1 Chronicles 28:18
And for the altar of incense refined gold by weight; and gold for the pattern of the chariot of the cherubims, that spread out their wings, and covered the ark of the covenant of the LORD.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
1 Chronicles 28:18. For the altar of incense reigned gold — Purer than any of the rest. For that was typical of the intercession of Christ, than which nothing can be more pure and perfect. The chariot of the cherubim — Which Solomon was to make, (for those which were fastened to the mercy-seat were made by Moses long before,) which he fitly compares to a chariot, because within them God is said to sit and to dwell. And because a chariot is made to carry a person from place to place, this expression may be used to intimate, that God was not so fixed to them by the building of this temple, but that he would remove from them if they forsook him. Covered the ark — Not above it, for that was done by Moses’s cherubim, but before it, to keep it from the eyes of the high-priest, when he entered into the most holy place.

28:11-21 The temple must be a sacred thing, and a type of Christ; it must be framed by Divine teaching. Christ is the true temple, the church is the gospel temple, and heaven the everlasting temple; all are framed according to the Divine counsels, and the plan laid in the Divine wisdom, ordained before the world, for God's glory and our good. David gave this pattern to Solomon, that he might go by rule. Materials were provided for the most costly utensils of the temple. Directions were given which way to look for help in this great undertaking. Be not dismayed; God will help thee, and thou must look up to him in the first place. We may be sure that God, who owned our fathers, and carried them through the services of their day, will, in like manner, never leave us, while he has any work to do in us, or by us. Good work is likely to go on, when all concerned are hearty in furthering it. Let us hope in God's mercy; if we seek him, he will be found of us.The chariot of the cherubims - The cherubim are themselves the chariot upon which Yahweh rides Psalm 18:10; Psalm 99:1. 18, 19. the chariot of the cherubim—The expanded wings of the cherubim formed what was figuratively styled the throne of God, and as they were emblematical of rapid motion, the throne or seat was spoken of as a chariot (Ps 18:10; 99:1). It is quite clear that in all these directions David was not guided by his own taste, or by a desire for taking any existing model of architecture, but solely by a regard to the express revelation of the divine will. In a vision, or trance, the whole edifice, with its appurtenances, had been placed before his eyes so vividly and permanently, that he had been able to take a sketch of them in the models delivered to Solomon. Of the chariot of the cherubims, i.e. of the cherubims, which Solomon was to make, of which see 1 Kings 6:23, (for those which were fastened to the mercy-seat were made by Moses long before,) which he fitly compares to a chariot, because within them God is oft said to sit and to dwell, as 2 Kings 19:5 Psalm 80:1 99:1; and sometimes he is said to ride upon a cherub, Psalm 18:10. And because a chariot is made to carry a person from place to place, this expression may be used to intimate that God was not so fixed to them by the building of his temple, but that he both could and would remove from them if they forsook him. And when they did so, God did make use of the chariot of his cherubims to convey himself away from them, as is noted, Ezekiel 10:15, &c.

Covered the ark; not above it, for that was done by Moses’s cherubims, but before it, to keep it from the eyes of the high priest when he entered into the most holy place, 1 Kings 6:23.

And for the altar of incense refined gold by weight,.... This was also one hundred pounds weight in gold, with which it was to be overlaid (w):

and gold for the pattern of the chariot of the cherubim; which were two large ones, besides those which Moses made; and these were not made of gold, as they were, but overlaid with it, see 1 Kings 6:23 which with them made four; and to which the four living creatures in Ezekiel's vision allude, and make the "mercavah", or chariot, the Jews so much speak of, perhaps from this and other like phrases; and the Lord sitting here as in a chariot, not only denotes the glory and splendour of the Shechinah, or divine Majesty; but, as some observe, his readiness to ride off and depart, when displeased and provoked, see Ezekiel 10:18,

that spread out their wings, and covered the ark of the covenant of the Lord; not that spread their wings over the ark, and covered it, that the Mosaic cherubim did; but these spread their wings before it from wall to wall, so that it could not be seen by any that turned aside the vail, and even by the high priest when he entered into the holy of holies: the ark, with the cherubim, which were on that, weighed two hundred pounds of pure gold, according to the Jacob Leon (x).

(w) Ibid. (Relation of Memorable Things in the Tabernacle and Temple, ch. 4. p. 20.) (x) Ibid.

And for the altar of incense refined gold by weight; and gold for the pattern of {i} the chariot of the cherubims, that spread out their wings, and covered the ark of the covenant of the LORD.

(i) Meaning, of the mercy seat that covered the ark, which was called the chariot, because the Lord declared himself there.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
18. the altar of incense] 2 Chronicles 26:16; Exodus 30:1-10.

the chariot of the cherubims] R.V. the chariot, even the cherubim. Cp. Ezekiel 1:5-10; Ezekiel 1:15-17.

Verse 18. - By the chariot of the cherubims, is of course not meant that the cherubim had a chariot, but that they constituted the chariot of Jehovah (Psalm 18:11). 1 Chronicles 28:18And (the pattern) for the altar of incense of pure gold by weight. In the second member of the verse, at the close of the enumeration, תּבנית, from 1 Chronicles 28:11, 1 Chronicles 28:12, is again taken up, but with ל, which Berth. rightly takes to be nota accus.: and (gave him) "the model of the chariot of the cherubim of gold, as spreading out (wings), and sheltering over the ark of the covenant of Jahve." הכּרוּבים is not subordinated in the genitive to המּרכּבה, but is in explanatory apposition to it. The cherubim, not the ark, are the chariot upon which God enters or is throned; cf. Psalm 18:11; Psalm 99:1; Exodus 25:22. The conception of the cherubim set upon the golden cover of the ark as מרכּבה is derived from the idea על־כּרוּב ירכּב, Psalm 18:11. Ezekiel, it is true, saw wheels on the throne of God under the cherubim (Ezekiel 1:15., 26), and in accordance with this the lxx and Vulg. have made a cherubim-chariot out of the words (ἅρμα τῶν Χερουβίμ, quadriga cherubim); but as against this Berth. rightly remarks, that the idea of a chariot of the cherubim does not at all appear in the two sculptured cherubim upon the ark, nor yet in our passage. לפרשׂים (without the article, and with ל) Berth. thinks quite unintelligible, and would alter the text, reading והסּככים הפּרשׂים, because the two participles should be in apposition to הכּרוּבים. But this is an error; for neither by the meaning of the words, nor by the passages, 2 Chronicles 5:8; Exodus 25:20; 1 Kings 8:7, are we compelled to make this alteration. The two first-mentioned passages prove the opposite, viz., that these participles state for what purpose the cherubim are to serve. וסככים לפרשׂים have the signification of כּנפים פּרשׂי הכּרוּבים והיוּ, "that the cherubim might be spreading wings and protecting" (Exodus 25:20), as J. H. Mich. has rightly seen. This use of ל, where in ל even without a verb the idea of "becoming something" lies, but which Berth. does not understand, has been already discussed, Ew. 217, d, and illustrated by passages, among which 1 Chronicles 28:18 is one. The reference to Exodus 25:20 explains also the use of פּרשׂ without כּנפים, the author of the Chronicle not thinking it necessary to give the object of פּרשׂ, as he might assume that that passage would be known to readers of his book.
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