1 Kings 22:47
There was then no king in Edom: a deputy was king.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(47) There was then no king in Edom.—This notice is apparently connected with the following verses; for Ezion-geber is a seaport of the Edomite territory. Whatever may have been the influence of Hadad in the last days of Solomon (1Kings 11:14), Edom does not seem to have regained independence till the time of Jehoram, son of Jehoshaphat (2Chronicles 21:8-10); although in the confederacy against Jehoshaphat, those “of Mount Seir” are included with the Moabites and Ammonites (2Chronicles 20:10; 2Chronicles 20:22). The “king of Edom,” of 2 Kings 3, who is evidently a subject ally, not regarded in consultation (see 1Kings 22:6-9), must be “the deputy” of this passage.

1 Kings 22:47. A deputy was king — Sent and set over them by the kings of Judah, whose viceroy he was, as we now speak. This kind of government continued in Edom from the days of David, who began it, until the time of Jehoram, Jehoshaphat’s son, who lost this authority.22:41-50 Jehoshaphat's reign appears to have been one of the best, both as to piety and prosperity. He pleased God, and God blessed him.In the time of Solomon, Hadad 1 Kings 11:14, according to the Septuagint, "reigned over Edom." It appears by the present passage that the country had been again reduced either by Jehoshaphat, or by an earlier king, and was dependent on the kingdom of Judah, being governed by a "deputy" or viceroy, who, however, was allowed the royal title (compare 2 Kings 3:9, 2 Kings 3:12, 2 Kings 3:26). This government of dependencies by means of subject-kings was the all but universal practice in the East down to the time of Cyrus (the 1 Kings 4:21 note). 29-38. went up to Ramoth-gilead—The king of Israel, bent on this expedition, marched, accompanied by his ally, with all his forces to the siege; but on approaching the scene of action, his courage failed, and, hoping to evade the force of Micaiah's prophecy by a secret stratagem, he assumed the uniform of a subaltern, while he advised Jehoshaphat to fight in his royal attire. The Syrian king, with a view either to put the speediest end to the war, or perhaps to wipe out the stain of his own humiliation (1Ki 20:31), had given special instructions to his generals to single out Ahab, and to take or kill him, as the author of the war. The officers at first directed their assault on Jehoshaphat, but, becoming aware of their mistake, desisted. Ahab was wounded by a random arrow, which, being probably poisoned, and the state of the weather increasing the virulence of the poison, he died at sunset. The corpse was conveyed to Samaria; and, as the chariot which brought it was being washed, in a pool near the city, from the blood that had profusely oozed from the wound, the dogs, in conformity with Elijah's prophecy, came and licked it [1Ki 21:19]. Ahab was succeeded by his son Ahaziah [1Ki 22:40]. Sent and set over them by the kings of Judah, from the time of David, 2 Samuel 8:14, until the days of Jehoram, 2 Chronicles 21:8. There was then no king in Edom, a deputy was king. Which had been the case from the times of David, who subdued Edom, and placed garrisons in it, and governors over it, 2 Samuel 8:14 and continued through the reign of Jehoshaphat, unto the times of his son, under whom the Edomites revolted, and set up a king of their own, 2 Kings 8:20, with a view to which this is observed, as also to account for it how Jehoshaphat could build ships in Eziongeber, which was in the land of Edom, of which in the next verse, because the whole country was governed by a viceroy, or deputy, under him. There was then no king in Edom: a {b} deputy was king.

(b) In the time of this king, Idumea was subject to Judah, and was governed by whom they of Judah appointed.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
47. There was then [R.V. And there was] no king in Edom] Therefore Jehoshaphat could go through Idumæa to the Red Sea and prepare him a fleet in Ezion-geber. On Ezion-geber and its position in the land of Edom, see above on 1 Kings 9:26.

a deputy was king] What had become of the royal family of Edom, which Hadad (see 1 Kings 11:14 seqq.) appears to have established again, we are nowhere told. Nor is there anything to guide us to a conclusion by whom the deputy was appointed. It may be that Hadad had never gained much power after his return from Egypt, and his successor had not been able to maintain his position. In that case the king of Judah might have claimed the rights which his predecessor had once held, and have set up a governor in Edom. If this were so a passage for the servants of the king of Judah through the land would be a matter of course.Verse 47. - There was then no king in Edom: a deputy [נִצָב, same word as in 1 Kings 4:7. It is implied that this officer was appointed by the king of Judah (Wordsworth)] was king. [This fact is mentioned to show how it was that Jehoshaphat was able to build a fleet at Ezion-Geber, in the territory of Edom (1 Kings 9:26). That country would seem to have regained its independence very soon after Solomon's death (1 Kings 11:14), but would also appear from the text, and from 2 Kings 8:20, 22, to have been again made subject to Judah, probably by Jehoshaphat himself; see 2 Chronicles 17:10, 11.] Reign of Jehoshaphat of Judah. - The account of this in the books before us is a very condensed one. Beside the two campaigns in which he joined with Ahab and Joram of Israel against the Syrians and Moabites, and which are described in the history of the kingdom of Israel (1 Kings 22:1-35 and 2 Kings 3), we have simply a short notice of his attempt to restore the trade with Ophir, and a general statement of the spirit of his reign; whereas we learn from the extract preserved in the Chronicles from the annals of the kings, that he also carried on a victorious war against the Edomites and Ammonites (2 Chronicles 20), and did a great deal to promote the spread of the knowledge of the law among his people, and to carry out the restoration of a better administration of justice, and to improve the condition of the army (2 Chronicles 16:1-14 and 2 Chronicles 19:1-11).

1 Kings 22:41-42

1 Kings 22:41-44, which give the age of Jehoshaphat when he ascended the throne, and the duration and character of his reign, are also found with slight deviations in 2 Chronicles 20:31-33, in the closing summary of the history of his reign.

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