the new name on account of its apparent connection with the Egyptian moon-god, Aah (Menzel), is very fanciful. And took Jehoahaz away - i.e. carried him captive to Egypt (see Jeremiah 22:10, 11; Ezekiel 19:4), a very common practice of Egyptian conquerors, and one often accompanied by extreme severities - and he cams to Egypt, and died there (see Jeremiah 22:12, where this is prophesied). 2 Kings 23:34From the words "Necho made Eliakim the son of Josiah king in the place of his father Josiah," it follows that the king of Egypt did not acknowledge the reign of Jehoahaz, because he had been installed by the people without his consent. "And changed his name into Jehoiakim." The alteration of the name was a sign of dependence. In ancient times princes were accustomed to give new names to the persons whom they took into their service, and masters to give new names to their slaves (cf. Genesis 41:45; Ezra 5:14; Daniel 1:7, and Hvernick on the last passage). - But while these names were generally borrowed from heathen deities, Eliakim, and at a later period Mattaniah (2 Kings 24:17), received genuine Israelitish names, Jehoiakim, i.e., "Jehovah will set up," and Zidkiyahu, i.e., "righteousness of Jehovah;" from which we may infer that Necho and Nebuchadnezzar did not treat the vassal kings installed by them exactly as their slaves, but allowed them to choose the new names for themselves, and simply confirmed them as a sign of their supremacy. Eliakim altered his name into Jehoiakim, i.e., El (God) into Jehovah, to set the allusion to the establishment of the kingdom, which is implied in the name, in a still more definite relation to Jehovah the covenant God, who had promised to establish the seed of David (2 Samuel 7:14), possibly with an intentional opposition to the humiliation with which the royal house of David was threatened by Jeremiah and other prophets. - "But Jehoahaz he had taken (לקח, like יקּח in 2 Kings 24:12), and he came to Egypt and died there" - when, we are not told. - In 2 Kings 23:35, even before the account of Jehoiakim's reign, we have fuller particulars respecting the payment of the tribute which Necho imposed upon the land (2 Kings 23:33), because it was the condition on which he was appointed king. - "The gold and silver Jehoiakim gave to Pharaoh; yet (אך equals but in order to raise it) he valued (העריך as in Leviticus 27:8) the land, to give the money according to Pharaoh's command; of every one according to his valuation, he exacted the silver and gold of the population of the land, to give it to Pharaoh Necho." נגשׂ, to exact tribute, is construed with a double accusative, and בּערכּו אישׁ placed first for the sake of emphasis, as an explanatory apposition to הערץ את־עם.
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