2 Chronicles 19:10
And what cause soever shall come to you of your brothers that dwell in your cities, between blood and blood, between law and commandment, statutes and judgments, you shall even warn them that they trespass not against the LORD, and so wrath come on you, and on your brothers: this do, and you shall not trespass.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(10) And.To wit.

Cause.Rîbh, “controversy” (2Chronicles 19:8).

Shall come to you.—i.e., be referred to you as the Supreme Court of Appeal.

Of.From your brethreni.e., not your judicial brethren, but your fellow-countrymen.

That dwell in their cities.—In the various country towns, as opposed to the capital.

Between blood and blood.—See Deuteronomy 17:8. Questions growing out of cases of homicide—e.g., whether a given crime were murder or manslaughter.

Between law and commandment, statutes and judgments.—That is, questions about the interpretation and application of the different legal rules and principles. The phrase “commandment, statutes, and judgments,” is a sort of summary of the various kinds of law.

Ye shall even warn them that they trespass not.Then ye shall instruct them, in order that, &.100

Warn.Teach (Exodus 18:20) them the true sense and bearing of the law in the particular case.

Trespass.Incur guilt; by giving false judgment.

And so wrath (2Chronicles 19:2) . . . brethren.—The miscarriage of justice would involve not only the immediate agents, but the whole people, in guilt and its penal consequences.

This do . . . trespass.Thus shall ye do (2Chronicles 19:9), that ye may not incur guilt.

2 Chronicles 19:10. Between blood and blood — Between the blood of the person slain, and the blood of the manslayer. See the note on Deuteronomy 17:8. All the cities of refuge, except Hebron, now belonged to the kingdom of Israel, so that the manslayer now usually fled to the courts of the temple, or the horns of the altar; and therefore the trial of these was reserved for the court at Jerusalem. Between law and commandment, &c. — When any debates shall arise about the meaning of any of God’s laws. Ye shall even warn them — Ye shall not only give a righteous sentence for what is past, but ye shall admonish the offender, and others, to take better heed for the future. This do, and ye shall not trespass — Thus you shall not bring guilt and wrath upon yourselves and others, which otherwise you certainly would do.19:1-11 Jehoshaphat visits his kingdom. - Whenever we return in peace to our houses, we ought to acknowledge God's providence in preserving our going out and coming in. And if we have been kept through more than common dangers, we are, in a special manner, bound to be thankful. Distinguishing mercies lay us under strong obligations. The prophet tells Jehoshaphat he had done very ill in joining Ahab. He took the reproof well. See the effect the reproof had upon him. He strictly searched his own kingdom. By what the prophet said, Jehoshaphat perceived that his former attempts for reformation were well-pleasing to God; therefore he did what was then left undone. It is good when commendations quicken us to our duty. There are diversities of gifts and operations, but all from the same Spirit, and for the public good; and as every one has received the gift, so let him minister the same. Blessed be God for magistrates and ministers, scribes and statesmen, men of books, and men of business. Observe the charge the king gave. They must do all in the fear of the Lord, with a perfect, upright heart. And they must make it their constant care to prevent sin, as an offence to God, and what would bring wrath on the people.The Jews who "dwelt in the cities," if dissatisfied with the decision given by the provincial judges, might therefore remove the cause to Jerusalem, as to a court of appeal. 2Ch 19:8-11. To the Priests and Levites.

8. set of the Levites … priests, and of the chief of the fathers of Israel—A certain number of these three classes constituted a supreme court, which sat in Jerusalem to review appellate cases from the inferior courts. It consisted of two divisions: the first of which had jurisdiction in ecclesiastical matters; the second, in civil, fiscal, and criminal cases. According to others, the two divisions of the supreme court adjudicated: the one according to the law contained in the sacred books; the other according to the law of custom and equity. As in Eastern countries at the present day, the written and unwritten law are objects of separate jurisdiction.

Between blood and blood; of which See Poole "Deu 17:8".

Between law and commandment, statutes and judgments; when any debates or differences shall arise about the meaning of any of God’s laws, one party possibly putting this, and the other a quite differing sense upon the same place, or one alleging one place, and the offer another place, which may seem to clash with it.

Ye shall even warn them that they trespass not against the Lord; ye shall not only give a righteous sentence for what is past, but ye shall admonish the offender, and others, to take better heed to themselves and their ways for the future.

This do, and ye shall not trespass; so you shall not bring guilt and wrath upon yourselves and others, which otherwise you will certainly do. And what cause soever shall come unto you of your brethren that dwell in their cities,.... Whether sacred or civil, that should come before them by way of appeal from, inferior courts in the country, where they could not be determined:

between blood and blood; one relation and another, or with respect to shedding of blood, whether ignorantly or purposely:

between law and commandment, statutes and judgments; not rightly understood, and so pleaded on both sides:

ye shall even warn them that they trespass not against the Lord; the persons engaged in controversy, that they take no false oath, nor bear false testimony, and act not stubbornly against any of the laws, when explained in court unto them:

and so wrath come upon you and your children; upon judges for the neglect of their duty in giving due warning, and upon the people for not taking it when given:

this do, and ye shall not trespass; if the above charge in all its parts is strictly attended to.

And what cause soever shall come to you of your brethren that dwell in their cities, between {f} blood and blood, between law and commandment, statutes and judgments, ye shall even warn them that they trespass not against the LORD, and so {g} wrath come upon you, and upon your brethren: this do, and ye shall not trespass.

(f) That is, to decide whether or not the murder was done on purpose, Nu 35:11,De 4:41.

(g) Meaning, that God would punish them most sharply if they would not execute justice correctly.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
10. And what cause soever shall come to you of your brethren] R.V. And whensoever any controversy shall come to you from your brethren.

between blood and blood] To decide between one kind of blood-shedding and another, i.e. between manslaughter and murder. Deuteronomy 17:8.

between law and commandment] To decide what particular ordinance applies to a particular case.

ye shall even warn them] R.V. ye shall warn them. Cp. Ezekiel 3:17-21.

that they trespass not against] R.V. that they be not guilty towards. Cp. Isaiah 24:6 (“found guilty” R.V.).

wrath] Heb. qeçeph; see note on 2 Chronicles 19:2.

ye shall not trespass] R.V. ye stall not be guilty.Verse 10. - Come... of your brethren... in their cities. These words confirm our foregoing note, and point to the appeal character of the Jerusalem court. Note also the clear connection of the verse with Deuteronomy 17:8, 10, 11; Exodus 21:12-27. Law ... commandment, statutes... judgments. It might sometimes need to be shown how the particular commandment flowed from main and essential law; and the written statute is easily distinguishable from those judgments, which were more like "judge-made" law. Ye shall not trespass; Revised Version, more correctly, ye shall not be guilty. Jehoshaphat's further arrangements for the revival of the Jahve-worship, and the establishment of a proper administration of justice. - The first two clauses in 2 Chronicles 19:4 are logically connected thus: When Jehoshaphat (after his return from the war) sat (dwelt) in Jerusalem, he again went forth (ויּצא ויּשׁב are to be taken together) among the people, from Beersheba, the southern frontier (see 1 Chronicles 21:2), to Mount Ephraim, the northern frontier of the kingdom of Judah, and brought them back to Jahve, the God of the fathers. The "again" (ישׁב) can refer only to the former provision for the instruction of the people, recorded in 2 Chronicles 17:7.; all that was effected by the commission which Jehoshaphat had sent throughout the land being regarded as his work. The instruction of the people in the law was intended to lead them back to the Lord. Jehoshaphat now again took up his work of reformation, in order to complete the work he had begun, by ordering and improving the administration of justice.
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