The third captain of the host for the third month was Benaiah the son of Jehoiada, a chief priest: and in his course were twenty and four thousand.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)The third captain of the host.—Heb., captain of the third host. So Vulg.
Benaiah.—See 1Chronicles 11:22.
The son of Jehoiada, a chief priest.—Rather, son of Jehoiada the priest, as head, viz., of the third army corps. The term “chief,” or “head,” belongs to Benaiah, not to his father. But perhaps it is an erroneous gloss on Jehoiada. (Comp. 2Chronicles 23:8.) Both LXX. and Vulg. make Benaiah the priest.1 Chronicles 27:5-6. Jehoiada, a chief priest — Or rather, a chief prince, as the Hebrew word כהן, cohen, often signifies. For it is certain neither Benaiah nor his father was high-priest or second priest. In his course was Ammizabad his son — Who seems to have been his father’s lieutenant, because his father was captain of the king’s guard, (2 Samuel 18:18,) and therefore needed a deputy in the one or other place.2 Kings 25:18. A chief priest; or, the chief priest; or rather, a chief prince, as this Hebrew word is oft used, as Genesis 41:45 Genesis 47:22 2 Samuel 8:18 20:26 1 Kings 4:5 2 Kings 10:11, and elsewhere. Probably he was not only a captain of this course, but a great officer in the court and state. For although the priests might take up arms in some special cases; yet it is not likely that such were constant officers in the king’s army, especially seeing the rest of the captains here named were of other tribes. Besides, neither Benaiah nor Jehoiada was high priest at that time, but Zadok or Abiathar, and before them Abimelech, in whom the priesthood had been for a long time together, even in the days of Samuel, and Saul, and David, and Solomon.
was Jashobeam the son of Zabdiel; the first and chief of David's worthies, 1 Chronicles 11:11.
and in his course were twenty and four; and so in all the following ones; this man was of the posterity of Perez, or Pharez, a son of Judah, and so had the preference and command of all the captains of the army for that month:
Dodai an Ahohite; the same with Dodo, 1 Chronicles 11:12 was over the course of the second month, the month Ziv, sometimes called Jiar, or April; and his lieutenant or successor was Mikloth:
Benaiah the son of Jehoiada, a chief priest; or rather a prince, a principal officer, was general of the army for the third month, Sivan, or May; the same was mighty among the thirty, and even above them, for he was among the three mighty, 1 Chronicles 11:22 and Ammizabad his son succeeded him, or was his deputy, when other ways employed: though led by our version here, and following the Jewish writers, I have called Benaiah a priest; see Gill on 1 Kings 2:31, yet I am now rather of opinion that he was not one; for though priests might bear arms on some occasions, yet it is not likely that one should be in a constant military office, and especially general of an army; and besides, this man was of Kabzeel, a city in the tribe of Judah, which is not mentioned among the Levitical cities, see 2 Samuel 23:20. Asahel the brother of Joab was over the course for the fourth month, Tammuz, or June, and who being slain by Abner, his son Zebadiah succeeded him: Shamhuth, the same with Shammah, 2 Samuel 23:11 and Shammoth, 1 Chronicles 11:27 was captain for the fifth month, Ab, or July: Ira the son of Ikkesh, the Tekoite, was over the course of the sixth month, Elul, or August, see 1 Chronicles 11:28. Helez the Pelonite was captain for the seventh month, Tisri, or September, see 1 Chronicles 11:27, the captain for the eighth month, Marchesvan, sometimes called Bul, or October, was Sibbecai the Hushathite, of the Zarbites, of the posterity of Zerah, a son of Judah in the line of Hushah, 1 Chronicles 4:4, the captain of the course for the ninth month, Cisleu, or November was Abiezer, of Anethoth, in the tribe of Benjamin, see 1 Chronicles 11:28, Maharai, of Netophah, in the tribe of Judah, and of the posterity of Zerah, was over the course for the tenth month, Tebet, or December, see 1 Chronicles 11:30 and the captain for the eleventh month, Sheber, or January, was Benaiah, of Pirathon, in the tribe of Ephraim, see 1 Chronicles 11:31 and over the course for the twelfth month, Adar, or February, was Heldai the Netophathite, the same with Heled, 1 Chronicles 11:30 and who was of the posterity of Othniel, the first judge in Israel, Judges 1:13.The third captain of the host for the third month was Benaiah the son of Jehoiada, a chief priest: and in his course were twenty and four thousand.
