And the children of Gad dwelled over against them, in the land of Bashan to Salcah:
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)THE SONS OF GAD, THEIR CLANS, TERRITORY, AND REGISTRATION.
(11) And the children of Gad dwelt over against them.—That is, adjoining them on the east of Jordan.
In the land of Bashan unto Salcah.—(Joshua 13:11.) Bashan, the ancient dominion of the giant Og (Numbers 21:33-35; Deuteronomy 3:1-12). Salcah now Sulkhad, on the south-east slope of Jebel Hauran in the extreme east of Gilead.
(12) Joel the chief (or, first; literally, head), and Shaphan the next (or second.)—Genesis 46:15 enumerates seven sons of Gad, a number corresponding with the clans of 1Chronicles 5:13; but none of the names are the same.
In Bashan.—This expression goes to prove that clans, not individuals, are intended.
Joel is also the head Reubenite house (1Chronicles 5:4).
(13) And their brethren of the house of their fathers.—And their kinsmen (fellow-tribesmen), according to their father-houses (clans). The verse names seven inferior clans of the Gadites, whose seats are assigned in 1Chronicles 5:16.
These, viz., the clans of 1Chronicles 5:13, were sons of Abihail, whose line is retraced through seven generations to Buz, of whom nothing further is known. The name has occurred Genesis 22:21 as that of a son of Nahor; and Job 32:2, as that of the clan of Elihu the Buzite.
(15) Ahi the son of Abdial, the son of Guni (was) head of their clans. Perhaps Ahi was chieftain or prince of the sons of Abihail at the time when this register was drawn up (1Chronicles 5:17).
(16) And they dwelt in Gilead.—The seats of the Gadites of 1Chronicles 5:13 were in the country east of Jordan.
In Bashan, defines the locality more precisely. It was the northern region of Gilead.
And in her towns.—Heb., her daughters.
And in all the suburbs of Sharon.—Rather, pasture-grounds or sheep-walks.
Sharon.—The well-known plain of this name lay west of Jordan, between Carmel and Joppa, along the coast of the Great Sea. The old conjecture that Shirion, i.e., mount Hermon (Deuteronomy 3:9; Psalm 29:6) should be read, is probably right.
Upon their borders.—That is, their extremities (Numbers 34:4-5). The Gadites fed their flocks in the glens opening out at the foot of the mountains, here called their exits or outlets.
(17) All these.—That is, the Gadite clans.
Were reckoned by genealogies (or registered) in the days of Jotham king of Judah, i.e., after 757 B.C., according to Biblical chronology.
And in the days of Jeroboam (the second), king of Israel, who reigned from 825-784, according to the data of Kings. Clearly, therefore, more than one registration is the basis of the above statistics. That of Jeroboam was the earlier in point of time; but the chronicler names the king of Judah first honoris causa. Jeroboam II., a vigorous king, who “restored the border of Israel from the entry of Hamath to the sea of the Arabah” (2Kings 14:25), may have taken this census of the tribes east of Jordan, with a view to fiscal purposes. Jotham or his father, the great Uzziah, appears to have recovered Gad for Judah during the anarchy that succeeded the fall of Jehu’s dynasty in the northern kingdom.1 Chronicles 5:23-24, the Gadites extended themselves to the north at the expense of their brethren, gradually occupying a considerable portion of the tract originally allotted to the "half tribe."
11-15. the children of Gad dwelt over against them—The genealogy of the Gadites and the half-tribe of Manasseh (1Ch 5:24) is given along with that of the Reubenites, as these three were associated in a separate colony.
in the land of Bashan, unto Salcah; for though all Bashan is said to be given to the half tribe of Manasseh, Deuteronomy 3:13 yet that is to be understood of the greater part of it; all of that which belonged to Og, but what did not, the Gadites, either from the first, or in later times, inhabited even as far as Salcah, which was one of the cities of Og, Deuteronomy 3:10 and which Benjamin of Tudela (w) makes mention of, being called by the same name in his days.And the children of Gad dwelt over against them, in the land of Bashan unto Salcah:
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
11. Bashan] the wide district extending from the Jabbok on the S. to Hermon in the N. and from the Sea of Galilee on the W. to the mountains of Hauran on the E. Cp. 1 Chronicles 5:23.
Salchah] R.V. Salecah, is probably represented at the present day by the ruins of Salkhad due S. of the Jebel Hauran and almost due E. of Bostra.Verses 11-17. - The tribe of Gad is taken next, and occupies but few lines. Gad was born seventh in order of all the sons of Jacob (Genesis 30:9-12), and first of the children of Leah's maid Zilpah. The compiler seems to pass easily on to Gad, from the mere circumstance of the name of the tribe being so constantly linked with that preceding, in the matter of local settlement on the east of Jordan, after the journeyings of the wilderness (Joshua 13:7, 8). The geography in vers. 11 and 16 offers very little difficulty. Compared with the time of the first settling of the Gadites (Deuteronomy 3:10-13; Joshua 13:25, 30), it is evident that they had pushed their borders further to the north, trenching somewhat upon the lot of the half-tribe Manasseh, as they also in turn extended their limits northward to Hermon (ver. 23). This reconciles Joshua 13:30 with the present passage. Salcah, or (Authorized Version) Salchah (Deuteronomy 3:10; Joshua 13:11), is probably to be identified as the modern Sulkhad, at the extreme eastern point of the plain Hauran, which is bordered by the desert. "In Gilead in Bashan" may be read, with some, as two coordinate places, separating them by a stop; or may point to a time when Bashan included the upper half of Gilead. Sharon, which Keil, quoting Reland, 'Pal. Ill.,' 370, would make the well-known Sharon of Carmel and the Mediterranean, is, though unmentioned elsewhere, probably distinguished sufficiently from it by the absence of the article, which is invariably prefixed to the other. Stanley's suggestion ('Sinai and Palestine,' edit. 1866, pp. 484, 485, 260) would seem exceedingly apt, that it is one in fact, as one in derivation and meaning, with the Mishor (i.e. "level ]ands," "table-land") of Gilead and Bashan. With this explanation, however, the term "suburbs" does not so well agree. Upon the other side, distant as the well-known Sharon is, a link of connection might be found with it, in that the other Manasseh half-tribe stretched into its plains; and in that case the last word of the verse, תּועְאותָם, might mean (Joshua 17:9) "the outgoings" of the land or regions in question to the "sea"-coast. 1 Chronicles 5:4-6 frequently occur, yet they are nowhere met with in connection with the family whose members are here registered. The last-named, Beerah, was לראוּבני נשׂיא, a prince of the Reubenites, not a prince of the tribe of Reuben, but a prince of a family of the Reubenites. This is expressed by ל being used instead of the stat. constr.; cf. Ew. 292, a. In reference to the leading away of the trans-Jordanic tribes into captivity by Tiglath-pilneser, cf. on 2 Kings 15:29. The name of this king as it appears in the Chronicles is always Tiglath-pilneser, but its meaning has not yet been certainly ascertained. According to Oppert's interpretation, it equals תּגלת־פּלּא־סחר, i.e., "worship of the son of the Zodiac" (i.e., the Assyrian Hercules); vid., Delitzsch on Isaiah, Introd.
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