Beside that which chapmen and merchants brought. And all the kings of Arabia and governors of the country brought gold and silver to Solomon.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)Besides that which chapmen and merchants brought.—The Hebrew is difficult, and probably corrupt. Literally it seems to run, besides the men of the itinerants (a strange phrase), and that which the merchants were bringing; or, perhaps, apart from the men of the itinerants and the merchants bringing. The last word may be a clerical error, as it occurs again directly. The conjecture of Thenius on 1Kings 10:15 seems to be borne out by the ancient Versions. He would read instead of ’anshê ha-tārîm, “men of the travellers,” ‘onshê ha-r’dûyîm, “fines or tributes of the subjects.” The Syriac of Chronicles has “tributes of the cities.” Perhaps, therefore, the true original reading was ‘onshê he‘arîm. The Vulg. renders “envoys of divers peoples;” but the LXX., “men of the subjected (states).”
For the second half of the phrase Kings has, “and the merchandise of the pedlars.”
The kings of Arabia.—Kings, “the kings of the mixed tribes;” that is, the Bêdâwîs, bordering on and mingling with Israel. (Comp. Exodus 12:38.) The difference depends on the vowel pointing only. (Comp. Jeremiah 25:24, where both words occur; and Ezekiel 30:5.)
Governors.—Pachôth, i.e., pashas. Thenius is wrong in supposing this word to be a token of the “later composition of the section.” (See Note on 2Kings 18:24.)
Brought.—Were bringing = used to bring. (Comp. 2Chronicles 9:23-24.)1 Kings 10:13.
The narrative here is parallel with that in marginal reference, from which it varies but little, and to which it adds nothing.
2 Chronicles 9:12Beside that which she had brought unto the king - It is difficult to assign any sense to these words as they now stand in the Hebrew text. A slight alteration will give the meaning: "Beside that which the king had brought for her;" which is in conformity with 1 Kings 10:13.
13. Now the weight of gold that came to Solomon in one year—(See on 1Ki 10:14-29).
six hundred and threescore and six talents of gold—The sum named is equal to £3,646,350; and if we take the proportion of silver (2Ch 9:14), which is not taken into consideration, at one to nine, there would be about £200,000, making a yearly supply of nearly £6,000,000, being a vast amount for an infant effort in maritime commerce [Napier].Beside that which chapmen and merchants brought. And all the kings of Arabia and governors of the country brought gold and silver to Solomon.
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)14. chapmen] R.V. the chapmen. The English word means “merchant”; cp. the verb, “to chaffer” and the German “Kaufmann.” The Heb. word means “those who go about” as merchants.
governors] Heb. Paḥoth, a word applied specially to governors of provinces of the Assyrian, Babylonian, and Persian empires. Probably here governors outside the land of Israel are meant.Verse 14. - Beside, etc. The preposition (In.) left both here and in the parallel, before the words "men of," etc., in the compound English word chapmen (Authorized Version), shows clearly the construction of this and the following sentence; from the previous verse needs to come the words, after our "beside," "the weight of gold which came," etc. This gold probably came by way of tax payments from the merchant travellers, and as tribute money from the kings of the part of Arabia where the blood was mingled, Jewish and Arabian, and not exclusively and independently Arabian (see the word used in place of our Arabian in the parallel, and Jeremiah 25:24), and from those governors (perhaps in some cases superseding older kings) of adjacent countries, that had become in some part tributary to Solomon. Governors. For this unusual and un-Hebrew word (פַחות) see Ezra 5:6; Haggai 1:1; Nehemiah 5:14. Gesenius mentions Turkish, Persian, and Sanscrit derivations that would well suit it. It is very noticeable that it is employed also by the writer of Kings. It is used of a ruler in the Assyrian empire (2 Kings 18:24; Isaiah 36:9), in the Chaldean (Ezekiel 23:6, 23; Jeremiah 51:23), in the Persian (Esther 8:9; Esther 9:3), specially of the Persian governor of Judaea (Haggai 1:1, 14; Haggai 2:2, 21; Nehemiah 5:14, 18; Nehemiah 12:26; Malachi 1:8); while Gesenius reads this passage in our present text and its parallel, to speak of governors of Judaea (the country). See also 1 Kings 20:24, where the word is translated (Authorized Version) "captains," and is in the Syrian king's mouth. The word is not used before Kings. It is used by the writer of Kings three times; of Chronicles, once; by Ezra, six times; in Nehemiah, eight times; in Esther, three times; in Daniel, four times; and in the remaining prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Haggai, Malachi, ten times in all. The Authorized Version, out of the whole number of these occurrences of the word, has rendered it "captains" thirteen times; "deputies," twice; and "governors," twenty times. 1 Kings 10:1-13. - This event is narrated as a practical proof of Solomon's extraordinary wisdom. The narrative agrees so exactly in both texts, with the exception of some few quite unimportant differences, that we must regard them as literal extracts from an original document which they have used in common. For the commentary on this section, see on 1 Kings 10:1-13.
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