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)5. Benaiah] Cp. 1 Chronicles 11:22 ff.
Jehoiada, a chief priest] R.V. Jehoiada the priest, chief, (“chief” referring to Benaiah).Verse 5. - Benaiah (1 Chronicles 11:22-25; 2 Samuel 23:20-23). To this name Keil thinks the word chief (רלֺאשׁ), in the succeeding expression, chief priest, belongs. Thus Jehoiada would be named here only priest. Yet see 1 Chronicles 12:27, where Jehoiada is called לְאַהֲרֹן חַגָּגִיד; and 2 Kings 25:18; where כֹּהֵן הָרלֺאשׁ stands for our הכֹּהֵן רלֺאשׁ, as applied to Seraiah. Benaiah was manifestly a Aaronite. 1 Chronicles 23:9), over the East-Jordan tribes. Between the words "Jeriah the head," 1 Chronicles 26:31, and ואחיו, 1 Chronicles 26:32, a parenthesis is inserted, which gives the reason why David made these Hebronites scribes and judges among the East-Jordan tribes. The parenthesis runs thus: "As to the Hebronites, according to their generations, according to fathers, they were sought out in the fortieth year of David's rule, and valiant heroes were found among them in Jazer of Gilead." Jazer was a Levite city in the tribal domain of Gad, assigned, according to Joshua 21:39, to the Merarites (see on 1 Chronicles 6:81). The number of these Hebronites was 2700 valiant men (1 Chronicles 26:32). The additional האבות ראשׁי is obscure, for if we take אבות to be, as it often is in the genealogies, a contraction for בּית־עבות rof no, the number given does not suit; for a branch of the Hebronites cannot possibly have numbered 2700 fathers'-houses (πατριαὶ, groups of related households): they must be only 2700 men (גּברים), or heads of families, i.e., households. Not only the large number demands this signification, but also the comparison of this statement with that in 1 Chronicles 26:30. The 1700 חיל בּני of which the Hebronite branch, Hashabiah with his brethren, consisted, were not so many πατριαὶ, but only so many men of this πατριά. In the same way, the Hebronite branch of which Jeriah was head, with his brethren, 2700 חיל בּני, were also not 2700 πατριαὶ, but only so many men, that is, fathers of families. It is thus placed beyond doubt that אבות ראשׁי cannot here denote the heads of fathers'-houses, but only heads of households. And accordingly we must not understand לאבות (1 Chronicles 26:31) of fathers'-houses, as the lxx and all commentators do, but only of heads of households. The use of the verb נדרשׁוּ also favours this view, for this verb is not elsewhere used of the legal census of the people, i.e., the numbering and entering of them in the public lists, according to the great families and fathers'-houses. There may therefore be in נדרשׁוּ a hint that it was not a genealogical census which was undertaken, but only a numbering of the heads of households, in order to ascertain the number of scribes and judges to be appointed. There yet remain in this section three things which are somewhat strange: 1. Only 1700 scribes and judges were set over the cis-Jordanic land, inhabited as it was by ten and a half tribes, while 2700 were set over the trans-Jordanic land with its two and a half tribes. 2. Both numbers taken together amount to only 4400 men, while David appointed 6000 Levites to be scribes and Judges 3. The scribes and judges were taken only from two fathers'-houses of the Kohathites, while most of the other Levitical offices were filled by men of all the families of the tribe of Levi. On all these grounds, it is probable that our catalogue of the Levites appointed to be scribes and judges, i.e., for the external business, is imperfect.
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